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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 239
CCOHS Chemical Name: Zinc metal

Synonyms:
Elemental zinc
Metallic zinc
Zinc (non-specific name)
Merrillite

Chemical Name French: Métal de zinc
Chemical Name Spanish: Metal de zinc
CAS Registry Number: 7440-66-6
RTECS Number(s): ZG8600000
Chemical Family: Zinc and compounds / elemental zinc / zinc metal
Molecular Formula: Zn
Structural Formula: Zn

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Lustrous, blue-white, odourless metal.(1,43)

Odour Threshold:
Not applicable. Odourless.

Warning Properties:
POOR. Odourless material.

Composition/Purity:
Zinc can be formed into virtually any shape by the common metal-forming techniques, such as rolling, drawing, extruding, etc. It is commercially available as ingots, lumps, slab, rolled (strip, sheet, rod, tubing, foil), wire, shot, sticks, granules, granulated zinc, mossy zinc, zinc dust and zinc powder. It is also available as a suspension of highly reactive zinc metal (Rieke metal) in tetrahydrofuran. Typical commercial grades are 98-99.99% pure.(15) The main impurities are lead, iron and cadmium (one grade contains 1.4% lead). The impurities strongly affect the physical and chemical properties.(1,2,12) Zinc is normally coated with a protective layer of zinc carbonate, which forms in air in the presence of carbon dioxide and moisture, resulting in a low corrosion rate.(1,12) This CHEMINFO profile reviews the hazards and control measures for zinc metal. For information on zinc powder and zinc dust, refer to the CHEMINFO review of zinc powder.

Uses and Occurrences:
Zinc is used mainly as a protective coating on iron and steel for corrosion protection. It is also used in alloys, such as pressure die-casting, foundry and ductile alloys and brass; in rolled zinc products; for graphic letterpress printing; in storage and dry-cell batteries; for the electrical apparatus in many common goods in electroplating; for stampings; as a reducing agent in organic chemistry; as a chemical intermediate for zinc oxide; as a desilverizing agent for lead; for deoxidizing bronze; in cans; for extracting gold by the cyanide process; in cadmium recovery; and therapeutically in human medicine (for the treatment of zinc deficiency).(1,2,12,14,44)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Lustrous, blue-white, odourless metal. Zinc metal does not normally burn or support combustion. It is difficult to ignite and is not a serious fire hazard. Zinc oxide fume is formed when zinc metal is heated to or near the boiling point of 907 deg C. Zinc foil ignites in the presence of moisture, due to the formation of hydrogen gas. Essentially not toxic.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Zinc metal cannot be inhaled unless it is cut or ground to form a dust or heated or welded to form fumes.

Zinc dust is not known to be harmful to the lungs or cause toxicity elsewhere in the body. For dusts, in general, high concentrations may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation.

Zinc oxide fumes are formed when zinc metal is heated to high temperatures or welded. Zinc oxide fume particles are small (0.2-1 micrometres) (7) and can remain airborne for long periods of time. Inhalation of zinc oxide fumes (e.g. from welding on galvanized steel) can cause a delayed flu-like illness commonly called metal fume fever.(2,7,14,19) Metal fume fever symptoms are typically experienced 4-8 hours after exposure to the fumes. Symptoms include thirst, a metallic taste in the mouth, fever and shivering, often with muscle aches, headache, cough, shortness of breath, abdominal pain and chest discomfort. These symptoms typically clear up 24-48 hours after the end of the exposure and recovery is complete. At the time of exposure, there may be no symptoms experienced or there may be throat irritation and a dry cough.(2,7,14) Therefore, the warning properties are not sufficient to alert the worker that they are being exposed. There have been reports of metal fume fever cases following exposures to concentrations as low as 2.5 mg/m3.(14,22,24,42)
Freshly formed fumes have smaller particle size and are more able to penetrate into the lower lung. They are believed to be better capable of causing metal fume fever than "aged" (aggregated) fumes or dusts, which have larger particle size. Although metal fume fever reactions following exposure to the zinc oxide dust are very rare, they have been reported. Therefore, both types of zinc oxide particulate, if in a small enough in size, are considered capable of causing metal fume fever.(7,23)
Some workers may develop a tolerance after repeated daily exposure to zinc oxide fume, with the result that no metal fume fever symptoms are experienced. This tolerance is accompanied by reduced lung inflammation.(22) However, the tolerance is quickly lost after short periods away from work (e.g. weekends).(7,14)
Zinc oxide fumes can irritate the throat and lungs. Individuals with pre-existing asthma are more sensitive to these irritating effects.(7)

Skin Contact:
Zinc metal, dusts or fumes are not irritating, based on physical and chemical properties.
Zinc is not expected to produce harmful effects by skin absorption.

Eye Contact:
Zinc metal is not irritating to the eyes. Some tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as dust particles are rinsed from the eye by tears.

Ingestion:
Zinc is not expected to be harmful if ingested. Reports of harmful effects following zinc ingestion are uncommon.(30) Ingestion of large amounts of zinc or zinc compounds may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and, in severe cases, vomiting of blood.(2,3,9,19) The dose causing vomiting is estimated at about 300 mg of zinc as a salt.(30)
Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. Both zinc deficiency and overexposure to zinc by ingestion have been associated with harmful effects.(2) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Historically, harmful effects have been observed in people occupationally exposed to zinc dust and/or zinc oxide dust or fume. However, these effects have been attributed to contaminants that were present in the zinc, mainly arsenic and lead, and not to zinc itself.(6) Depending on the purity of the zinc used, exposure to zinc powder or dust may involve exposure to contaminants (including lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic, and manganese).(9) For more information on the potential health effects of these contaminants, refer to the CHEMINFO reviews of these metals.

In general, zinc is considered to be a low toxicity metal. Zinc is a very important trace element for humans. It is a constituent of many enzymes and other proteins and has an essential role in many processes of normal growth and development. A number of reversible harmful effects (red and white blood cell deficiencies (anemia and leukopenia), headache and stomach symptoms, and copper deficiency) have resulted from long-term ingestion (to doses as low as 2 mg/kg/day), based on non-occupational human reports and animal information.(2,3,8,9)

In a historical report, which is limited by the small number of people evaluated, 24 men exposed for 2-35 years by inhalation to varying concentrations (mostly less than 35 mg/m3, but up to 130 mg/m3) of zinc oxide, zinc sulfide and zinc powder showed no illnesses due to the zinc exposure. The zinc from this smelter was reported to be practically free from lead and low in cadmium.(6)

Nervous System:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that long-term zinc exposure is harmful to the nervous system.
Two studies that evaluated the potential relationship between occupational zinc exposure and Parkinson's disease did not show a significant association.(20,21)
A few inconclusive studies have explored the possibility that exposure to zinc may play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis.(18) In most cases, the exposures were environmental, rather than occupational, and there was concurrent exposure to other chemicals, including other metals. One study reports on 11 cases of multiple sclerosis observed over a 10-year period in employees of a manufacturing plant that used zinc as the principal raw material. The number of cases was higher than expected for this population. However, a comparison of several zinc parameters in blood between employees with multiple sclerosis and employees without multiple sclerosis failed to show any significant differences.(41)
No conclusions can be drawn from a single case report of a 45-year-old man with central nervous system demyelination associated with elevated levels of zinc in the blood. No source of zinc exposure could be found.(5)

Lungs/Respiratory System:
There is no animal and very little human information available for zinc dust. For dusts in general, long- term exposures to high concentrations may cause increased mucous flow in the nose and respiratory system airways.(17) This condition usually disappears when exposure stops.
Controversy exists as to the role exposure to dust has in the development of chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the air passages into the lungs). Other factors such as smoking and general air pollution are more important, but dust exposure may also contribute.(17)

Respiratory disease and/or harmful effects on the lungs (e.g. bronchitis, altered lung function) have been observed in some, but not all, studies of welders exposed to various types of welding fumes over a number of years.(36,37) In a study of 607 shipyard workers, there was a significant association between breathlessness in welders or caulker/burners who smoked. After correcting the data for age and smoking, the occurrence of wheeze was related to welding fume exposure, and was more common in workers with previous metal fume fever.(38) In another relatively small study, sore throat and frequent coughing were reported significantly more often and some significant lung function changes were observed in steel manufacturing workers exposed to zinc oxide fumes and other airborne particulate ranging from 1-23 mg/m3, with an average of 39% particles in the respirable size range.(39) However, because of the mixed exposures in these studies, no specific conclusions can be drawn about the potential long-term respiratory effects of zinc oxide fume exposure.

Respiratory Sensitization:
It is not possible to conclude that zinc or zinc oxide, which is formed when zinc is heated or welded, is a respiratory sensitizer.
A small number of cases (five) of asthma, increased bronchial responsiveness or a generalized allergic reaction have been associated with zinc exposure following occupational exposure to fumes generated by soldering or welding galvanized metal.(25,26,27,28) In many cases, symptoms of metal fume fever were also noted.(25,26,27,28) In two cases, there did not appear to be a history of allergies.(26,27) In another case, allergic history was not discussed.(25) In two cases, there was a personal or family history of allergies.(26,28) Galvanized metal is coated with zinc. However, the fumes generated from soldering or welding galvanized zinc do not just include zinc oxide, but generally consists of a number of different metals, depending on the composition of the underlying metal. In addition, there may be fluxes, paints or other coatings present, which could thermally decompose, adding to the chemical mixture to which the worker is exposed. It is, therefore, not possible to solely attribute these respiratory effects to zinc or zinc oxide exposure.
A more recent study evaluated the respiratory health of 6 welders who were experiencing increased bronchial reactivity. In a welding challenge test, 3/6 developed bronchial reactions. One reacted to fumes from mild and stainless steel; two reacted to fumes from galvanized metal and one of these welders also reacted to mild steel fumes. It was concluded that the reaction was due to irritation rather than a sensitization reaction. Immunological tests (patch tests and inhalation challenge tests with zinc salts) on the two welders who developed bronchoconstriction to galvanized metal welding were negative.(13)

Carcinogenicity:

Zinc is not known to be carcinogenic.
In a study of 978 men, who worked in a zinc refinery for at least 1 year between 1946 and 1975, the causes of death were examined for the 73 men who had died. There was no increase in mortality from cancer. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn because number of employees evaluated was small. There was also minimal exposure to arsenic and antimony reported.(31)
No conclusions can be drawn from a limited study where an association was found between living near an old lead-zinc mining and smelting area and deaths from lung cancer.(2,19) Confounding variables were not adequately controlled in this study.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is limited evidence that occupational exposure to welding fumes and gases is carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).(40) Welding fumes contain many different metallic and chemical compounds, including zinc oxide. This conclusion does not specifically apply to zinc oxide exposures.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Zinc is an essential element for normal fetal growth and development. Non-occupational studies of mothers given zinc supplements during pregnancy have not shown developmental effects.(19) The few reports of developmental effects in humans attributed to zinc exposure located in the literature contain very few details and inconclusive. Animal studies with zinc compounds suggest that developmental toxicity will not occur in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for zinc. In general, the limited animal and human information available does not indicate that zinc compounds cause reproductive toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
Zinc is not known to be mutagenic. There is no human, animal or in vitro information available for zinc. Information for other zinc compounds, for the most part, does not suggest that zinc is mutagenic. However, zinc sulfate did produce positive results in a well-conducted test using live animals. Positive results (micronucleus, chromosome aberrations) were observed in tests on workers employed in zinc industries. However, because these workers were also exposed to compounds such as lead and cadmium, no conclusions can be drawn about zinc.(4,33,34)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
When zinc is absorbed into the body, it interacts with other trace elements, especially copper. It also competes with other metals, such as lead or mercury, which may sometimes reduce the harmful effects of these metals.(4)

Potential for Accumulation:
Zinc can accumulate in the body. Intestinal absorption of zinc can vary widely following oral administration (in animals ranges of less than 10 to over 90% are reported) and is influenced by age and a number of dietary factors. Zinc is stored mainly in the muscle and bone, and also in the prostate, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, skin, lung, brain, heart and pancreas.(16,35) In humans ingesting normal amounts of zinc, the reported half-lives have ranged from 100-500 days.(30) The body regulates the amount of zinc stored by decreasing absorption and increasing excretion when intake is increased.(8) It is excreted mainly in the feces.(30)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice. NOTE: Metal fume fever may develop 4-8 hours after exposure. If symptoms of metal fume fever (flu-like symptoms) develop, obtain medical attention.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. If irritation occurs, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Eye Contact:
DO NOT allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s).

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn).

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Zinc will not accumulate static charge or be ignited by a static discharge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity.(43)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Zinc oxide and zinc oxide fumes. Zinc oxide fume is formed when zinc metal is heated to, or near, the boiling point of 907 deg C.(45)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Zinc metal does not normally burn or support combustion. Zinc sheets, castings or other massive forms are difficult to ignite and are not a serious fire hazard. Once ignited (above the boiling point of 907 deg C), large pieces burn vigorously with a bluish-green flame. Heating zinc above the boiling point results in the evolution of zinc vapour, which immediately reacts with air to form zinc oxide fume. Zinc foil ignites in the presence of moisture, due to the formation of hydrogen gas.(15)

Extinguishing Media:
Zinc metal is difficult to ignite. Use extinguishing media suitable for surrounding fire. If zinc metal is burning, use approved Class D extinguishing agent, such as dry powder, or smother and cool with dry sand, soda ash, dry ground limestone or dry clay.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
If zinc metal is burning, do not use water.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Massive forms of zinc are difficult to ignite. However, zinc metal can ignite if heated above the boiling point.
If a fire occurs in the vicinity of zinc metal, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and remove from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. If this is not possible, cool fire-exposed zinc metal, rods, ingots, etc. by applying hose streams.
If zinc metal is burning, smother and cool with a suitable Class D dry extinguishing agent, such as dry powder or dry sand. Take extreme caution to prevent contact of water with molten zinc or burning zinc products. Zinc foil may ignite in the presence of water. Avoid getting zinc foil wet.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
When heated to about 900 deg C, zinc metal forms zinc oxide fume. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 65.37

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 419.5 deg C (787.1 deg F) (1,43)
Boiling Point: 907-908 deg C (1664.6-1666.4 deg F) (1,45)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 7.14 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (solid) (43,44)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (2,15,47)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acids (e.g. acetic acid) and alkalies (reacts); insoluble in organic solvents.(2,15,43)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.47 (estimated) (48)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Practically zero at 25 deg C (46)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable.
Henry's Law Constant: 2.48 X 10(3) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 2.45 X 10(-2) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (46); log H = 0 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


INTER HALOGENS (e.g. bromine pentafluoride or chlorine trifluoride) - reaction with zinc, at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures, is violent, often with ignition occurring.(10,11)
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS (e.g. hydrazinium nitrate or hydroxylamine) - mixtures may ignite or explode.(10,11)
CHLORINE OR FLUORINE - zinc burns in moist halogen gas.(10,11)
NITRIC ACID - reacts rapidly with the evolution of toxic nitrogen oxides.(12,44)
AMMONIUM SULFIDE - reaction releases extremely toxic and flammable hydrogen sulfide and flammable hydrogen.(11)
SULFURIC ACID or HYDROCHLORIC ACID - slowly attack zinc, with evolution of flammable hydrogen gas.(1,12,44)
CALCIUM CHLORIDE SOLUTION - prolonged contact can cause slow evolution of flammable hydrogen gas.(11)
LEAD AZIDE - on prolonged contact with zinc or its alloys, forms traces of the extremely sensitive zinc azide, which may initiate detonation of the whole mass of azide.(10,11)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ARSENIC, CADMIUM, SELENIUM, TELLURIUM, SODIUM PEROXIDE, POTASSIUM PEROXIDE, TITANIUM DIOXIDE or ZINC PEROXIDE - react with incandescence.(10,11)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Very high temperatures.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Zinc is not corrosive to metals. It is used as a protective coating on iron and steel for corrosion protection.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Zinc does not attack plastics or elastomers.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Zinc metal is normally coated with a protective layer of zinc carbonate, which forms in air in the presence of carbon dioxide and moisture, resulting in a low corrosion rate.(1,12)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

There is no specific animal information available for zinc metal. Animal studies have been conducted with various zinc compounds. These studies are summarized in the CHEMINFO reviews of the specific compounds.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Goodwin, F.E. Zinc and zinc alloys. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 25. John Wiley and Sons, 1998. p. 789-839
(2) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for zinc (Update). TP-93/15. Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, May 1994
(3) Prasad, A.S., et al. Essentiality and toxicity of zinc. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health. Vol. 19, suppl. 1 (1993). p. 134-136
(4) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of zinc. Mutation Research. Vol. 168, no. 3 (1986). p. 343-353
(5) Prodan, C.I., et al. CNS demyelination from zinc toxicity? Neurology. Vol. 54, no. 8 (Apr. 2000). p. 1705-1706
(6) Batchelor, R.P., et al. A clinical and laboratory investigation of the effect of metallic zinc, of zinc oxide and of zinc sulphide upon the health of workmen. Journal of Industrial Hygiene. Vol. 8, no. 8 (1926). p. 322-363
(7) Rask-Andersen, A. Inhalation fever. In: Occupational and environmental respiratory disease. Edited by P. Harber, et al. Mosby-Year Book Inc., 1996. p. 243-258
(8) Walsh, C.T., et al. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 102, suppl. 2 (1994). p. 5-46
(9) Fisher, D. Zinc. In: Hazardous Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Edited by J.B. Sullivan, et al. Williams and Wilkins, 1992. p. 865-868
(10) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 491
(11) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(12) Graf, G.G. Zinc. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 28. VCH Publishers, 1996. p. 509-530
(13) Contreras, G.R., et al. Bronchial reactions to exposure to welding fumes. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 54, no. 11 (1997). p. 836-839
(14) Jakubowski, M. Zinc and cadmium: zinc and compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 2. Toxicological issues related to metals: neurotoxicity and radiation, metals and metal compounds. John Wiley & Sons, 2001. p. 253-269
(15) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Zinc. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002
(16) Cleven, R.F.M.J., et al. Integrated criteria document zinc. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection Bilthoven. Aug. 1993
(17) Wright, G.W. The pulmonary effects of inhaled inorganic dust. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. 1. Part A. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. p. 308-309, 317-318
(18) Schiffer, R.B., et al. A multiple sclerosis cluster associated with a small, north-central Illinois community. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 56, no. 5 (Sept. 2001). p. 389-395
(19) Barceloux, D.G. Zinc. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 37, no. 2 (1999). p. 279-292
(20) Gorell, J.M., et al. Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Neurology. Vol. 48, no. 3 (Mar. 1997). p. 650-658
(21) Seidler, A., et al. Possible environmental, occupational, and other etiologic factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Germany. Neurology. Vol. 46, no. 5 (May 1996). p. 1275-1284
(22) Fine, J.M., et al. Metal fume fever: characteristics of clinical and plasma IL-6 responses in controlled human exposures to zinc oxide fume at and below the threshold limit value. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 8 (Aug. 1997). p. 722-726
(23) Blanc, P., et al. The lung in metal fume fever. Seminars in Respiratory Medicine. Vol. 14, no. 3 (May 1993). p. 212-225
(24) Gordon, T., et al. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats and rabbits. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 53, no. 8 (1992). p. 503-509
(25) Ameille, J., et al. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a smelter exposed to zinc fumes. Chest. Vol. 101, no. 3 (Mar. 1992). p. 862-863
(26) Malo, J-L., et al. Occupational asthma due to fumes of galvanized metal. Chest. Vol. 92, no. 2 (Aug. 1987). p. 6375-377
(27) Kawane, H. et al. Metal fume fever and asthma [letter]. Chest. Vol. 93, no. 5 (May 1988). p. 1116-1117
(28) Farrell, F.J. Angioedema and urticaria as acute and late phase reactions to zinc fume exposure, with associated metal fume fever-like symptoms. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 12, no. 3 (1987). p. 331-337
(29) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(30) Elindar, C.-G. Zinc. In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals. 2nd ed. Vol. II: Specific metals. Edited by L. Friberg et al. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986. p. 664-679
(31) Logue, J.N., et al. A historical prospective mortality study of workers in copper and zinc refineries. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 24, no. 5 (May 1982). p. 398-408
(32) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Zinc. Environmental Health Criteria 221. World Health Organization, 2001
(33) Hamurcu, Z., et al. Micronucleus frequencies in workers exposed to lead, zinc and cadmium. Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 83, no. 2 (Nov. 2001). p. 97-102
(34) Deknudt, G., et al. Cytogenetic investigation on leucocytes of workers from a cadmium plant. Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 5, no. 5 (1975). p. 319-327
(35) Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide. Health Issue Assessment. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park. EPA/600/8-87/022F. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1987
(36) Liss, G.M. Health effects of welding and cutting fume: an update. Occupational Disease Panel, Ontario Ministry of Labour, 1996
(37) Sferlazza, S.J., et al. The respiratory health of welders. American Review of Respiratory Disease. Vol. 143, no. 5 (1991). p. 1134-1148
(38) Cotes, J.E., et al. Respiratory symptoms and impairment in shipyard welders and caulker/burners. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 46 (1989). p. 292-301
(39) Pasker, H.G., et al. Short-term ventilatory effects in workers exposed to fumes containing zinc oxide: comparison of forced oscillation technique with spirometry. European Respiratory Journal. Vol. 10, no. 7 (July 1997). p. 1523-1529
(40) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Welding: welding fumes and gases. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 49. Chromium, nickel and welding. World Health Organization, 1990. p. 455-507
(41) Stein, E.C., et al. Multiple sclerosis and the workplace: report of an industry-based cluster. Neurology. Vol. 37, no. 10. p. 1672-1677
(42) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Zinc oxide. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. ACGIH, 2003. p. 1-5
(43) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999 (Section 4)
(44) Zinc. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 1809-1810
(45) Beliles, R.P. The metals: zinc: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 2332-2336
(46) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(47) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 3.59
(48) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(49) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres (Atomic Absorption). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(50) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates in Workplace Atmospheres (ICP Analysis). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(51) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Zinc and compounds, as Zn. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(52) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Elements by ICP, including Zn. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-01-04



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