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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 157
CCOHS Chemical Name: 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

Synonyms:
Methyl chloroform
Methyltrichloromethane
1,1,1-TCE
alpha-Trichloroethane
Trichloromethylmethane
Trichloroethane (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: 1,1,1-Trichloro éthane
Chemical Name Spanish: 1,1,1-Tricloroetano

Trade Name(s):
Aerothene TT
Chlorothene NU
Chlorothene SM
Chlorothene VG

CAS Registry Number: 71-55-6
UN/NA Number(s): 2831
RTECS Number(s): KJ2975000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-756-3
Chemical Family: Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon / saturated halogenated hydrocarbon / halogenated alkane / haloalkane / trihaloalkane
Molecular Formula: C2-H3-Cl3
Structural Formula: CH3-C-Cl3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless, volatile liquid with a characteristic chloroform-like odour.(3)

Odour Threshold:
120 ppm (method not specified) (5); 385 ppm (detection) (18); 790 ppm (recognition) (18)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - Odour threshold about the same magnitude as the TLV

Composition/Purity:
1,1,1-Trichloroethane is available commercially in technical and solvent grades, which differ only in the amount of stabilizer added to prevent corrosion of metal parts, particularly aluminum and aluminum alloys. Stabilizers used include 1,4-dioxane, 1,3-dioxolane, 1,2-butylene oxide, nitromethane, and secondary butyl alcohols. A very pure grade of greater than 99% purity is available.

Uses and Occurrences:
It is used as a solvent for metal degreasing, dry cleaning, natural and synthetic resins, oils, waxes, tar and alkaloids, in textile processing and in various formulations including adhesives, aerosols, coatings, cutting fluids and oils, printing inks, typewriter correction fluids, drain cleaners, shoe polishes, spot cleaners and stain removers, and as a carrier for aerosols. It is used in industry primarily for cold cleaning, dip cleaning, bucket cleaning, and vapour degreasing operations of items such as electrical equipment, motors, electronic components and instruments, missile hardware and printed circuit boards, and as an extraction solvent and chemical intermediate.(1,3,5,6)
1,1,1-Trichloroethane is included as a controlled substance in the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Under these provisions, the production and imports of this substance should have been phased out by 1996, except under certain exemptions as provided for in the Protocol.
1,1,1-Trichloroethane has been given an ozone depletion potential of 0.1, which is 10 times lower than most chlorofluorocarbons. It is included in the Montreal Protocol because of its large production for mainly emissive uses. Replacements are being used for a number of its common uses, such as metal and circuit-board cleaning.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, volatile liquid with a characteristic chloroform-like odour. Can probably burn if strongly heated, or ignited by a high energy source. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as hydrogen chloride, chlorine and phosgene. Closed containers may rupture and explode if heated. Confined space hazard. Causes lung injury--effects may be delayed. Central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and confusion. Very high vapour concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. Causes skin irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCE) causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS). Early symptoms of CNS depression (dizziness, light-headedness) have been reported at 450 to 900 ppm. Disturbances in equilibrium occurred at 1900 ppm with marked incoordination at 5000 ppm. Higher exposures produced unconsciousness leading to death from respiratory failure or severe cardiac arrhythmia due to sensitization of the heart to epinephrine. Neurobehavioural studies have shown reduced performance on some tests, for example reduced reaction time, during exposures in the range of 350 to 500 ppm.(3,4)
There have been several work fatalities, most of which involve confined spaces (rooms, tanks, vaults). 1,1,1-TCE is very volatile, and its vapours are much heavier than air (5 times). Concentrations immediately above liquid solvent surfaces (including solvent soaked rags, spills) or at the bottom of tanks, may be much higher than elsewhere. The most common findings on autopsy has been fluid accumulation (edema) in the lungs. In workers who survived acute exposures, there were no signs of liver, kidney or heart toxicity.(3,4) Deaths have also occurred in some people who have intentionally inhaled large amounts of 1,1,1-TCE to alter mood or consciousness.(3,4,5)

Skin Contact:
Immersion of the hand in liquid 1,1,1-TCE for 30 minutes produced a burning sensation, but only mild redness which lasted one hour.(5) Prolonged or repeated contact may result in dermatitis due to defatting of the skin.(3) Animals studies indicate that 1,1,1-TCE is a slight to moderate skin irritant. There is minimal absorption of 1,1,1-TCE through the skin and this is not considered to be a major route of exposure.(4)
There is one case report of allergic contact dermatitis in a worker exposed to 1,1,1-TCE.(8) It is not possible to draw any conclusions from this single report.

Eye Contact:
1,1,1-TCE produces only mild, temporary irritation on direct contact. The vapour has been reported to be mildly irritating above 350 ppm.(3,4) Studies with rabbits indicate that 1,1,1-TCE causes mild to no irritation.(2,3,5)

Ingestion:
Accidental ingestion of about 1 ounce (600 mg/kg) produced severe vomiting and diarrhea for 6 hours after ingestion, but no signs of CNS disturbances. Follow-up studies indicated no evidence of liver or kidney injury.(3,4,5)
Although there are no case reports of aspiration, it was induced in rats in one study.(17) In addition, based on its physical properties (viscosity and surface tension), it seems likely that 1,1,1-TCE can be aspirated. Aspiration is the inhalation of a material into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting. Severe lung irritation, damage to the lung tissues and death may result.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There have been few studies which assessed effects of long-term exposure. One epidemiologic study looked at specific health parameters (in particular, the heart and liver), and found no significant differences associated with exposure.(9) About 45% of the workers had estimated Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposures in the range 150-259 ppm, while 55% had TWA exposures from less than 15 ppm to 149 ppm. This study was limited by the duration of exposure (less than 6 years). Another study examined a small group (22) of workers and found no significant differences in results of neurological testing.(3,4) This study was also limited by short exposure duration (6 years).

CARDIAC EFFECTS: Studies with solvent abusers have established that severe cardiac arrhythmias may result from cardiac sensitization, where the heart has an increased response to circulating epinephrine. In these cases, exposures by far exceeded occupational relevant levels.(10) There is one case report of chronic cardiac damage that was associated with approximately 5 years of undefined 1,1,1-TCE exposure.(11) There appeared to be a toxic interaction following medical administration of a halothane anaesthetic. However, no conclusions can be drawn because previous health status and work history were not documented.

LIVER EFFECTS: No conclusions can be drawn about the potential effects of 1,1,1-TCE on the liver. Various studies have evaluated liver enzyme levels as indicators of liver damage. Some studies found changes while others did not.(5) Four case studies of liver disease in people who had some exposure to 1,1,1-TCE, have been described in one report.(12) Many aspects of this report have been questioned.(13) In another case report, there was also extensive previous exposure to trichloroethylene.(3) Liver effects have been observed in some animals studies at high exposures.

NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: Some recent studies using sensitive neurobehavioural tests have shown altered scores for exposed volunteers and workers. However, whether or not these results indicate nervous system damage is not clear. Other studies have not shown any changes.(3,4,5,14,15) There is one report of two cases of peripheral neuropathy (numbness and disturbance in sensation) following extensive short-term dermal contact. The effects were persistent.(16)
There are indications from epidemiological studies that exposure to solvents in general may cause chronic neurological changes. However, it is not possible to implicate any one solvent, nor to separate effects from previous exposures to current exposures.

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in humans. An increased risk of central nervous system and multiple myeloma was reported from a study of almost 4000 employees. These findings were not confirmed in two other studies. However, an increased risk for cancer of the lung and kidney was shown in a limited study. IARC has concluded there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in experimental animals.(24)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
A series of epidemiological studies examined the possibility that well water contaminated with 1,1,1-TCE, as well as other chemicals, was responsible for an increased occurrence of miscarriages and birth defects. The results indicated that exposure to chemicals in the well water were probably not responsible for the adverse pregnancy outcomes.(5) Animal evidence suggests that 1,1,1-TCE is not teratogenic at exposures which are not maternally toxic. Slight fetotoxicity (for example, reduced fetal weight) has been reported at doses which were not maternally toxic.(3,4,5,6)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available that relates specifically to 1,1,1-TCE. Animal evidence suggests that 1,1,1-TCE does not cause reproductive effects.(3,5)

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Evidence from studies using live animals suggests that 1,1,1-trichloroethane is not mutagenic.(3,4,5,24)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Studies with mice have shown that ethanol enhances the toxicity of 1,1,1-TCE.(5) This would also be expected in humans as it is common for other solvents.

Potential for Accumulation:
1,1,1-TCE is readily absorbed through the lungs. Absorption through the gastrointestinal tract and the skin also occurs, but is of less importance. Animal studies have shown that absorbed 1,1,1-TCE is distributed widely to body tissues, especially those with a high lipid (fat) content, such as brain and adipose tissue; it is also found in the liver, kidneys and other organs. It crosses the placental barrier and is found in the developing fetus. Less than 10% of absorbed dose is metabolized. In humans and animals, 1,1,1,-TCE is largely excreted unchanged through the lungs (greater than 90%) regardless of the route of exposure. The remainder is excreted as carbon dioxide in the expired air and as metabolites in the urine over a period of 12 days.(3,5)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice. If confined space incident, take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until chemical is removed. Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except under minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
None measurable by standard test methods. The vapour can be ignited by high-energy sources.(2)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
7.0 % (19); 7.5 % (19); 8.0 % (3,5,20)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
10.5 % (3,5,8); 12.5 % (19); 16.0 % (19)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
500 deg C (932 deg F) (20); 537 deg C (998.6 deg F) (3,5)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material; probably not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Probably not sensitive because of large amount of energy required for ignition.(2)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride and small amounts of chlorine and phosgene. Decomposes at high temperatures - greater than 260 to 300 deg C.(2,3)

Fire Hazard Summary:
1,1,1-Trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCE) is non-flammable under most conditions of use. However, it can probably burn if strongly heated. Although no flash point has been measured by standard tests, under certain circumstances, such as ignition by a high-energy source, for example a welding arc or hot wire ignition, 1,1,1-TCE can form combustible vapour-air mixtures (7-16%). For hot work purposes, 1,1,1-TCE should be regarded as flammable.(1,20) During a fire, irritating/toxic hydrogen chloride, chlorine and phosgene may be generated. 1,1,1-TCE can accumulate in a confined space, causing a toxicity hazard. Closed containers can explode in the heat of a fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Extinguish fire using agent suitable for surrounding fire.(19)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If products other than 1,1,1-TCE are burning, use extinguishing agents suitable for the surrounding fire. Water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep containers cool and protect exposed material.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Otherwise, apply cooling streams of water to sides of tanks or containers exposed to flames until well after the fire has been extinguished. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. Tanks or containers should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire or heated by exposure, until they have completely cooled down.
1,1,1-TCE and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 133.41

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.44 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.184 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -30.4 deg C (-22.7 deg F) (3,5); also reported as -33 deg C (-27.4 deg F) (5)
Boiling Point: 74.1 deg C (165.4 deg F) (3,5,6)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.3390 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (5)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (48 mg/100 mL) at 20 deg C (3)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acetone, ethanol, methanol, benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether.(3)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.49 (5)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 4.55 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 13.33 kPa (100 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (3,19); 16.53 kPa (124 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (5)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 131600 ppm (13.16%); 163184 ppm (16.32%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 12.8 (butyl acetate = 1) (1)
Critical Temperature: 311.5 deg C (592.4.47 deg F) (1)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 0.858 centipoises (0.858 mPa.s) at 20 deg C (1);
SURFACE TENSION: 25.4 dynes/cm (1)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 4.48 MPa (44.2 atmospheres) (1)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Pure 1,1,1-TCE is moderately stable. It reacts slowly with water to produce hydrochloric acid.(1)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


ALUMINUM AND ITS ALLOYS, MAGNESIUM AND ITS ALLOYS - Violent decomposition may occur in contact with aluminum or its alloys with magnesium, or in contact with magnesium or its alloys with aluminum.(20)
POTASSIUM AND ITS ALLOYS - Mixtures are shock-sensitive and may explode on light impact.(20)
POTASSIUM - SODIUM ALLOY - Mixtures are extremely shock-sensitive, more so than those with potassium alone.(20)
SODIUM, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE - Can form mixtures which are flammable or explosive.(19,20)
DINITROGEN TETROXIDE (NITROGEN DIOXIDE) - Can form explosive mixtures.(19,20)
OXYGEN (GAS, OR LIQUID) - Explosions have occurred under extreme conditions (such as high temperature and pressure, ignition by a high energy source).(19,20)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen chloride, hydrochloric acid, phosgene.

Conditions to Avoid:
Avoid open flames, welding arcs, hot surfaces, or other high temperature sources which can induce thermal decomposition or ignition. Avoid moisture.

Corrosivity to Metals:
1,1,1-TCE readily corrodes aluminum and aluminum alloys. Commercial products contain inhibitors to prevent corrosion. Dry uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE is not very corrosive to iron or zinc. The presence of water increases the corrosion rates.(1)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 16000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (2)
LC50 (male rat): 18400 ppm (4-hour exposure) (3)

LD50 (oral, male rat): 12900 mg/kg (uninhibited 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCE)); 14300 mg/kg (inhibited 1,1,1-TCE) (2)
LD50 (oral, female rat): 10300 mg/kg (uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE); 11000 mg/kg (inhibited 1,1,1-TCE) (2)
LD50 (oral, female mouse): 11200 mg/kg (uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE); 9700 mg/kg (inhibited 1,1,1-TCE) (2)
LD50 (oral, female rabbit): 5660 mg/kg (uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE) (2)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 15800 mg/kg failed to kill half of the 8 animals treated.(2)

Eye Irritation:

A single application of inhibited or uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE (0.1 mL) produced only slight irritation in rabbits and no corneal damage.(2) In another study, 0.1 mL produced slight irritation in rabbits.(3) In a survey where 10 laboratories conducted the Draize test using 1,1,1-TCE, little or no eye irritation was reported in rabbits.(5)

Skin Irritation:

In a standard Draize test, mild irritation (slight reddening and scaliness) resulted in rabbits from a single application of inhibited or uninhibited 1,1,1-TCE. Repeated application over a 12-day period caused only a slight increase in the reaction. There was rapid healing.(2) Application of 0.5 mL to shaved skin, under a dressing, for 24 hours resulted in moderate irritation in rabbits.(3,5)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Acute inhalation exposures produce depression of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by weakness and incoordination (at about 10,000 ppm) with unconsciousness leading to death at high concentrations. Deaths are due to respiratory or cardiac failure.(3,4,5) There have been extensive investigations with various species, on the effects of short-term exposure, all of which have indicated low toxicity. Exposures ranged up to 5000 ppm for periods from 5 days to 3 months both continuously and intermittently. In most cases, the only sign of toxicity was reduced body weight gain. Some effects on the liver have been noted at high doses. Fatty degeneration of the liver and increased liver weights have been reported in several studies with moderate to high exposures. In one study, mice exposed continuously for 14 weeks had liver changes and liver tissue death (necrosis) at 1000 ppm, but not at 250 ppm. Except for the necrosis reported in the one study, the liver effects were reversible.(3,4) Studies with rabbits and dogs have shown that 1,1,1-TCE produces a drop in blood pressure and cardiac arrhythmias due to sensitization of the heart to epinephrine. The effect is rapid, occurring only a few minutes after exposure, with recovery within 15 minutes, following cessation of exposure. As with other solvents, these effects are probably secondary to CNS depression following acute exposures to very high concentrations.(5) Neurobehavioural studies with rats have shown subtle effects on neuromuscular tests or learned behaviours. These effects have been readily reversible and could have been produced indirectly by effects on other systems. Studies with rats, mice or gerbils have demonstrated some effects on certain brain compounds or brain metabolism.(3,4,5) The significance of these effects is uncertain.

Ingestion:
Induced aspiration in rats caused acute pulmonary hemorrhage resulting in rapid death in half of the animals tested.(17)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that the evidence for carcinogenicity in animals was inadequate.(24) In two studies with oral dosing, there was no increase in tumour incidence with rats and some liver tumours for male mice, but these studies had a poor survival rate for both treated and control animals. Therefore, the results are inadequate for drawing any conclusions.(6,24) In another oral study, rats exposed for 2 years (500 mg/kg for 4 to 5 days/week) reportedly had an increased incidence of "leukaemias". However, the number of animals tested was relatively small (40 per sex), the data was not evaluated statistically and the data was not compared to historical controls.(3,5,24) In a study where rats were exposed by inhalation, the experiment was not reported completely and therefore the results could not be used even though no increase in tumour incidence was found.(6,24) In another inhalation study, rats and mice were exposed to 150, 500, or 1500 ppm for 2 years (6 hours/day, 5 days/week). There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in this study.(3,5,24)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Results of several studies indicate that 1,1,1-TCE is probably not teratogenic at exposures which are not maternally toxic. Slight fetotoxicity (for example, reduced fetal weight) has been reported at doses which were not maternally toxic.(3,4,5,6)
One inhalation study in rats exposed to 2100 ppm, found slight evidence of fetotoxicity (reduced fetal body weight and delayed skeletal development) but no teratogenicity and no maternal toxicity. In another study, similar effects were found at 6000 ppm in the presence of maternal toxicity, but not at 3000 ppm with no maternal toxicity. Rabbits exposed at 6000 ppm had reduced maternal weight gain and there was increased incidence of extra ribs.(5) One study with rats exposed orally via drinking water, reported cardiac anomalies in the pups. A follow-up study found similar effects, but these were not statistically significant, nor were they dose-related.(7) A further study with pups receiving comprehensive teratological examinations, found no embryotoxic or fetotoxic effects.(3,5) These were all low dose studies. A multi-generation study, where mice were exposed to 1,1,1-TCE in drinking water, also found no treatment-related embryotoxic or fetotoxic effects in 2 generations of offspring.(5)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Two studies have shown no reproductive effects following oral exposure via drinking water.
A multi-generation study exposed mice to 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg in drinking water, with no adverse effects on reproduction. Rats exposed to 3, 10, or 30 mg/L in drinking water also showed no reproductive effects.(3,5) Inhalation studies in several animal species, and a dermal study in rabbits, have found no adverse reproductive effects.(5)

Mutagenicity:
1,1,1-TCE has been extensively studied for mutagenicity. Although firm conclusions cannot be drawn due to limitations in the studies, indications are that it is not mutagenic.(3,4,5,24)
In vivo studies with rats (chromosome aberrations) and mice (bone marrow micronucleus, dominant lethal and sperm morphology) have all been negative.(3,4,5,24)
In vitro tests with bacteria, yeasts and cultured mammalian cells produced essentially negative results, both with and without metabolic activation. Where positive or ambiguous results were obtained, they were usually attributable to stabilizers or impurities.(3,4,5,24)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) HSDB record for 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Date of last update: 9309
(2) Torkelson, T.R., et al. Toxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane as determined on laboratory animals and human subjects. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 19, no. 8 (Oct. 1958). p. 353-362
(3) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Environmental health criteria 136. World Health Organization, 1992
(4) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. Toxicity review 9. Health and Safety Executive, 1984
(5) Toxicological profile for 1,1,1-trichloroethane. DRAFT. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993
(6) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 20. IARC, 1979. p. 515-531
(7) George, J.D., et al. Developmental toxicity of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in CD rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13 (1989). p. 641-651
(8) Ingber, A. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from methyl chloroform (1,1,1-trichloroethane). Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 25 (1991). p. 193
(9) Kramer, C.G., et al. Health of workers exposed to 1,1,1,-trichloroethane: a matched-pair study. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 33, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1978). p. 331-342
(10) Wilcosky, T.C., et al. Solvent exposure and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 19 (1991). P. 569-586
(11) McLeod, A.A., et al. Chronic cardiac toxicity after inhalation of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. British Medical Journal. Vol. 294 (Mar. 21, 1987). p. 727-729
(12) Hodgson, M.J., et al. Liver disease associated with exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol. 149, no. 8 (Aug. 1989). p. 1793-1798
(13) Guzelian, P.S. 1,1,1-Trichloroethane and the liver (letter). Archives of Internal Medicine. Vol. 151 (Nov. 1991). p. 2321-2322
(14) Salvini, M., et al. Evaluation of the psychophysiological functions in humans exposed to the "Threshold Limit Value" of 1,1,1-trichloroethane. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 28 (1971). p. 286-292
(15) Mackay, C.J., et al. Behavioral changes during exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane: time-course and relationship to blood solvent levels. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 11 (1987). p. 223-239
(16) Liss, G.M. Peripheral neuropathy in two workers exposed to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (letter). JAMA. Vol. 260, no. 15 (Oct. 21, 1988). p. 2217
(17) Dickerson, C.L., et al. Aspiration of methyl chloroform. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 24, no. 3 (June 1982). p. 167-168
(18) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 23, 67
(19) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(20) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th ed. Butterworths, 1990. p. 24-26, 246-247, 1288-1289, 1294, 1322, 1351-1352, 1372-1373, 1399-1400, 1407-1408, 1618, 1668, 1839
(21) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 202-203
(22) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(23) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(24) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999
(25) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 1,1,1-Trichloroethane. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(26) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hydrocarbons, Halogenated. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(27) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Volatile Organic Compounds (Screening). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1994-08-24

Revision Indicators:
Sampling 1995-10-01
Respiratory protection 1995-10-01
EU number 1995-10-01
EU class 1995-10-01
EU risk 1995-10-01
EU safety 1995-10-01
EU comments 1995-10-01
Bibliography 1995-10-01
TLV-TWA 1996-09-01
US transport 1998-03-01
Resistance of materials 1998-06-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Bibliography 1999-12-01
Carcinogenicity 1999-12-01
Mutagenicity 1999-12-01
Toxicological info 1999-12-01
WHMIS (detailed class) 1999-12-01
ERPG 2001-03-01
TDG 2002-05-27
Bibliography 2003-04-14
Extinguishing media 2003-04-14
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-06
PEL-STEL final 2003-11-06
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-06
TLV basis 2004-01-01
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28
Bibliography 2005-04-10
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-10
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-10



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