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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 548
CCOHS Chemical Name: Zinc powder

Synonyms:
Blue powder
Elemental zinc
Mossy zinc
Zinc dust
Granular zinc

Chemical Name French: Poudre de zinc
Chemical Name Spanish: Polvo de zinc

Trade Name(s):
Asarco L 15
Emany zinc dust
JASAD
Merrilite

CAS Registry Number: 7440-66-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1436
RTECS Number(s): ZG8600000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-175-3
Chemical Family: Zinc and compounds / elemental zinc / zinc metal
Molecular Formula: Zn
Structural Formula: Zn

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Gray or blue-gray, odourless powder or dust.(12,13)

Odour Threshold:
Not applicable. Odourless.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Zinc powder and zinc dust are particulate forms of zinc metal. This CHEMINFO profile reviews the hazards and control measures for zinc powder and zinc dust. For information on zinc metal, refer to the zinc metal CHEMINFO review. The term zinc dust designates materials produced by condensing zinc vapour, whereas zinc powder is obtained by atomizing molten zinc. Zinc dust is smaller in particle size and spherical in shape, whereas zinc powder is coarser in size and irregular in shape. There are two grades of zinc dust, pigment zinc dust and zinc dust for chemical use. Zinc powder or dust is normally coated with a protective layer of zinc carbonate, which reduces the hazard of spontaneous ignition. Zinc carbonate forms on zinc powder or dust upon contact with air due to the presence of carbon dioxide and moisture, except when the particles are freshly formed.(1,12,37) The zinc content of most commercial grades is 95-97%, with 3-5% zinc oxide.(1,12) Besides zinc oxide, other impurities present in zinc powder or dust include lead, iron and cadmium. The presence of impurities strongly affects the physical and chemical properties and can affect the overall hazards of the material. For specific information on the content of the zinc powder or dust in your product, consult the Material Safety Data Sheet or the manufacturer or supplier.

Uses and Occurrences:
The main use of zinc dust is as a pigment for anti-corrosion paints and coatings for iron and steel. It is also used for coating iron and steel for corrosion protection; as a reducing agent in the chemical and metallurgical industries; in the manufacture of zinc hydrosulfite (zinc dithionate) and other hydrosulfite compounds; and to enhance the physical properties of plastics and lubricants.(1)
The largest application of zinc powder is for solution purification in electrolytic zinc plants. It is also used in primary batteries; frictional materials; spray metallizing; mechanical plating; and chemical formulations.(1)
Zinc is widely distributed in nature, constituting 0.027% (by weight of the earth's crust), but is usually not found as metallic zinc in nature.(1,2,14)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Gray or blue-gray, odourless powder or dust. Uncoated zinc powder or dust is a REACTIVE FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. Zinc powder or dust reacts slowly with water or humid air to give off flammable hydrogen gas, which can accumulate in a confined space and explode if ignited. COMBUSTIBLE DUST. May form explosive dust-air mixtures. Contact with strong acids releases flammable hydrogen gas. Can react violently or explosively with many inorganic and organic chemicals. Essentially non-toxic following short-term exposure.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Zinc powder is not known to cause significant harmful effects on the lungs or elsewhere in the body. For dusts, in general, high concentrations may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation.

One occupational case report describes a man who developed symptoms of metal fume fever (fever, chills, muscle aches and shortness of breath) following exposure to heated zinc powder and wires.(7) This man was probably exposed to zinc oxide fumes, which could have formed upon heating the zinc, as well as zinc dust. Zinc oxide fumes are well known to cause metal fume fever. In rare cases, finely divided zinc oxide particles have also been associated with metal fume fever. For a complete description of "metal fume fever" refer to the CHEMINFO review of zinc oxide.

Skin Contact:
Zinc powder is not expected to be irritating to the skin, based on its physical and chemical properties. There is no human or animal information available.
Zinc powder is not expected to produce harmful effects by skin absorption.

Eye Contact:
Zinc powder is not expected to be irritating to the eyes except as a "foreign object", based on its physical and chemical properties. Some tearing, blinking and mild temporary pain may occur as particles are rinsed from the eye by tears. There is no human or animal information available.

Ingestion:
Zinc powder is not expected to be harmful if ingested. Reports of harmful effects following zinc ingestion are uncommon.(30) Ingestion of large amounts of zinc or zinc compounds may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and, in severe cases, vomiting of blood.(2,9,19) The dose causing vomiting is estimated to be about 300 mg of zinc as a salt.(30)
Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans and animals. Both zinc deficiency and overexposure to zinc by ingestion have been associated with harmful effects.(2) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Historically, harmful effects were reported in workers exposed to zinc and/or zinc oxide. However, these effects have since been attributed to contaminants that were present in the zinc, mainly arsenic and lead, and not to zinc itself.(6) Depending on the purity of the zinc used, exposure to zinc powder or dust may involve exposure to contaminants (including lead, copper, cadmium, arsenic, and manganese).(9) For more information on the potential health effects of these contaminants, refer to the CHEMINFO reviews on these metals.

In general, zinc is considered to be a low toxicity metal. Zinc is a very important trace element for humans. It is a constituent of many enzymes and other proteins and has an essential role in many processes of normal growth and development. A number of reversible harmful effects (red and white blood cell deficiencies (anemia and leukopenia), headache and stomach symptoms, and copper deficiency) have resulted from long-term ingestion (to doses as low as 2 mg/kg/day), based on non-occupational human reports and animal information.(2,3,8,9)

In a historical report, which is limited by the small number of people evaluated, 24 men exposed for 2-35 years by inhalation to varying concentrations (mostly less than 35 mg/m3, but up to 130 mg/m3) of zinc oxide, zinc sulfide and zinc powder showed no illnesses due to the zinc exposure. The zinc from this smelter was reported to be practically free from lead and low in cadmium.(6)

Nervous System:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that long-term zinc exposure is harmful to the nervous system.
Two studies that evaluated the potential relationship between occupational zinc exposure and Parkinson's disease did not show a significant association.(20,21)
A few inconclusive studies have explored the possibility that exposure to zinc may play a role in the development of multiple sclerosis.(18) In most cases, the exposures were environmental, rather than occupational, and there was concurrent exposure to other chemicals, including other metals. One study reports on 11 cases of multiple sclerosis observed over a 10-year period in employees of a manufacturing plant that used zinc as the principal raw material. The number of cases was higher than expected for this population. However, a comparison of several zinc parameters in blood between employees with multiple sclerosis and employees without multiple sclerosis failed to show any significant differences.(36)
No conclusions can be drawn from a single case report of a 45-year-old man with central nervous system demyelination associated with elevated levels of zinc in the blood. No source of zinc exposure could be found.(5)

Lungs/Respiratory System:
There is no animal and very little human information available for zinc powder or dust. For dusts in general, long- term exposures to high concentrations may cause increased mucous flow in the nose and respiratory system airways.(17) This condition usually disappears when exposure stops.
Controversy exists as to the role exposure to dust has in the development of chronic bronchitis (inflammation of the air passages into the lungs). Other factors such as smoking and general air pollution are more important, but dust exposure may also contribute.(17)

Carcinogenicity:

Zinc is not known to be carcinogenic.
In a study of 978 men, who worked in a zinc refinery for at least 1 year between 1946 and 1975, the causes of death were examined for the 73 men who had died. There was no increase in mortality from cancer. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn because number of employees evaluated was small. There was also minimal exposure to arsenic and antimony reported.(31)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Zinc is an essential element for normal fetal growth and development. Non-occupational studies of mothers given zinc supplements during pregnancy have not shown developmental effects.(19) The few reports of developmental effects in humans attributed to zinc exposure located in the literature contain very few details and inconclusive. Animal studies with zinc compounds suggest that developmental toxicity will not occur in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for zinc dust or powder. The limited animal and human information available does not indicate that zinc compounds, in general, cause reproductive toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
Zinc is not known to be mutagenic. There is no human, animal or in vitro information available for zinc powder. Information for other zinc compounds, for the most part, suggests that zinc is not mutagenic. However, zinc sulfate has produced positive results in a well-conducted test using live animals. Positive results (micronucleus, chromosome aberrations) were observed in tests on workers employed in zinc industries. However, because these workers were also exposed to compounds such as lead and cadmium, no conclusions can be drawn about zinc.(4,33,34)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
When zinc is absorbed into the body, it interacts with other trace elements, especially copper. It also competes with other metals, such as lead or mercury, which may sometimes reduce the harmful effects of these metals.(4)

Potential for Accumulation:
Zinc can accumulate in the body. Intestinal absorption of zinc can vary widely following oral administration (in animals ranges of less than 10 to over 90% are reported) and is influenced by age and a number of dietary factors. Zinc is stored mainly in the muscle and bone, and also in the prostate, liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, skin, lung, brain, heart and pancreas.(16,35) In humans ingesting normal amounts of zinc, the reported half-lives have ranged from 100-500 days.(30) The body regulates the amount of zinc stored by decreasing absorption and increasing excretion when intake is increased.(8) It is excreted mainly in the feces.(30)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation occurs, wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Eye Contact:
DO NOT allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s).

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable. Does not form a vapour.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Electrical Conductivity:
Zinc is a fair conductor of electricity.(15)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Zinc oxide and zinc oxide fumes (13)

Flammable Properties:

Extinguishing Media:
Use approved Class D extinguishing agents, or smother fire with dry sand, dry ground limestone, or dry clay.(13)

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
DO NOT use water, carbon dioxide, sodium bicarbonate, halogenated extinguishing agents, dry chemical powder, or foam.(15,26) Zinc powder or dust may react violently with these extinguishing agents.(26)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance.
Move containers from the fire area if it can be done without risk. Burning zinc powder reacts violently with the common extinguishing agents, listed above. Confine and smother fire, if possible. Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion.
Small fires can be controlled by the recommended extinguishing agents, but large fires may be impossible to extinguish. In this case isolate the fire, protect surroundings and allow the fire to burn itself out.
Cool fire-exposed containers and tanks, by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Take extreme care not to get water inside a container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety devices or discoloration of tank. Always stay away from the ends of tanks
In an advanced or massive fire in a large area, immediately evacuate the area and use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 65.37

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 419.5 deg C (787.1 deg F) (1,2,27)
Boiling Point: 908 deg C (1666.4 deg F) (2,27)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 7.133 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (solid) (1)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (2,3)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acids (e.g. acetic acid) and alkalis (reacts); insoluble in organic solvents.(2,3,15)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.47 (estimated) (28)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Practically zero at 25 deg C (27)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: 2.48 X 10(3) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 2.45 X 10(-2) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (27); log H = 0 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable when dry.(37) Zinc dust or powder readily forms a protective coating of zinc carbonate in air, making it resistant to oxidation by air and reducing its flammability hazard.(12,37)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Pyrophoric Properties:
The extent of pyrophoric properties is dependent on many factors such as manufacturing process, size of particles, amount of material and packaging. Zinc dust and powder will not be pyrophoric if a protective coating of zinc carbonate has formed.

Flammable Gases Released Upon Contact with Water:
Hydrogen gas

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


ACIDS (e.g. hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid or acetic acid) - flammable hydrogen gas is evolved on reaction with zinc dust or powder. The heat of the reaction may be sufficient to ignite the hydrogen gas.(10,11,26)
WATER or DAMP AIR - reacts slowly to give off hydrogen gas.(1,37)
ALKALI HYDROXIDES (e.g. potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide) - reaction may generate heat and ignite zinc dust.(11,26)
OXIDIZING MATERIALS (e.g. metal oxides, such as potassium dioxide, titanium dioxide or potassium, sodium or zinc peroxides, peroxyformic acid, potassium chlorate or potassium nitrate) - reactions with powdered zinc may incandesce, ignite, react violently or explode.(10,11)
NITRIC ACID - reacts rapidly with the evolution of nitrogen oxides.(12,37)
HALOCARBONS (e.g. hexachloroethane or carbon tetrachloride) - can react explosively if heated.(11)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, fluorine or iodine) - ignition occurs in the presence of moisture.(10,11)
INTER HALOGENS (e.g. bromine pentafluoride or chlorine trifluoride) - contact with zinc at ambient or slightly elevated temperatures is violent, ignition often occurring(10,11)
AMMONIUM SULFIDE - extremely toxic and flammable hydrogen sulfide and flammable hydrogen liberated during the reaction.(11)
SULFUR - powdered mixture of zinc and sulfur reacts violently or explodes when warmed.(1,10,11)
NITROGEN COMPOUNDS (e.g. hydrazinium nitrate or hydroxyl amine) - mixtures may ignite or explode.(10,11)
CHROMIC ANHYDRIDE - may cause a violent reaction or flames.(10)
AMMONIUM NITRATE, or AMMONIUM NITRATE AND AMMONIUM CHLORIDE - mixtures with zinc dust ignite when moistened.(10,11)
LEAD AZIDE - on prolonged contact with zinc or its alloys, forms traces of the extremely sensitive zinc azide, which may initiate detonation of the whole mass of azide.(10,11)
MANGANESE CHLORIDE - reacts explosively when heated with zinc powder.(10)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ARSENIC, SELENIUM, TELLURIUM OR CADMIUM - react with incandescence.(10,11)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen gas

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of dust, moisture, heat, sparks, flames or other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Zinc is not corrosive to metals. Zinc powder is used as a protective coating on iron and steel for corrosion protection.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Zinc powder or dust does not attack plastics or elastomers.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

There is no specific animal toxicity information available for elemental zinc dust or zinc powder. Animal studies have been conducted with various zinc compounds. These studies are summarized in the CHEMINFO reviews of the specific compounds.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Anemia has been observed in animals following ingestion of zinc compounds at doses as low as 12 mg zinc/kg/day for four weeks.(2) Harmful effects on the intestines, blood and kidneys, and deaths, have been observed at higher doses (approximately 170-310 mg Zn/kg/day) in a limited study using ferrets.(2)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Harmful effects on the blood (anemia) and kidneys have been observed following long-term oral exposure to zinc compounds (greater than 150 mg Zn/kg/day). Harmful effects on the pancreas and stomach have also been observed at higher doses. Minor effects on the adrenal gland, pancreas and pituitary gland have been observed at a lower dose (70 mg Zn/kg/day).(2,3)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Goodwin, F.E. Zinc and zinc alloys. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 25. John Wiley and Sons, 1998. p. 789-839
(2) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for zinc (Update). TP-93/15. Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services, May 1994
(3) Prasad, A.S., et al. Essentiality and toxicity of zinc. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environmental Health. Vol. 19, suppl. 1 (1993). p. 134-136
(4) Leonard, A., et al. Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of zinc. Mutation Research. Vol. 168, no. 3 (1986). p. 343-353
(5) Prodan, C.I., et al. CNS demyelination from zinc toxicity? Neurology. Vol. 54, no. 8 (Apr. 2000). p. 1705-1706
(6) Batchelor, R.P., et al. A clinical and laboratory investigation of the effect of metallic zinc, of zinc oxide and of zinc sulphide upon the health of workmen. Journal of Industrial Hygiene. Vol. 8, no. 8 (1926). p. 322-363
(7) Malo, J.L., et al. Acute lung reaction due to zinc inhalation. European Respiratory Journal. Vol. 3, no. 1 (1990). p. 111-114
(8) Walsh, C.T., et al. Zinc: health effects and research priorities for the 1990s. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 102, suppl. 2 (1994). p. 5-46
(9) Fisher, D. Zinc. In: Hazardous Materials Toxicology: Clinical Principles of Environmental Health. Edited by J.B. Sullivan, et al. Williams and Wilkins, 1992. p. 865-868
(10) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 491
(11) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(12) Graf, G.G. Zinc. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 28. VCH Publishers, 1996. p. 509-530
(13) Zinc dust, less than 10 micron, 98+%. Sigma-Aldrich Website. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Date updated: 2002-07. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/suite7/homepage/New_Site_Redirect.html> (Password required)
(14) Jakubowski, M. Zinc and cadmium: zinc and compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 2. Toxicological issues related to metals: neurotoxicity and radiation, metals and metal compounds. John Wiley & Sons, 2001. p. 253-269
(15) US National Library of Medicine. Zinc, elemental. Last revision date: 2002-01-14. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Issue: 2002-2. Also available from World Wide Web: <http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(16) Cleven, R.F.M.J., et al. Integrated criteria document zinc. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection Bilthoven. Aug. 1993
(17) Wright, G.W. The pulmonary effects of inhaled inorganic dust. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. 1. Part A. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. p. 308-309, 317-318
(18) Schiffer, R.B., et al. A multiple sclerosis cluster associated with a small, north-central Illinois community. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 56, no. 5 (Sept. 2001). p. 389-395
(19) Barceloux, D.G. Zinc. Journal of Toxicology. Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 37, no. 2 (1999). p. 279-292
(20) Gorell, J.M., et al. Occupational exposures to metals as risk factors for Parkinson's disease. Neurology. Vol. 48, no. 3 (Mar. 1997). p. 650-658
(21) Seidler, A., et al. Possible environmental, occupational, and other etiologic factors for Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Germany. Neurology. Vol. 46, no. 5 (May 1996). p. 1275-1284
(22) Field, P. Dust explosions. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1982. p. 220, 227
(23) Field, P. Explosibility assessment of industrial powders and dusts. Building Research Establishment, 1983. p. 51, 52
(24) Schwab, R.F. Dusts. In: Fire protection handbook. Edited by G.P. McKinnon. 15th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1981. p. 4-84 to 4-97
(25) Grossel, S.S. Safety considerations in conveying of bulk solids and powders. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Vol. 1 (Apr. 1988). p. 62-74
(26) Zinc (powder, pyrophoric). In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 929
(27) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(28) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(29) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(30) Elindar, C.-G. Zinc. In: Handbook on the toxicology of metals. 2nd ed. Vol. II: Specific metals. Edited by L. Friberg et al. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1986. p. 664-679
(31) Logue, J.N., et al. A historical prospective mortality study of workers in copper and zinc refineries. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 24, no. 5 (May 1982). p. 398-408
(32) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Zinc. Environmental Health Criteria 221. World Health Organization, 2001
(33) Hamurcu, Z., et al. Micronucleus frequencies in workers exposed to lead, zinc and cadmium. Biological Trace Element Research. Vol. 83, no. 2 (Nov. 2001). p. 97-102
(34) Deknudt, G., et al. Cytogenetic investigation on leucocytes of workers from a cadmium plant. Environmental Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. 5, no. 5 (1975). p. 319-327
(35) Summary review of health effects associated with zinc and zinc oxide. Health Issue Assessment. Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Research Triangle Park. EPA/600/8-87/022F. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 1987
(36) Stein, E.C., et al. Multiple sclerosis and the workplace : report of an industry-based cluster. Neurology. Vol. 37, no. 10. p. 1672-1677
(37) Zinc. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 1809-1810
(38) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates (including zinc). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Feb. 2002. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc>
(39) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metal and Metalloid Particulates (including zinc). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Sept. 2002. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc>
(40) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Zinc and Compounds, as Zn. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(41) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Elements by ICP. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.htm>
(42) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated, Total. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-01-04



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