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Tributyltin compounds

1. NAME
   1.1 Substance
   1.2 Group
   1.3 Synonyms
   1.4 Identification numbers
      1.4.1 CAS number
   1.4.2 Other numbers
   1.5 Main brand names, main trade names
   1.6 Main manufacturers, main importers
2. SUMMARY
   2.1 Main risks and target organs
   2.2 Summary of clinical effects
   2.3 Diagnosis
   2.4 First-aid measures and management principles
3. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
   3.1 Origin of the substance
   3.2 Chemical structure
   3.3 Physical properties
      3.3.1 Colour
      3.3.2 State/form
      3.3.3 Description
   3.4 Hazardous characteristics
4. USES
   4.1 Uses
      4.1.1 Uses
      4.1.2 Description
   4.2 High risk circumstances of poisoning
   4.3 Occupationally exposed populations
5. ROUTES OF ENTRY
   5.1 Oral
   5.2 Inhalation
   5.3 Dermal
   5.4 Eye
   5.5 Parenteral
   5.6 Other
6. KINETICS
   6.1 Absorption by route of exposure
   6.2 Distribution by route of exposure
   6.3 Biological half-life by route of exposure
   6.4 Metabolism
   6.5 Elimination and excretion
7. TOXICOLOGY
   7.1 Mode of Action
   7.2 Toxicity
      7.2.1 Human data
         7.2.1.1 Adults
         7.2.1.2 Children
      7.2.2 Relevant animal data
      7.2.3 Relevant in vitro data
      7.2.4 Workplace standards
      7.2.5 Acceptable daily intake (ADI)
   7.3 Carcinogenicity
   7.4 Teratogenicity
   7.5 Mutagenicity
   7.6 Interactions
8. TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS
   8.1 Material sampling plan
      8.1.1 Sampling and specimen collection
         8.1.1.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.1.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.1.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.1.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.1.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.2 Storage of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.2.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.2.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.2.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.2.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.2.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
      8.1.3 Transport of laboratory samples and specimens
         8.1.3.1 Toxicological analyses
         8.1.3.2 Biomedical analyses
         8.1.3.3 Arterial blood gas analysis
         8.1.3.4 Haematological analyses
         8.1.3.5 Other (unspecified) analyses
   8.2 Toxicological analyses and their Interpretation
      8.2.1 Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material
         8.2.1.1 Simple qualitative test(s)
         8.2.1.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)
         8.2.1.3 Simple quantitative method(s)
         8.2.1.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)
      8.2.2 Tests for biological specimens
         8.2.2.1 Simple qualitative test(s)
         8.2.2.2 Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)
         8.2.2.3 Simple quantitative method(s)
         8.2.2.4 Advanced quantitative method(s)
         8.2.2.5 Other dedicated method(s)
      8.2.3 Interpretation of toxicological analyses
   8.3 Biomedical investigations and their interpretation
      8.3.1 Biochemical analysis
         8.3.1.1 Blood, plasma or serum
         8.3.1.2 Urine
         8.3.1.3 Other fluids
      8.3.2 Arterial blood gas analyses
      8.3.3 Haematological analyses
      8.3.4 Interpretation of biomedical investigations
   8.4 Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their interpretation
   8.5 Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and toxicological investigations
9. CLINICAL EFFECTS
   9.1 Acute poisoning
      9.1.1 Ingestion
      9.1.2 Inhalation
      9.1.3 Skin exposure
      9.1.4 Eye contact
      9.1.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.1.6 Other
   9.2 Chronic poisoning
      9.2.1 Ingestion
      9.2.2 Inhalation
      9.2.3 Skin exposure
      9.2.4 Eye contact
      9.2.5 Parenteral exposure
      9.2.6 Other
   9.3 Course, prognosis, cause of death
   9.4 Systematic description of clinical effects
      9.4.1 Cardiovascular
      9.4.2 Respiratory
      9.4.3 Neurological
         9.4.3.1 Central Nervous System (CNS)
         9.4.3.2 Peripheral nervous system
         9.4.3.3 Autonomic nervous system
         9.4.3.4 Skeletal and smooth muscle
      9.4.4 Gastrointestinal
      9.4.5 Hepatic
      9.4.6 Urinary
         9.4.6.1 Renal
         9.4.6.2 Other
      9.4.7 Endocrine and reproductive systems
      9.4.8 Dermatological
      9.4.9 Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects
      9.4.10 Haematological
      9.4.11 Immunological
      9.4.12 Metabolic
         9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances
         9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances
         9.4.12.3 Others
      9.4.13 Allergic reactions
      9.4.14 Other clinical effects
      9.4.15 Special risks
   9.5 Others
   9.6 Summary
10. MANAGEMENT
   10.1 General principles
   10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific treatment
   10.3 Decontamination
   10.4 Enhanced elimination
   10.5 Antidote treatment
      10.5.1 Adults
      10.6.2 Children
   10.6 Management discussion
11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES
   11.1 Case reports from literature
12. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
   12.1 Specific preventive measures
   12.2 Other
13. REFERENCES
14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE ADDRESSES



    TRIBUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS

    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    Group Poisons Information Monograph G018
    Chemical

    1.  NAME

        1.1  Substance

             Tributyltin compounds

        1.2  Group

             Tributyltin benzoate;
             Tributyltin chloride;
             Tributyltin fluoride;
             Tributyltin linoleate;
             Tributyltin methacrylate;
             Tributyltin naphthenate;
             Tributyltin oxide.

        1.3  Synonyms

             Tributyltin benzoate: TBTB; (benzyloxy) tributyl stannane
             Tributyltin chloride: TBTCl; Tributyl-chloro stannane
             Tributyltin fluoride: TBTF; Tributyl-fluoro stannane
             Tributyltin linoleate: TBTL;
             Tributyl-(1-oxo-9,12-octadecadienyl)oxy-stannane
             Tributyltin methacrylate: TBTM;
             Tributyl-(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propyl)oxy-stannane
             Tributyltin naphthenate: TBTN;
             Tributyl-mono(naphthenoyloxy) stannane
             Tributyltin oxide: TBTO; Hexabutyl distannoxane 

        1.4  Identification numbers

             1.4.1  CAS number

                    Tributyltin benzoate:      4342-36-3

             1.4.2  Other numbers

                    Tributyltin chloride:      1461-22-9
                    Tributyltin fluoride:      1983-10-4
                    Tributyltin linoleate:     24124-25-2
                    Tributyltin methacrylate:  2155-70-6
                    Tributyltin naphthenate:   85409-17-2
                    Tributyltin oxide:         56-35-9
                    Tributyltin oxide:         RTCS: JN8750000

        1.5  Main brand names, main trade names

        1.6  Main manufacturers, main importers

    2.  SUMMARY

        2.1  Main risks and target organs

             Skin and eye iritant.Inhalation of arosols leads to
             respiratory irritation.  Acute systemic poisoning has never
             been reported.

        2.2  Summary of clinical effects

             Severe dermatitis has been reported after direct contact
             with the skin.The potential problem is made worse by the lack
             of immediate skin response.

        2.3  Diagnosis

             Skin and/or eye lesions after exposure of workers during
             the manufacturing and formulation of tributyltin (TBT)
             compounds, in the application and removal of TBT paints,and
             from the use of TBT in wood preservatives.

        2.4  First-aid measures and management principles

             Removal of contaminted clothes,and leaking gloves,even
             if the irritancy of the product is not immediatly apparent.
             Washing of the skin (or showering) with water and soap.

    3.  PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

        3.1  Origin of the substance

             Synthetic.

        3.2  Chemical structure

             Tributyltin benzoate:          C19H132O2Sn
             Tributyltin chloride:          C12H27ClSn
             Tributyltin fluoride:          C12H27FSn
             Tributyltin linoleate:         C30H58O2Sn
             Tributyltin methacrylate:      C16H32O2Sn
             Tributyltin oxide:             C24H54OSn2

        3.3  Physical properties

             3.3.1  Colour

             3.3.2  State/form

             3.3.3  Description

                    Tributyltin oxide
                    Relative molecular mass: 596
                    Boiling point: < -45 °C
                    Relative density: 1.17 to 1.18
                    Vapour pressure: 1 x 10 -3
                    Refractive index: 1.4880 to 1.4895
                    (IPCS, 1990)
    
                    TBTO is flammable but does not form explosive mixtures
                    with air.  It reacts quantitatively at room
                    temperature with bromide or iodine with cleavage of
                    the Sn-O bond (a reaction that may be used for
                    quantitative analysis) (Bahr & Pawlenko, 1978).  In
                    the presence of oxygen, light or heat, slow breakdown
                    occurs with formation of tetra-n-butyltin,
                    di-n-butyltin oxide, and eventually tin (IV) oxide by
                    dealkylation (Evans & Karpel, 1985).  TBTO is soluble
                    in lipids and very soluble in a number of organic
                    solvents (ethanol, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons
                    etc.).

        3.4  Hazardous characteristics

    4.  USES

        4.1  Uses

             4.1.1  Uses

             4.1.2  Description

                    Tributyltin compounds have been registered as
                    molluscicides, as antifoulants on boats, ships, quays,
                    buoys, crab-pots, fishing nets and cages, as wood
                    preservatives, as slimicides on masonry, as
                    disinfectants, and as biocides for cooling systems,
                    power station cooling towers, pulp and paper mills,
                    breweries, leather processing and textile
                    mills.

        4.2  High risk circumstances of poisoning

             Workers occupationally exposed to dibutyltin and
             tributyl tin compounds such as during the manufacture and
             formulation of tributyltin compounds, in the application and
             removal of TBT paints, and from the use of TBT in wood
             preservatives.  Exposure of the general public may come from
             the contamination of food, particularly fish and shellfish,
             and from the domestic application of wood preservatives.
             

        4.3  Occupationally exposed populations

             Workers in the manufacture an formulation of tributyltin
             compounds, in the application and removal of TBT paints and
             from the use of TBT in wood preservatives.

    5.  ROUTES OF ENTRY

        5.1  Oral

             There have been no reported cases of poisoning from
             ingestion of TBTO or other TBT salts.

        5.2  Inhalation

             Has been reported in workers in a rubber factory using
             TBTO in vulcanizing process (WHO/FAO, 1984).

        5.3  Dermal

             Skin lesions have been described in workers
             occupationally exposed to dibutyltin and tributyltin
             compounds.

        5.4  Eye

             Irritation has been observed in women using a latex
             spray containing TBTO as an additive.

        5.5  Parenteral

             Poisoning has been reported in one publication.

        5.6  Other

             No data available.

    6.  KINETICS

        6.1  Absorption by route of exposure

             Tributyltin is absorbed from the gut (20-50% depending
             on the vehicle) and via the skin of mammals (about
             10%).

        6.2  Distribution by route of exposure

             Tributyltin can be transferred across the blood-brain
             barrier and from the placenta to the fetus.  Absorbed
             material is rapidly and widely distributed amongst tissues
             principally liver and kidney and, to a lesser extent, in the
             spleen, fat, lungs, brain, and muscle.

        6.3  Biological half-life by route of exposure

             Estimates for biological half-lives range from 23 to
             about 30 days.

        6.4  Metabolism

             Metabolism in mammals is rapid: metabolites are
             detectable in blood within 3 hours of TBT administration. TBT
             is a substrate for mixed-function oxidases  in vitro, but
             these enzymes are inhibited by TBT in vitro at very high
             concentrations.  Metabolism occurs in lower organisms but is
             slower, particularly in molluscs.  The capacity for
             bioaccumulation is therefore much greater than in
             mammals.

        6.5  Elimination and excretion

             Excretion of tributyltin is via the bile rather than the
             urine.

    7.  TOXICOLOGY

        7.1  Mode of Action

             TBT compounds inhibit oxidative phosphorilation and
             alter mitochondrial structure and function.

        7.2  Toxicity

             7.2.1  Human data

                    7.2.1.1  Adults

                             No data available.

                    7.2.1.2  Children

                             No data available.

             7.2.2  Relevant animal data

                    TBTO oral: LD50 rat 165-277 mg/kg (Elsea &
                    Paynter, 1958). At dietary doses of 320 mg/kg
                    (approximately 25 mg/kg bodyweight), high mortality
                    rates were observed when the exposure time exceeded 4
                    weeks.  TBTO inhalation: exposure to TBTO aerosol at
                    2.8 mg/m3 produced high mortality, respiratory
                    distress, inflammatory reaction within the respiratory
                    tract and histopathological changes of lymphatic
                    organs. However, exposure to saturated vapour
                    concentration at room temperature (0.16 mg/m3)
                    produced no effects.  

             7.2.3  Relevant in vitro data

                    No relevant data on humans.

             7.2.4  Workplace standards

                    ACGIH threshold limit value (time-weighed
                    average) in air was set in the USA in 1979 at 0.1 mg
                    tin/m3 and a short-term TLV at 0.2 mg tin/m3.  The
                    Federal Republic of Germany recommended, in 1979, to
                    adopt an occupational exposure standard for organotin
                    compounds in air of 0.1 mg tin/m3, specified as a
                    maximum worksite concentration (MAK).  The United
                    Kingdom has also set a recommended occupational
                    exposure limit of 0.1 mg tin/m3. 

             7.2.5  Acceptable daily intake (ADI) 

                    A tentative acceptable daily intake of 1.6
                    µg/kg  per day has been adopted in Japan.  Many
                    countries have  restricted he use of TBT antifouling
                    paints as a result of effects on shellfish.  The
                    regulations vary in detail from  country to country,
                    but most ban the use of TBT paints on  boats of 25
                    metres or less.  Some countries have exclided  boats
                    with aluminium hulls from this ban.  In addition, some
                    regulations restrict the TBT content of paints or the
                    leaching rate of TBT from paints to 4 or 5 µg/cm2 per
                    day, long-term.  It would be prudent to base
                    assessment of the potential hazard to man on data from
                    the most sensitive species.  Effects on host
                    resistance to  T. spiralis have been seen at dietary
                    levels as low as 5 mg/kg (equivalent to 0.25 mg/kg per
                    day bodyweight), the NOEL being 0.5 mg/kg (equivalent
                    to 0.025 mg/kg per day).  However the interpretation
                    of these data for human risk assessment is
                    controversial.  In all other studies a concentration
                    of 5 mg/kg per day in the diet (equivalent to 0.5
                    mg/kg body weight, based on short-term studies) was
                    the NOEL with respect to general, as well as specific,
                    effects on the immune system.  Using fish consumption
                    figures of 15 and 150 g/day, a value of 1 mg/kg for
                    residues in fish, and an average human body weight of
                    60 kg, the following safety margins based on different
                    immune endpoints are  obtained.  At a fish consumption
                    of 15 and 150 g/day, the estimated daily intake of TBT
                    was 0.25 µg/kg and 2.5 µg/kg respectively (IPCS,
                    1990).

        7.3  Carcinogenicity

             One carcinogenicity study on rats has been reported in
             which neoplastic changes were observed in endocrine organs at
             50 mg/kg diet. The pituitary tumours found at 0.5 mg/kg diet
             are considered as having no biological significance since
             there was no dose-response relationship. These tumour types
             appear usually at high and variable background incidences. 
             The significance is therefore questionable (IPCS,
             1990).

        7.4  Teratogenicity

             Teratogenic effects have only occurred in experimental
             animals that caused overt maternal toxicity. The teratogenic
             potential of TBT is therefore, considered to be very low
             (IPCS, 1990).

        7.5  Mutagenicity

             Based on the results of comprehensive mutagenicity
             studies, tributyltin compounds are not considered to have
             mutagenic potential (IPCS, 1990).

        7.6  Interactions

             No data available.

    8.  TOXICOLOGICAL ANALYSES AND BIOMEDICAL INVESTIGATIONS

        8.1  Material sampling plan

             8.1.1  Sampling and specimen collection

                    8.1.1.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.1.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.1.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.1.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.1.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.2  Storage of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.2.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.2.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.2.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.2.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.2.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

             8.1.3  Transport of laboratory samples and specimens

                    8.1.3.1  Toxicological analyses

                    8.1.3.2  Biomedical analyses

                    8.1.3.3  Arterial blood gas analysis

                    8.1.3.4  Haematological analyses

                    8.1.3.5  Other (unspecified) analyses

        8.2  Toxicological analyses and their Interpretation

             8.2.1  Tests on toxic ingredient(s) of material

                    8.2.1.1  Simple qualitative test(s)

                    8.2.1.2  Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

                    8.2.1.3  Simple quantitative method(s)

                    8.2.1.4  Advanced quantitative method(s)

             8.2.2  Tests for biological specimens

                    8.2.2.1  Simple qualitative test(s)

                    8.2.2.2  Advanced qualitative confirmation test(s)

                    8.2.2.3  Simple quantitative method(s)

                    8.2.2.4  Advanced quantitative method(s)

                    8.2.2.5  Other dedicated method(s)

             8.2.3  Interpretation of toxicological analyses

        8.3  Biomedical investigations and their interpretation

             8.3.1  Biochemical analysis

                    8.3.1.1  Blood, plasma or serum

                    8.3.1.2  Urine

                    8.3.1.3  Other fluids

             8.3.2  Arterial blood gas analyses

             8.3.3  Haematological analyses

             8.3.4  Interpretation of biomedical investigations

        8.4  Other biomedical (diagnostic) investigations and their 
             interpretation

        8.5  Overall interpretation of all toxicological analyses and 
             toxicological investigations

    9.  CLINICAL EFFECTS

        9.1  Acute poisoning

             9.1.1  Ingestion

                    Acute systemic poisoning has never been reported.

             9.1.2  Inhalation

                    Aerosols leads to respiratory irritation.

             9.1.3  Skin exposure

                    Tributyltin benzoate compounds are irritant to
                    the skin.

             9.1.4  Eye contact

                    Tributyltin benzoate compounds are irritant to
                    the eyes.

             9.1.5  Parenteral exposure

                    No data available.

             9.1.6  Other

                    No data available.

        9.2  Chronic poisoning

             9.2.1  Ingestion

                    Short and long-term effects on experimental
                    animals have been reported. Owing to wide variation in
                    the consumption of fish and shellfish and local
                    differences in residues of TBT in seafood NOEL values
                    are to be considered.

             9.2.2  Inhalation

                    Irritation of he upper respiratory tract may
                    occur.

             9.2.3  Skin exposure

                    Skin burns in workers occupationally exposed
                    have been reported.

             9.2.4  Eye contact

                    Irritation of the eyes may occur.

             9.2.5  Parenteral exposure

                    No data available.

             9.2.6  Other

                    No data available.

        9.3  Course, prognosis, cause of death

             Course and prognosis are favourable in humans. 

        9.4  Systematic description of clinical effects

             9.4.1  Cardiovascular

                    No data available.

             9.4.2  Respiratory

                    Seventy percent of the workers in a rubber
                    factory using TBTO in the vulcanizing process reported
                    irritation of the upper respiratory tract.  About 20%
                    also experienced lower chest symptoms (irritation,
                    tightness and pain), but in all cases the pulmonary
                    function was unaffected. The extent of the exposure
                    was not recorded (WHO/FAO, 1984).

             9.4.3  Neurological

                    9.4.3.1  Central Nervous System (CNS)

                             No data available.

                    9.4.3.2  Peripheral nervous system

                             No data available.

                    9.4.3.3  Autonomic nervous system

                             No data available.

                    9.4.3.4  Skeletal and smooth muscle

                             No data available.

             9.4.4  Gastrointestinal

                    No data available.

             9.4.5  Hepatic

                    No data available.

             9.4.6  Urinary

                    9.4.6.1  Renal

                             No data available.

                    9.4.6.2  Other

                             A case of occupational poisoning has
                             been reported where, along with symptoms of
                             lassitude, slight occipital headaches and
                             stiffness in the shoulders, there was a
                             marked disturbance of the sense of smell
                             (Akatsuka et al., 1959).

             9.4.7  Endocrine and reproductive systems

                    In animal experiments structural effects on
                    endocrine organs, mainly the pituitary and thyroid,
                    have been noted in both short- and long-term studies. 
                    Changes in circulating hormone concentrations and
                    altered response to physiological stimuli (pituitary
                    trophic hormones) were observed in short-term tests,
                    but after long-term exposure most of these changes
                    appeared to be absent (Funahasi et al., 1980; Krajnc
                    et al., 1984).

             9.4.8  Dermatological

                    TBTO is a skin irritant and severe dermatitis
                    has been reported after direct contact with the skin.
                    The potential problem is made worse by the lack of an
                    immediate skin response (Lyle, 1958; Baaijens, 1987;
                    Lewis & Emmett, 1987; Molin & Wahlberg, 1975; Zedler,
                    1961).

             9.4.9  Eye, ears, nose, throat: local effects

                    TBTO is an eye irritant.

             9.4.10 Haematological

                    In rats decreases in haemoglobin concentration
                    and erythrocyte volume. resulting from dosing 8 mg/kg,
                    indicate an effect on haemoglobin synthesis, leading
                    to microcytic hypochromic anaemia. Anaemia has also
                    been observed in mice (Krajnc et al., 1984)

             9.4.11 Immunological

                    Effects on experimental animals:
    
                    -  The characteristic toxic effect of TBTO is on the
                       immune system Due to effects on the thymus, the
                       cell-mediated function is impaired. The mechanism
                       is unknown, but may involve the metabolic
                       conversion to dimethyltin compounds. Non-specific
                       resistance is also affected.
    
                    -  General effects on the immune system (e.g. on the
                       weight and morphology of lymphoid tissues,
                       peripheral lymphocyte counts, and total serum
                       immunoglobin concentrations) have been reported in
                       several different studies with TBTO using rats and
                       dogs, but not mice, at overtly toxic dose
                       levels.
    
                    -  Only the rat exhibits general effects on the immune
                       system without other overt signs of toxicity and is
                       clearly the most sensitive species. TBTO has been
                       shown to compromise specific immune function in rat
                       in vivo host resistance studies.
    
                    -  With present knowledge, the effects on host
                       resistance are probably of most relevance in
                       assessing the potential hazard to man, but there is
                       insufficient experience in these test systems to
                       fully assess their significance.
    
                    -  It would be prudent to base assessment of the
                       potential hazards to humans from the most sensitive
                       species  (Funahashi et al.,1980; Krainc et al.,
                       1984; Vos et al., 1985; Schering,
                       1989a-e).

             9.4.12 Metabolic

                    9.4.12.1 Acid-base disturbances

                             No data available.

                    9.4.12.2 Fluid and electrolyte disturbances

                             No data available.

                    9.4.12.3 Others

                             No data available.

             9.4.13 Allergic reactions

                    No data available.

             9.4.14 Other clinical effects

                    No data available.

             9.4.15 Special risks

                    No data available.

        9.5  Others

             No data available.

        9.6  Summary

    10. MANAGEMENT

        10.1 General principles

             Symptomatic treatment.

        10.2 Life supportive procedures and symptomatic/specific 
             treatment

             Not applicable

        10.3 Decontamination

             After contact with the skin immediately washing with
             water and soap, and change of overalls, even if no signs are
             present.

        10.4 Enhanced elimination

             No data available

        10.5 Antidote treatment

             10.5.1 Adults

                    Not applicable.

             10.6.2 Children

                    Not applicable.

        10.6 Management discussion

             Not applicable.

    11. ILLUSTRATIVE CASES

        11.1 Case reports from literature

             Lewis & Emmet (1987) describe contact dermatitis in a
             shipwright resulting from exposure to TBTO-containing
             antifouling paint. The man had been spray-painting blocks of
             wood and his skin had been exposed to the spray.  There was
             no immediate sensation, but some irritation was evident
             within about an hour.  Erythema and ulceration of the exposed
             areas were noted on the second day.  There were also some
             mild pustular lesions on the mucous membrane of the lips,
             presumed to be the result of wiping the mouth with
             paint-contaminated arms.
    
             Baaijens (1987) described cases of accidental exposure to
             TBTO during the manufacture of organotin compounds.  Severe
             dermatitis developed only where splashes of the material had
             been retained on the skin for long periods.  In one case, a
             worker had been splashed over the face and neck.  He left the
             work area after the splash and showered.  An area behind one
             ear had not been washed and the dermatitis had developed in
             this one area.  Another worker had been splashed on the arm. 
             He washed his skin but did not change his overalls.  Contact
             was extended and a large blister developed on his arm.

    12. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

        12.1 Specific preventive measures

        12.2 Other

    13. REFERENCES

        Akatsuka K, Miyazawa J, Igarashi,I, Morishita M, Handa M,
        Kawame A, Iwamoto I, Morito F, Murayama K, Nakano S, Yanagibashi
        H, Nagasaki T, Kotani Y, Matsutani W, Fukuda I, Iyo T (1959) 
        [Experimental studies on disturbance of sense of smell due to
        butyltin compounds.] J Tokyo Med Coll, 17:1393-1402 (in
        Japanese).
    

        Baaijens PA (1987) Health effect screening and biological
        monitoring for workers in organotin industries. In: Toxicology and
        analytics of the tributyltins: The present status. Proceedings of
        an ORTEPA workshop, Berlin, Germany, 15-16 May 1986. 
        Vlissingen-Oost, The Netherlands, ORTEP-Association,
        pp.191-208.
    
        Bahr G & Pawlenko S (1978) Organic tin compounds.In:Bahr G,
        Kalinowski H.O, Pawlenko S, ed. Organometallic compounds,
        germanium, tin. Stuttgart, Georg Thieme Verlag, pp 512-515
        (Methods in Organic Chemistry series).
    
        Elsea JR & Paynter OE (1958) Toxicological studies on
        bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide. Am Med Assoc Arch Ind Health, 18:
        214-217.
    
        Evans CJ & Karpel S (1985) Organotin compounds in modern
        technology.  J organomet Chem Libr, 16: 178-217.
    
        Funahashi N, Iwasaki I, Ide G (1980) Effects of
        bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide on endocrine and lymphoid organs of male
        rats. Acta Path Jpn, 30: 955-966.
    
        IPCS (1990) Environmental Health Criteria 116. Tributyl Compounds. 
        World Health Organization.
    
        Krajnc EI, Wester PW, Loeber JG, Van Leeuwen FXR, Vos JG, Vaessen
        HAMG, Van de Heijden CA (1984) Toxicity of
        bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide in the rat. 1. Short-term effects on
        general parameters and on the endocrine and lymphoid systems.
        Toxocol Appl Pharmacol, 75: 363-386.
    
        Lewis PG & Emmett EA (1987) Irritant dermatitis from tri-butyl tin
        oxide and contact allergy from chlorocresol. Contact dermatitis,
        17: 129-132.
    
        Lyle WH (1958) Lesions of the skin in process workers caused by
        contact withbutyl tin compounds. Br J Ind Med,15: 193-196.
    
        Molin L, Wahlberg JE (1975) Toxic skin reactions caused by
        tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in socs. Berufs-dermatosen, 4:
        138-142.
    
        Schering (1989a) TBTO-4 week oral (diatary administration)
        toxicity study in the rat. Bergkamen, Federal Republic of Germany,
        Schering Inc. (Report No.280118 by Hazelton, France, Study 
        No.14/502).
    
        Schering (1989b) TBTO-Plaque forming assay following a 5-week oral
        toxicity study in the rat. Bergkamen, Federal Republic of Germany,
        Schering Inc. (Report No.283118 by Hazelton, France, Study
        No.14/503).
    

        Schering (1989c) TBTO-Resistance to Listeria monocytogene
        infection following a 34-day oral toxicity study in the rat. 
        Bergkamen, Federal Republic of Germany, Schering Inc. (Report
        No.282118 by Hazelton, France, Study No.14/505).
    
        Schering (1989d) TBTO-Delayed type hypersensitivity test following
        a 37-day oral toxicity study in the rat. Bergkamen, Federal
        republic of Germany, Schering Inc. (Report No.281118 by Hazelton,
        France).
    
        Schering (1989e) Systemic toxicity study in beagle dogs with daily
        oral (intragastric) administration over a total of 18-19 weeks.
        Bergkamen, Federal Republic of Germany, Schering Inc. (Report
        No.IC6/88).
    
        Vos JG, Krajnc EI, Wester PW (1985) Immunotoxicity of
        bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide.  In: Dean J,ed.Immunotoxicology and
        immunopharmacology. New York, Raven Press, pp 327-340.
    
        WHO/FAO (1984) Data sheet on pesticides No.65: Bis
        (tributyltin)oxide. Geneva,World Health Organization
        (VBC/PDS/DS/85.65)
    
        Zedler RJ (1961) Organotin as industrial biochemicals. Tin Uses.
        53:7-11

    14. AUTHOR(S), REVIEWER(S), DATE(S) (INCLUDING UPDATES), COMPLETE 
        ADDRESSES

        Author:     A.N.P.van Heijst
                    Baarnse weg 42A
                    3735 MJ Bosch en Duin
                    The Netherlands
    
                    Tel:     31-30-287178

        Date:       January 1994
    
        Peer
        Review:     Cardiff, United Kingdom, 14-18 February 1994
                    (N.Besbelli, O.Kasilo, L.Lefebvre, J.Szajewski,
                    W.Temple,  A.N.P.van Heijst)
    
        Editor:     Mrs J. Duménil
                    International Programme on Chemical Safety
    
        Date:       May 1999
    
    



See Also:
        Tributyltin compounds (EHC 116, 1990)
        Tributyltin oxide (ICSC)