INTOX Home Page

    WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION             FOOD AND AGRICULTURE
                                          ORGANIZATION
    ORGANISATION MONDIALE DE LA SANTE     ORGANISATION POUR L'ALIMENTATION
                                          ET L'AGRICULTURE

                                                      WHO/VBC/DS/87.73

                                                      ORIGINAL: ENGLISH

                                                      Distr.: LIMITED




    DATA SHEETS ON PESTICIDES No. 73

    ZIRAM






         It must be noted that the issue of a Data Sheet for a
    particular pesticide does not imply endorsement of the pesticide by
    WHO or FAO for any particular use, or exclude its use for other
    purposes not stated. While the information provided is believed to
    be accurate according to data available at the time when the sheet
    was compiled, neither WHO nor FAO are responsible for any errors or
    omissions, or any consequences therefrom.

    The issue of this document does    Ce document ne constitue pas une
    not constitute formal              publication. Il ne doit faire
    publication. It should not be      l'objet d'aucun compte rendu ou
    reviewed, abstracted or quoted     résumé ni d'aucune citation sans
    without the agreement of the       l'autorisation de l'Organisation
    Food  and Agriculture              des Nations Unies pour
    Organization of the United         l'Alimentation et l'Agriculture
    Nations or of the World Health     ou de l'Organisation Mondiale de
    Organization.                      la Santé.

                                       CLASSIFICATION:

                                       Primary Use: Fungicide

                                       Secondary Use: Animal repellent

                                       Chemical Group: Dithiocarbamate

    1.0  GENERAL INFORMATION

    1.1  COMMON NAME

         Ziram (ISO, BSI and JMAF; exception West Germany)

    1.1.1  Identity:

         IUPAC: Zinc dimethyldithiocarbamate

         CAS: (T-4)-bis (dimethyldithiocarbamate) zinc

         CAS Reg. No.: 137-30-4

         Molecular formula: C6H12N2S4Zn

         Molecular weight: 305.8

         Structural formula:

    CHEMICAL STRUCTURE

    1.1.2  Synonyms

         AaprotectR; AavolexR; AaziraR; Accelerator LR; Aceto
    ZDEDR; Aceto ZDMDR; Alcoba ZMR; CarbazincR; Corona
    CorozateR; CorozateR; CumanR; CymateR; Drupina 90R; Eptac
    1R; ENT 988; Fulcasin (Fuklasin)R; FungostopR; Hermat ZDMR;
    HexazirR; Karbam WhiteR; MethasanR; MethazateR;
    Methylzimate; Methylzineb; Methylziram; Mexene (apezene)R; Miblam
    (capilban)R; MolurameR; MycronilR; NCI-C50442; Pomarsol Z
    forteR; ProdaramR; RhodiacidR; Soxinal (Soxinol) PzR;
    Tricarbamix Z; TriscabolR; TsimatR; Tsiram; USAF P-2; Vancid

    MZ-96R; VulcacureR; Vulkacite (Vulkacit)LR; Weisstaub; Z
    75R; Zarlate; ZC (Z-C) sprayR; ZerlateR; ZimateR;
    ZincmateR; ZinkcarbamateR; Zirame; ZiramvisR; ZirasanR;
    ZirbeckR; Zirex; ZirideR; ZirthaneR; ZitoxR.

    1.2  SYNOPSIS

         Ziram is a dithiocarbamate fungicide with some insect repellent
    properties. It is a metabolic poison of low acute toxicity to
    mammals: it may cause skin irritation. It is listed in WHO Hazard
    Class III. Ziram is toxic to zinc sensitive plants. It has also been
    used extensively in the rubber industry as a promoter of
    vulcanization.

    1.3  SELECTED PROPERTIES

    1.3.1  Physical characteristics

         Ziram is a colourless odourless powder which melts at 250°C,
    the technical product melts at 240-244°C. It is corrosive to copper
    and iron.

    1.3.2  Solubility

         In water, 65 mg/l at 25°C; it is slightly soluble in ethanol
    and diethyl ether, moderately soluble in acetone, and soluble in
    dilute alkali, chloroform and carbon disulphide.

    1.3.3  Stability

         Ziram is stable under normal conditions but decomposes in acid
    media. It does not accumulate in soil.

    1.3.4  Vapour pressure

         Negligible at room temperature.

    1.4  AGRICULTURE, HORTICULTURE AND FORESTRY

    1.4.1  Common formulations

         These include a wettable powder, 300-960 g a.i./kg; a repellent
    paste; 370 g a.i./kg with sticker; dusts, 35-75 g a.i./kg; and a
    flowable formulation, 479 g a.i./l.

    1.4.2  Pests controlled

         It may be used as a repellent against Japanese beetles and
    cucumber beetles and as a fungicide in the control of several plant
    diseases. Aquatic snails may also be controlled effectively

    1.4.3  Use pattern

         Ziram is used on almonds, apples, apricots, bananas, beans,
    beets, blueberries, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cabbage, caneberries,
    cauliflower, carrots, cantaloupes, celery, cherries, collards,
    cranberries, cucumbers, melons, nectarines, onions, peaches, pears,
    pecans, peppers, pumpkins, radishes, squash, spinach, strawberries,
    tomatoes, turnips, watermelons and ornamentals. It may be applied at
    3-16 kg/ha up to the day of harvest on some crops. It is compatible
    with common fungicides and pesticides except those containing copper
    or mercury. If plants are difficult to wet, a sticker may be added
    to the formulation.

    1.4.4  Unintended effects

         Ziram is non-phytotoxic except to zinc sensitive crops such as
    tobacco and cucurbits at high application rates. It is not known to
    be repellent to beneficial insects.

    1.5  PUBLIC HEALTH PROGRAMMES

         There are no recommended uses.

    1.6  HOUSEHOLD USE

         There are no recommended uses.

    2.0  TOXICOLOGY AND RISKS

    2.1  TOXICOLOGY - MAMMALS

    2.1.1  Absorption route

         Ziram is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract;
    through the intact skin; and by inhalation of spray mist and dusts.

    2.1.2  Mode of action

         Ziram and other dithiocarbamates are metabolic poisons. Their
    acute toxic effects are similar to those of carbon disulfide which
    has led to the suggestion that this metabolite, common to all
    dithiocarbamates, is the cause of their effects. This is supported
    by the observation that most dithiocarbamates of very low acute
    toxicity are excreted unmetabolized in the feces following oral
    dosing. The exact mode of action is unknown. However, microsomal
    injury and cytochrome P-450 injury accompanied by increased heme-
    oxygenase activity is a common occurrence with these compounds.
    Monoamine oxidase Inhibition, abnormal Vitamin B6 and tryptophane
    metabolism and cellular loss of zinc and copper have been implicated
    in studies of the biochemical effect. Ziram is not a potent
    initiator of thyroid dysfunction among dithiocarbamates and the
    effects have not been shown to be dose dependent. The metabolically
    generated sulfur inhibits some intracellular enzyme systems.

    2.1.3  Excretion products

         Although the metabolism and excretion of ziram has not been
    extensively studied, insight can be gained from pooled information
    from other dithiocarbamate studies. Initial degradation probably
    occurs in the gastrointestinal tract where the parent compound is
    reduced to the carbamic acid residue which is rapidly absorbed and
    metabolized by hepatic enzymes. A portion of the acid may be
    excreted, unchanged, as a glucuronide. Further metabolism of the
    acid releases CS2 and dimethylamine. A high proportion of the parent
    compound may be metabolized to carbon disulfide and the small
    portion recovered in blood or in expired air represents only that
    portion of the dose not involved in tissue reactions.
    Dimethyldithiocarbamate may also be degraded to
    dimethylthiocarbamate, sulfate and formaldehyde following
    methylation and oxidation reactions in body tissues in general.
    Dimethylthiocarbamic acid is excreted as a glucuronide.

    2.1.4  Toxicity, single dose

         Dermal LD50: No information.

         Oral LD50:

              Rat (F)        1400 mg/kg b.w.

              Mouse           480 mg/kg b.w.

              Rabbit          400 mg/kg b.w.

         I.P. LD50:

              Rat (M,F)        23 mg/kg b.w.

              Mouse            73 mg/kg b.w.

         I.V. LD50:

              Mouse            18 mg/kg b.w.

    2.1.5  Toxicity, repeated dose

         No mortality or growth retardation in weanling rats followed
    oral daily doses of 100 mg/kg b.w. for one month. Normal thyroid
    tissues were found in rats ingesting diets containing 0.25% of ziram
    for one month.

    2.1.6  Dietary studies

         Short term: Rats survived dietary levels of 5000 and 2500
    mg/kg diet for a month but growth was retarded and there was slight
    anaemia. Growth retardation at 500 mg/kg diet was slight.

         Convulsions occurred in dogs fed ziram at a rate of 25 mg/kg
    b.w./day and some died after five to nine months. Symptomatology,
    haematology, urinalysis, organ weights and histology were normal in
    dogs fed 5.0 or 0.5 mg/kg b.w./day for one year.

         Ziram administered in the diet of female rats at 2.5 mg/kg b.w.
    for nine months resulted in decreased antibody formation, phagocytic
    activity and complement activity. Lymphatic blastogenic centres in
    spleen were also reduced.

         Long term: Rats were fed ziram 0, 25, 250 or 2500 mg/kg of
    diet for two years. Rats fed 2500 mg/kg suffered retarded growth and
    rats fed 250 mg/kg developed atrophic testes

    2.1.7  Carcinogenicity

         The limited data available does not permit adequate assessment
    of the carcinogenic potential of ziram. In the feeding study above,
    11 tumours were found in treated rats, three malignant tumours of
    pituitary and two thyroid adenomas at highest dose, seven tumours
    were found in controls.

         In rats, liver and subcutaneous tumours were induced by twice
    weekly gavage administration at 70 mg/kg b.w. for 22 months, and to
    a lesser extent following a subcutaneous implant of 15 mg/kg b.w.
    observed over two months. A low survival rate was a complicating
    factor in these studies. In a two year dietary study, 600 mg/kg diet
    induced an increase in thyroid C-cell carcinoma in male rats only.
    It is possible that a maximum tolerated dose was not achieved in the
    dietary study.

         In a study on mice, oral administration of ziram from seven
    days to 78 weeks of age first by gavage (4.6 mg/kg b.w.) then at 15
    mg/kg of diet from weaning age, induced no increase in tumours.
    Similarly no oncogenic potential was observed in mice over a six
    month period following daily oral administration of 75 mg/kg b.w.
    for 20 weeks, nor during 78 weeks of observation following a single
    subcutaneous injection of approximately 46 mg/kg b.w. at weaning.
    Furthermore, an increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas
    was observed only in female mice fed 1200 mg/kg diet. This study was
    complicated by an intercurrent Sendai virus infection.

         Ziram can react with nitrite under mildly acid conditions to
    form N-nitrosodimethylamine, which is carcinogenic in several animal
    species.

         Mutagenicity: Ziram was mutagenically active in base-
    substitution sensitive  S. typhimurium strains TA 1535, TA 100, TA
    1534 and TA 1530 but not TA 1537, TA 1538, TA 98, G46, TA 151 and TA
    1512. No increase in the number of recessive lethals in  Dropsophila
     melanogaster (929 chromosomes) was obtained with ziram. No
    significant increase in gene conversion occurred in  S. cerevisiae
    although metabolic activation systems were not used. An increased
    number of chromosome aberrations in metaphases of bone marrow cells
    were found in mice treated with 100 mg/kg b.w. orally. Approximately
    six times higher frequency of chromosome and chromatid aberrations
    were observed in metaphases of culture peripheral lymphocytes from
    workers handling ziram.

          Reproduction: Some female rats receiving ziram at 50 mg/kg
    b.w./day for two months or more became sterile; some foetuses that
    were conceived were resorbed and some that were born had abnormal
    tails. Male fertility was not affected.

         Teratogenicity: See section above.

         Irritation and sensitization: Ziram was found to be a primary
    skin irritant with a threshold limit value of 10% concentration in a
    24 hour occluded patch test in guinea pigs and, it was also shown to
    have mild to moderate contact hypersensitivity potency in a guinea
    pig maximization test.

         Neurotoxicity: No information available.

         Metabolism: Ziram has been shown to be an inhibitor of many
    enzymes. It is inhibitory to the oxidation of succinate, alpha-
    ketoglutarate, glutamate and isocitrate as well as on oxidative
    phosphorylation by isolated liver mitochondria. It also inhibits
    aldehyde dehydrogenase and dopamine-oxidase. It induces the
    accumulation of acetaldehyde in the blood stream following ethanol
    treatment.

    2.1.8  Modification of toxicity

         No available information.

    2.2  TOXICOLOGY - MAN

    2.2.1  Absorption

         Ziram is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract or
    through the intact skin. It may be absorbed from the respiratory
    tract.

    2.2.2  Dangerous doses

         There is no information regarding doses leading to illness. The
    probable oral lethal dose for humans is 50 to 500 mg/kg b.w.

         Repeated: No available information.

    2.2.3  Observations on occupationally exposed workers

         Several collective farm workers who used a 70% formulation of
    ziram to treat seed experienced irritation of the skin, nose, throat
    and eyes, gastritis, and a slight reduction in haemoglobin.

         Less severe irritation of the skin and upper respiratory tract
    was encountered in a factory where the air concentration of ziram
    was 0.77-3.7 mg/m3.

         Possible inhibition of cholinesterase and changes in the
    bioelectric activity of the muscles during voluntary motion were
    reported in workers. Abnormal chromosomes or chromatids were
    reported in 5.9% of cultured lymphocytes of workers with three to
    five years exposure to ziram.

    2.2.4  Observations on exposure of the general population

         No available information.

    2.2.5  Observations on volunteers

         No available information.

    2.2.6  Reported mishaps

         The ingestion of 0.51 of ziram solution of unknown
    concentration was fatal within a few hours. Findings included focal
    necrosis of the mucosa of the small intestine, congestion and
    microscopic edema of many organs, haemorrhages, focal atelectases,
    acute emphysema and desquamation of alveolar and bronchial
    epithelium.

    2.3  TOXICITY TO NON-MAMMALIAN SPECIES

    2.3.1  Fish

         No information available.

    2.3.2  Birds

         LD50 Wild Bird 100 mg/kg b.w.

         Ziram has been shown to have an adverse effect on body weight,
    to retard testicular development, and to induce degeneration in
    seminiferous epithelium of mature fowl.

    2.3.3  Other species

         No information available.

    3.0  FOR REGULATORY AUTHORITIES - RECOMMENDATIONS ON REGULATION OF
         COMPOUND

    3.1  RECOMMENDED RESTRICTIONS ON AVAILABILITY

         (For definition of categories, see the Introduction to Data
    Sheets)

         All liquid formulations over 70%, category 3

         All other liquid formulations, category 4

         All solid formulations over 28%, category 4

         All other solid formulations, category 5

    3.2  TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

         Formulations in categories 3 and 4: Should be transported or
    stored in clearly labelled rigid and leakproof containers and away
    from containers of food and drink. Storage should be under lock and
    key and secure from access by unauthorized persons and children.

         Formulations in category 5: Should be transported or stored
    in clearly labelled, leakproof containers out of reach of children
    away from food and drink.

    3.3  HANDLING

         Formulations in categories 3 and 4: Protective clothing (see
    part 4) should be provided for those handling concentrates. Adequate
    washing facilities should be available close at hand. Eating,
    drinking and smoking should be prohibited during handling and before
    washing after handling. Adequate ventilation must be maintained.

         Formulations in category 5: No special facilities other than
    those for handling of any chemical need be required. Adequate
    ventilation must be maintained.

    3.4  DISPOSAL AND/OR DECONTAMINATION OF CONTAINER

         If not decontaminated, container must either be burned or
    crushed and buried below topsoil. Care must be taken to avoid
    subsequent contamination of water sources. Container may be
    decontaminated (for method see paragraph 4.3). Decontaminated
    containers should not be used for food, feed or drinking water.

    3.5  SELECTION, TRAINING AND MEDICAL SUPERVISION OF WORKERS

         Formulations in categories 3 and 4: Pre-employment medical
    examination for workers is desirable. Workers suffering from activ

    hepatic, renal or skin disease should be excluded from contact.
    Training of workers in techniques to avoid contact and the need for
    strict abstention from alcohol use prior to and after ziram use is
    essential.

         Formulations in categories 5: Warning of workers to minimize
    contact and about the dangers of alcohol use prior to and after
    ziram use is essential.

    3.6  ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS RECOMMENDED IF DISTRIBUTED BY AIRCRAFT

         All formulations: Pilots and loaders should have special
    training in application methods. Flagmen if used, should wear a
    broad brimmed hat, a facial mask and coveralls, and be located well
    away from the dropping zone.

    3.7  LABELLING

         Formulations in categories 3 and 4, Minimum cautionary
    statement:

                             "WARNING - POISON"

                      (skull and cross bones insignia)

         Ziram is a dithiocarbamate; a metabolic poison of slight acute
    toxicity and possible long term toxic effects. It is a primary skin
    irritant; avoid contact with skin and eyes. Inhalation of dust or
    spray, or swallowing the compound may be dangerous. Wear protective
    gloves and clean protective clothing when handling this material.
    Bathe immediately after work. Ensure that containers are closed and
    stored under lock and key. Empty containers must be disposed of in
    such a way as to prevent all possibility of accidental contact with
    them. Keep the material out of reach of children and well away from
    foodstuffs, animal feed and their containers. Maintain adequate
    ventilation during use. In case of contact, immediately remove
    contaminated clothing and wash the skin thoroughly with soap and
    water; for eyes, flush with water for 15 minutes. If poisoning
    occurs, call a physician. Avoid alcohol use for at least 10 days
    after exposure. There is no specific antidote, treatment must be
    systematic.

         Formulations in category 5 - Minimum cautionary statement -
    This formulation contains ziram, it is poisonous if swallowed. Keep
    the material out of reach of children and well away from food
    stuffs, animal feed and food containers. Maintain adequate
    ventilation during use. Avoid alcohol use prior to and after ziram
    use.

    3.8  RESIDUES IN FOOD

         Maximum residue levels: Maximum residue levels have been
    recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues.

    4.0  PREVENTION OF POISONING IN MAN AND EMERGENCY AID

    4.1  PRECAUTIONS IN USE

    4.1.1  General

         Ziram is a dithiocarbamate of slight acute toxicity and
    possible long term toxic effects. In addition to its inherent
    toxicity it induces an alcohol intolerance similar to that of
    Antabuse(disulfiram), a related dithiocarbamate. It is slowly
    absorbed by the oral and dermal routes and by inhalation of spray
    mist or dust. A primary irritant, avoid contact to skin and eyes,
    spills must be washed immediately from the skin and eyes. Adequate
    ventilation is essential.

    4.1.2  Manufacture and formulation

         Formulation should not be attempted without advice from the
    manufacture of the technical product. Although volatility is low,
    vapour and dusts should be controlled preferably by mechanical
    means. Protective equipment for the skin and respiratory protection
    are essential; adequate ventilation is also essential.

    4.1.3  Mixers and applicators

         When opening the container and when mixing, care should be
    taken to avoid contact with the mouth and eyes. Maintain adequate
    ventilation during handling; coveralls and gloves should be worn.
    Mixing if not mechanical, should always be carried out with a paddle
    of appropriate length. The applicator should avoid working in spray
    mists and avoid contact with mouth. Splashes must be washed
    immediately from the skin or eyes with large quantities of water.
    Before eating, drinking or smoking, hands and other exposed skin
    should be washed.

    4.1.4  Other associated workers (including flagmen in aerial
           operations)

         Persons exposed to ziram and associated with its application
    should observe the precautions described in 4.1.3 under "Mixers and
    applicators".

    4.1.5  Other populations likely to be affected

         With correct application and appropriate warnings of use the
    general public is unlikely to be exposed to hazardous amounts of
    ziram. Warnings of use are essential; there are reports of contact
    skin irritation in sensitised persons following exposure after
    correct horticultural applications and after continuous use of
    vulcanized rubber or plastic products contaminated with ziram during
    their manufacture

    4.2  ENTRY OF PERSONS INTO TREATED AREAS

         Unprotected persons should be kept out of treated areas until
    the spray solution is dry.

    4.3  DECONTAMINATION OF SPILLAGE AND CONTAINERS

         Residues in containers should be dissolved in a combustible
    solvent (alcohol, benzene, etc.) and burned in a furnace. The empty
    containers may be decontaminated by rinsing two or three times with
    a combustible solvent, the rinse burned. An additional rinse should
    be carried out with the 15% calcium hypochlorite solution which
    should remain in a container overnight, and be poured into a deep
    pit with abundant water. Impermeable gauntlets should be worn during
    this work and a soakage pit should be provided for the rinsings.
    Decontaminated containers should only be used for marking road
    works, etc. Spillage of ziram and its formulations should be removed
    by washing with 15% calcium hypochlorite solution and then rinsing
    with large quantities of water. Drain into a deep pit or sewer with
    abundant water.

    4.4  EMERGENCY AID

    4.4.1  Early symptoms of poisoning

         Early symptoms may include dizziness, confusion, drowsiness,
    lethargy, ataxia, headaches, or coma; nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea
    and stomach pains; muscle weakness and ascending paralysis;
    respiratory paralysis. Skin rash and eye irritation may occur as a
    result of direct contact.

    4.4.2  Treatment before person is seen by a physician, if these
           symptoms appear following exposure

         The person should stop work immediately, remove all
    contaminated clothing, wash the affected skin with soap and water.
    Flush contaminated eyes with fresh water for 10-15 minutes. If the
    compound was ingested and the victim is alert, induce vomiting if it
    has not already occurred. Provide artificial respiration if
    required, preferably by mechanical means. Prevent consumption or
    other contact with alcohol. Contact a doctor immediately, give
    supportive care and remove the patient to hospital as soon as
    possible.

    5.0  FOR MEDICAL AND LABORATORY PERSONNEL

    5.1  MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT IN CASES OF POISONING

    5.1.1  General information

         Ziram is a dithiocarbamate pesticide of slight acute toxicity
    and possible long term toxicity. It is used as a protective
    fungicide on fruit and vegetable crops and in several manufacturing
    processes. It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; by
    inhalation of dust or spray mist, and through the intact skin. Ziram
    induces alcohol intolerance, similar to that of Antabuse
    (disulfiram).

    5.1.2  Symptoms and signs

         Symptoms of poisoning include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain,
    diarrhoea, anorexia and weight loss; headaches, lethargy, dizziness,
    ataxia, confusion, drowsiness and coma; suppression of tendon
    reflexes; initial hypotonia progressing to flaccid paralysis
    (Landry's syndrome); respiratory paralysis. Severe dermatitis and
    eye inflammation can occur after local contamination.

    5.1.3  Laboratory

         Due to rapid metabolism and excretion, detection of ziram in
    blood is generally not possible. Detection of ziram metabolites in
    urine may confirm absorption but will not necessarily reflect the
    degree of poisoning. Skin testing may be useful in identifying
    sensitization to ziram. Treatment should not be deferred pending
    laboratory results.

    5.1.4  Treatment

         There is no specific antidote; provide symptomatic and
    supportive treatment. For contact poisoning, remove all contaminated
    clothing and wash the affected skin and hair with soap and water;
    flush contaminated eyes with fresh water for 10-15 minutes. If ziram
    has been ingested, if the patient is alert and if vomiting has not
    already occurred, induce vomiting, preferably with Syrup of ipecac.
    Continue to observe patient for signs of depression, consciousness
    level and/or respiration. If these signs occur, gastric intubation,
    aspiration and lavage should be performed immediately. Lavage with
    isotonic saline or sodium bicarbonate solution should be followed by
    activated charcoal by intubation to limit absorption of any residual
    ziram in the gastrointestinal tract. If the irritant properties of
    ziram have not already induced a bowel movement, give a mild
    cathartic (e.g. magnesium sulfate). Intravenous administration of
    glucose and ascorbic acid (0.2 g/min up to one gram total) may be
    useful to accelerate the excretion of unreacted absorbed ziram.
    Provide artificial respiration if necessary, preferably b

    mechanical means. In extreme cases, if the patient is unconscious or
    in respiratory distress, oxygen should be provided. The patient
    should avoid fats, oils and lipid solvents which might enhance
    absorption and prohibit all forms of ethanol consumption for at
    least three weeks.

    5.1.5  Prognosis

         If the acute toxic effect is survived, the chances of complete
    recovery are very good.

    5.1.6  References of previously reported cases

         Buklan, A. I. (1974), Sud-med. Ekspert, 17:51

         Chernov, O. V. (1968), Gig. Tr. Prof. Zabol., 12:35-37

         Martson, L. V. and Pilinskaya, M. A. (1971), Gig. Sanit.,
           36:107-108

    5.2  SURVEILLANCE TESTS

         There are no readily available techniques to determine the
    degree of exposure prior to the appearance of symptoms.

    5.3  LABORATORY METHODS

    5.3.1  Detection and assay of compound

         CIPAC Handbook (1970) Vol. 1; 716

         Lowen, W. K. and Pease, H. L. (1964), Anal. Methods Pestic.,
           Plant Growth Regul. Food Addit., 3.:69

         McLeod, H. A. and McCully, K. A., (1969), J. Ass. Off. Analyt.
           Chem., 1226-1240

         Supin, G. S. et al. (1973), Khim. Sel Khoz., 11:840-842

         Van Hoof, E. and Heyndrickx, A. (1973), Ghent. Rijks-Univ.
           Fac. Landbl. Med., 38:911-916

See Also:
        Ziram (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 53, 1991)
        Ziram (ICSC)