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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 7
CCOHS Chemical Name: Stoddard solvent

Synonyms:
Mineral spirits
White spirits
High flash naphtha
Safety solvent naphtha

Chemical Name French: Solvant Stoddard
Chemical Name Spanish: Disolvente de stoddard
CAS Registry Number: 8052-41-3
RTECS Number(s): WJ8925000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 232-489-3
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex mixture. See Composition/Purity.
Structural Formula: Not applicable

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a kerosene or hydrocarbon odour.

Odour Threshold:
below 1 ppm (5 mg/m3) (2,3)

Warning Properties:
Fair - Odour is detectable below exposure limit, but perception of odour may decline with continuing exposure.(2)

Composition/Purity:
The term "Stoddard solvent" does not apply to one specific solvent, but rather to a broad group of solvents. These are defined as refined petroleum distillates with a minimum flash point of approximately 37.7 deg C, and a distillation range of approximately 149-204.5 deg C (300-400 deg F). There are four classes of Stoddard solvent, regular, odourless, low end-point and 140 flash. All are complex mixtures of hydrocarbons with 48 percent straight and branched chain paraffins (C9-C12), 38 percent cycloparaffins and 14 percent aromatics.(5) Commercial preparations contain less than 10 ppm benzene.

Uses and Occurrences:
Solvent and thinner for paints, varnishes and other coatings; dry-cleaning agent; manufacture of pesticides, cleaners and aerosol products; cleaning and degreasing metal and leather; solvent in the textile industry; extraction of fats and oils; in rubber cements and polishes; and tackifying agent for rubber.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a kerosene-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. Liquid can accumulate static charge. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances and accumulate in low-lying areas. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Central nervous system depressant. Vapour may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness and death. Causes skin irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Vapours or mist can cause irritation and central nervous system (CNS) effects, such as headache, dizziness, intellectual impairment and fatigue.(7,8,12,13,16) No effect was seen in volunteers exposed for 15 minutes to 24 or 150 ppm (2) or in volunteers exposed for 3-5 minutes to 400 ppm.(7) Slight dizziness was experienced by two of six volunteers exposed to 470 ppm for 15 minutes.(2) Eye, nose and throat irritation as well as headache, tiredness and giddiness were experienced by painters (a group identified as previously exposed for long periods to Stoddard solvent) exposed for 7 hours to 100 ppm. High exposure concentrations (200-400 ppm) were required to produce the same effects in a group of students who had no previous exposure. Short-term memory was affected in painters exposed for 7 hours to 50 or 100 ppm, but not in students exposed to concentrations as high as 400 ppm; long-term memory was affected in students exposed to 400 ppm.(12) In another study, reaction time was increased and short-term memory impaired after volunteers were exposed for 35-40 minutes to about 700 ppm. However, no effect was seen at concentrations of about 400 ppm or less.(13)

Skin Contact:
Stoddard solvent is a moderate skin irritant, based on animal information. Repeated or prolonged exposure may result in contact dermatitis.(9,30)

Eye Contact:
The vapour, mist and liquid can cause mild eye irritation. All six volunteers exposed for 15 minutes to 470 ppm experienced eye irritation (three with tears); one of six volunteers had slight, temporary eye irritation when exposed to 150 ppm and no effects were seen at the 24 ppm level.(2) In another study, no irritation was seen when volunteers were exposed for 3-5 minutes to 400 ppm.(7) Mild temporary eye irritation was seen in one of six volunteers exposed for 15 minutes to about 17-49 ppm 140 degree flash aliphatic solvent (a type of Stoddard Solvent).(3) The liquid has caused mild irritation in an animal study.

Ingestion:
Animal studies indicate the oral toxicity of Stoddard solvent is low. However, it is very hazardous if even a few mL are aspirated (breathed into the lungs). Aspiration can occur easily with Stoddard solvent during ingestion or vomiting. It can cause severe lung injury and may even be fatal. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Nervous System:
Chronic organic solvent intoxication is the name given to a pattern of nervous system effects resulting from heavy exposure to a variety of organic solvents. It is a rare condition and seems to develop only after repeated overexposures. Symptoms include headache, dizziness, reduced memory, tiredness, joint pain, sleep disturbances, pain, numbness and tingling in the fingers and toes, decreased manual dexterity, depression, irritability, emotional instability, reduced ability to concentrate and nausea.(26,27) The severe forms of chronic organic solvent intoxication may be reversible or only slowly reversible.(26) Studies of painters suggest that long-term exposure (mean exposure 22 to 27 years) to organic solvents, such as Stoddard solvent, may cause chronic organic solvent intoxication.(19,20) These painters were exposed to many different chemicals, over many years, and it is not possible to relate these effects to any one chemical.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact with the skin can cause irritation. Case reports indicate that when Stoddard solvent is allowed to remain in close contact with skin, as when clothing wet with Stoddard solvent is worn, blisters and sores may develop.(8,9)

Kidneys/Urinary System:
There is one case report of a worker developing kidney injury after intense, unprotected skin and inhalation exposures to Stoddard solvent 6 hours/day for one year. The worker experienced significant acute toxicity as a result of this exposure.(15)

Liver:
There is one case report (1940) of a worker developing liver injury, as well as anemia and stomach disorders, after working with his hands immersed or wet with Stoddard solvent for 3 months.(14) The worker was employed in the dry-cleaning industry and was exposed to other chemicals at the same time. An association of liver injury with exposure to organic solvents, such as Stoddard solvent, was found in one study of house painters.(16) The painters were also exposed to many other chemicals and it is not possible to draw any conclusions from this study.

Blood/Blood Forming System:
Decreased bone marrow cell production (aplastic anemia) has been seen in people exposed repeatedly for long periods (months to years) to Stoddard solvent. This condition was fatal in 4 of 5 case reports. It has been suggested that the presence of benzene may have been responsible for the aplastic anemia. Benzene exposure is recognized as a cause of aplastic anemia. Current commercial products of Stoddard solvent contain only trace amounts of benzene (less than 10 ppm).(17,18)

Carcinogenicity:

IARC has reviewed the carcinogenicity of petroleum solvents (including Stoddard solvent in a sub-group of white spirits). IARC concluded that petroleum solvents are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans.(30)
Subsequent studies of carcinogenicity patterns in people working in the dry cleaning and laundry industry show an increase in various cancers including kidney and bladder cancer.(28) However, these studies are extremely difficult to evaluate because the workers were exposed to many different solvents, including tetrachloroethylene, a suspected carcinogen.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

(petroleum solvents)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Two studies have made associations between exposure to white spirit (Stoddard solvent) and birth defects. No conclusions can be drawn because of small numbers, other exposures and other limiting factors.(3)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information available

Mutagenicity:
Not mutagenic when tested on cultured human blood cells (in vitro).(4) Also negative in animal studies and a bacterial test.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information available

Potential for Accumulation:
Because of its solubility in fat, Stoddard solvent may accumulate in fat to some extent.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, properly trained personnel should begin artificial respiration or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs. (240 to 300 ml) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a physician and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Minimum value: 37.7-39 deg C (100-102 deg F) (closed cup).(5,29,31)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.9% (24)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
6% (2)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
229 deg C (444 deg F) (24); 232 deg C (450 deg F) (29)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Specific information is not available. By comparison to other hydrocarbons, Stoddard solvent may accumulate static charge by flow or agitation, since hydrocarbons have low electrical conductivities.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 37.7 deg C. Liquid can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Containers may explode in heat of fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite and cause an explosion. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surround area, let the fire burn itself out.
If a leak has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the gas and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. Caution must be used in approaching the fire and applying water.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Although Stoddard solvent is only slightly hazardous to health, its decomposition products are hazardous. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Approximately 150

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = approx 6.1 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = approx 0.16 ppm (at 25 deg C) (calc.)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -70 deg C (-94 deg F) (freezing point) (10)
Boiling Point: Boiling range: 149-204.5 deg C (300-400 deg F).
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.78 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (31)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in benzene, absolute ethanol, diethyl ether, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide and most organic solvents.(5,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log Poct - 3.16-7.06 (31)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 5 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.53-0.6 kPa (4-4.5 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (31)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 5260-6000 ppm (0.53-0.6%) at 25 deg C (calc.)
Evaporation Rate: 0.1 (butyl acetate = 1) (23)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine, chromium trioxide, nitric acid, peroxides, permanganates) - may react violently or explosively. Increased risk of fire.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None known

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 5500 mg/m3 (880 ppm) (whole body exposure for 4 hours) (1)
LC50 (rat): greater than 1300 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 8.2 mg/L (8-hour exposure) (1/15 rats died)(2)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 5000 mg/kg (1)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 3000 mg/kg (1)

Eye Irritation:

Stoddard solvent is a mild eye irritant.

Caused minimal irritation in rabbits when 0.1 mL was applied in a standard Draize test.(1)

Skin Irritation:

Stoddard solvent is a moderate skin irritant.

In a standard Draize test, application of 0.5 mL of Stoddard solvent (boiling range 160.6-199.4 deg C) to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits for 24 hours caused moderate irritation (scored 4.5/8).(1) The detailed unpublished report on this study shows that the maximum score was 5.0/8 at 24 hours, with scores of 2.0/4 for erythema and 2.7/4 for edema following application to intact skin.(34) Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted Low Aromatic White Spirits to the clipped skin of 6 rabbits for 4 hours caused moderate irritation and slight edema. One inflammatory response had regressed 14 days after the application.(32, unconfirmed) White spirits (unidentified composition) was tested for skin irritation in rabbits using the Official French guidelines for testing cosmetics, Association Française de Normalisation (1982) (AFNOR) and OECD test methods. Primary cutaneous irritation index (PCI) scores obtained were as follows: Cosmetics: 2.21/8 (moderately irritating; 23 hour contact); AFNOR: 2.56/8 (slightly irritating; 4 hour contact) and OECD: 2.58/8 (slightly irritating; 4 hour contact).(33) Application of 0.5 mL recycled Stoddard solvent (from a dry-cleaning plant) to the intact and abraded skin of 6 rabbits produced mild skin irritation (1.55/8).(9)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Short-term animal studies have shown depression of the central nervous system and irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Rats exposed for an 8-hour period to 1400 ppm Stoddard solvent experienced eye irritation, developed a bloody discharge around the nose and showed signs of slight loss of coordination. Similar effects were seen in rats exposed for an 8-hour period to 800 ppm but there was no loss of coordination. No effect was seen in rats exposed for 8 hours to 420 ppm. A dog exposed for 8 hours to 1360 ppm experienced eye irritation and salivated and then developed tremors and muscle spasms. No effects were seen in another dog exposed for an 8-hour period to 700 ppm. Four cats exposed to 1700 ppm developed tremors and convulsions and finally died before the end of the 8-hour exposure period.(2) In another study, animals were exposed to a type of Stoddard solvent called 140 degrees flash aliphatic solvent. CNS effects (poor coordination, tremors, spasms) and death occurred following exposure of rats for up to 5.5 hours to 1630 ppm of the solvent. Only slight signs of discomfort were seen in rats exposed to up to 460 ppm for 8 hours, and in dogs exposed for 8 hours to 270 ppm or 33 ppm. No effects were seen in cats exposed for 6 hours to 70 or 1600 ppm.(3)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Long-term animal studies have shown only lung irritation and slight liver and kidney effects. Slight signs of kidney injury were seen in rats exposed to 190 to 330 ppm Stoddard solvent for 13 weeks. No outward signs of distress were seen. No effect was seen in dogs exposed to 84 to 330 ppm for 13 weeks.(2) No effects were seen in rats or dogs exposed for 14 weeks to concentrations up to 40 ppm of 140 degree flash aliphatic solvent (a type of Stoddard solvent).(3) Lung irritation (congestion, emphysema) was seen in guinea pigs exposed 8 hours/day, 5 days/week, for a total of 30 exposures, to 215 ppm. No effects were noted in rats, rabbits, dogs or monkeys exposed in the same manner. No effects were seen in any of the animals exposed for the same period to 95 ppm.(6) In a 90-day continuous exposure study, lung injury (bronchitis, inflammation) was seen in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and monkeys exposed to 200 ppm. Mild to moderate liver effects were also seen in guinea pigs exposed to 80 and 200 ppm. The death rate for guinea pigs exposed to 60 ppm or higher was excessive. No significant effects were seen in rats, rabbits, dogs or monkeys exposed to 20 to 100 ppm or in guinea pigs exposed to 20 or 40 ppm.(6)

Skin Sensitization:
No sensitization seen when tested on guinea pigs.(2)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No fetal effects were reported following maternal exposure of rats to 100 or 300 ppm white spirits 6 hours/day during pregnancy. No further details were reported.(30) No effects wee obtained in another study with exposures up to 950 ppm, in spite of maternal toxicity.(30)

Mutagenicity:
Stoddard solvent injected into mice, or rat bone marrow, did not produce chromosomal aberrations. It did not induce mutations in sperm of male rats exposed prior to mating.(4,30)
No mutagenicity was seen in tests with bacteria or mouse lymphoma cells.(4,30)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Vernot, E.H., et al. Acute toxicologic evaluation of Stoddard solvent. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B. Vol. 1 (1990). p. 32-33
(2) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies. III. Animal and human response to vapors of Stoddard solvent. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 32 (1975). p. 282-297
(3) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies. VIII. Animal and human response to vapours of "140 degrees flash aliphatic solvent. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 34 (1975). p. 413-429
(4) Gochet, B., et al. Lack of mutagenic activity of white spirit. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 53 (1984). p. 359-364
(5) Stoddard solvent. In : Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. ACGIH, 1991. p. 1428-1430
(6) Rector, D.E., et al. Effects on experimental animals of long-term inhalation exposure to mineral spirits. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 9 (1966). p. 257-268
(7) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (Sept. 1943). p. 282-285
(8) Larsen, L.B., et al. Occupational health case report - no. 6. Stoddard solvent. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 16, no. 4 (Apr. 1974). p. 276-278
(9) Nethercott, J.R., et al. Genital ulceration due to Stoddard solvent. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 22, no. 8 (Aug. 1980). p. 549-552
(10) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 21. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1983. p. 380-381
(11) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 286-287
(12) Cohr, K-H., et al. Neurologic response to white spirit exposure. Mechanisms of toxicity and hazard evaluation. Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1980. p. 95-102
(13) Gamberale, F., et al. Exposure to white spirit II. Psychological functions. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health. Vol. 1 (1975). p. 31-39
(14) Braunstein, L.E., et al. Subacute yellow atrophy of the liver due to solvent. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 114, no. 2 (1940). p. 136-138
(15) Daniell, W.E., et al. Occupational solvent exposure and glomerulonephritis. A case report and review of the literature. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 249, no. 15 (Apr. 1988). p. 2280-2283
(16) Dossing, M., et al. Liver damage associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents in house painters. European Journal of Clinical Investigation. Vol. 13 (1983). p. 151-157
(17) Scott, J.L., et al. Acquired aplastic anemia : an analysis of thirty- nine cases and review of the pertinent literature. Medicine. Vol. 38. 1959. p. 119-172
(18) Prager, D., et al. Development of aplastic anemia and the exposure to Stoddard solvent. Blood. Vol. 35, no. 3 (Mar. 1970). p. 286-287
(19) Arlien-Soborg, P., et al. Cerebral blood flow in chronic toxic encephalopathy in house painters exposed to organic solvents. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Vol. 66 (1982). p. 34-41
(20) Arlien-Soborg, P., et al. Chronic painters' syndrome : chronic toxic encephalopathy in house painters. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica. Vol. 60, no. 3 (1979). p. 149-156
(21) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(22) Shell Oil CL-499 (Shell Canada Products Limited). Printout from MSDS database, 1990-02-14
(23) Petrosol 3139 (Petro-Canada Inc). Printout from MSDS database, 1990-12- 01
(24) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(25) Occupational health guidelines for chemical hazards. NIOSH/OSHA, 1981. p. 1
(26) Antti-Poika, N. Prognosis of symptoms in patients with diagnosed chronic organic solvent intoxication. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 51 (1982). p. 81-89
(27) Pedersen, L.M., et al. Solvent induced occupational myopathy. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 22, no. 9 (1980). p. 603-606
(28) Rothman, N., et al. 7. The carcinogenic potential of selected petroleum-derived products. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Vol. 3, no. 3 (July-Sept. 1988). p. 475-494
(29) Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. Revised by R. J. Lewis, Sr. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1993. p. 1091
(30) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 47, 1989. International Agency for Research on Cancer. p. 43-77
(31) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(32) International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS). White spirit. Environmental Health Criteria Document 187. World Health Organization, 1996
(33) Guillot, J.P., et al. Evaluation of the cutaneous-irritation potential of 56 compounds. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 20 (1982). p. 563-572
(34) Hazelton Labs Amer Inc. Acute oral toxicity, acute dermal toxicity, dermal irritation, eye irritation and dermal sensitization studies preformed with the following: API 83-16, 85-01 and 83-20 W/LE. American Petroleum Instititue. Date produced: Aug. 1986. EPA/OTS FYI-AX-0586-0371. NTIS/OTS0000371-5.

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-03-25

Revision Indicators:
Resistance of materials 1998-05-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Comments 1998-11-01
NFPA (health) 2003-04-14
LFL/LEL 2003-04-14
Autoignition temp 2003-04-14
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-06
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-06
Bibliography 2004-02-09
Toxicological info 2004-02-09
Short-term skin contact 2004-02-09
Short-term eye contact 2004-02-09
WHMIS detailed classification 2004-02-09
OSHA hazcom 2004-02-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28



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