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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 135
CCOHS Chemical Name: Toluene diisocyanate (65:35 mixture)

Synonyms:
Diisocyanate de toluène (mélange 65:35)
Diisocyanatotoluene
Isocyanic acid, methyl-m-phenylene ester
TDI
Toluene diisocyanate
Toluylene diisocyanate
Tolylene diisocyanate

Chemical Name French: Diisocyanate de toluène (mélange 65:35)

Trade Name(s):
Mondur TD

CAS Registry Number: 26471-62-5
UN/NA Number(s): 2078
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 247-722-4
Chemical Family: Isocyanic acid ester / isocyanate / diisocyanate / aromatic diisocyanate
Molecular Formula: C9-H6-N2-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-C6H3-(NCO)2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to pale yellow liquid or crystals with a sharp, fruity, pungent odour. Darkens on exposure to sunlight.(7)

Odour Threshold:
0.05 ppm (detection) (5)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold is above the TLV. Irritation of the eyes and nose at concentrations above the TLV.

Composition/Purity:
This material is a commercial mixture containing approximately 65% toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (2,4-TDI) and 35% toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (2,6-TDI). This record presents information for the mixture of 65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI where possible. Otherwise, information for other TDI mixtures is given. CHEMINFO records are available for pure 2,4-TDI (CAS 584-84-9) , pure 2,6-TDI (CAS 91-08-7) and 80% 2,4-TDI:20% 2,6- TDI .

Uses and Occurrences:
Manufacture of flexible and rigid polyurethane foams, elastomers, adhesives, sealants, coatings such as polyurethane paints, varnishes and wire enamels.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to pale yellow liquid or crystals, with a sharp, fruity, pungent odour. Can probably burn if strongly heated. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides. May polymerize if heated. Reacts vigorously with water above 50 deg C. Closed containers may develop pressure and rupture on prolonged exposure to heat or if contaminated with water. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled. Irritating to respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. RESPIRATORY SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic respiratory reaction. Causes skin and eye irritation. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause allergic skin reaction. SUSPECT CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Short-term exposure to isocyanates, such as toluene diisocyanate (TDI), can cause respiratory and mucous membrane irritation at vapour levels of 0.05 ppm and above.(5,14) Symptoms include nose irritation, dry or sore or burning throat, runny nose, shortness of breath, wheezing and laryngitis. Coughing with chest pain or tightness may also occur, frequently at night. These symptoms may occur during exposure or may be delayed for several hours.(9)
High exposures could cause inflammation of the lung tissue (chemical pneumonitis), chemical bronchitis with severe asthma-like wheezing, severe coughing spasms and accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), which could prove fatal.(4,9) Symptoms of pulmonary edema may not appear until several hours after exposure and are aggravated by physical exertion.
Some people may become sensitized to TDI--see Effects of Long-term Exposure (Chronic) Exposure for information.
Effects such as euphoria, muscle incoordination and loss of consciousness have been reported after a single severe exposure to TDI. Headache, difficulty in concentration, poor memory and confusion may persist for up to 4 years.(16)

Skin Contact:
Liquid TDI produces a marked inflammatory reaction.(4) Prolonged or further contact can cause severe inflammation, redness, rash, swelling, blistering and burns.(1) Isocyanates, in general, can cause skin discolouration (staining) and hardening of the skin after repeated exposures.(14). Skin contact is not expected to result in the absorption of harmful amounts.(14) Skin sensitization may occur in some individuals, but it is not common.(4)

Eye Contact:
Liquid TDI can cause watering of the eyes, severe irritation and possible clouding of the cornea. Human volunteers exposed to concentrations of 65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI greater than 0.05 ppm developed mild eye irritation which was more severe at 0.1 ppm. At 0.5 ppm, tearing occurred and at 1.3 ppm, there was severe eye watering and irritation.(5) Exposure to high TDI vapour concentrations can lead to formation of solid particles in the eye fluid which can cause mechanical irritation hours after exposure.(15)

Ingestion:
TDI is not expected to be toxic if ingested based on animal toxicity values. Swallowing TDI could cause irritation and corrosion of the tissues lining the mouth, throat and stomach. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
Respiratory sensitization has developed in people working with TDI.(6,9) Sensitization is usually caused by a very large exposure, or by multiple exposures.(9) However, symptoms of sensitization have occurred in some workers exposed frequently to low levels of TDI (0.0003 to 0.03 ppm).(16) Although varying periods of exposure (1 day to years) may elapse before sensitization occurs, it develops more often during the first few months of exposure. Sensitized individuals react to very low levels of TDI (below 0.001 ppm) that have no effect on unsensitized people.(6) At first, the symptoms may appear to be a cold or mild hay fever. However, severe asthmatic symptoms can develop and include wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing and/or coughing. Fever, chills, general feelings of discomfort, headache, and fatigue can also occur. Symptoms may occur immediately upon exposure (within an hour), several hours after exposure or both, and/or at night.(6,9,16,17) Typically, the asthma improves with removal from exposure (e.g. weekends or vacations) and returns, in some cases , in the form of an "acute attack", on renewed exposure.(16) Sensitized people who continue to work with TDI may develop symptoms sooner after each exposure. The number and severity of symptoms may increase. Death has occurred in sensitized individuals accidently exposed to relatively low concentrations of TDI.(16) Animal studies indicate that respiratory sensitivity to TDI may result from dermal as well as inhalation exposures.(9)
Following removal from exposure, some sensitized workers may continue to show a slow decline in lung function and have persistent respiratory problems such as asthmatic symptoms, chronic bronchitis and hypersensitivity to TDI for months or years.(6,9,18) Others recover complete lung function within months if they have no further isocyanate exposure.(9,18)
TDI may also cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis, another allergic lung disease, which is characterized by symptoms such as shortness of breath, fever, malaise, non-productive cough, and chills.(9,16) Several studies have shown that long-term exposure to TDI at levels as low as 0.002-0.003 ppm may cause impaired lung function such as diminished respiratory capacity.(9,16) Exposure to isocyanates is likely to aggravate existing respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.(3)
Cross-sensitization between different isocyanates may occur. People sensitized to TDI have shown sensitization to methylene bisphenyl isocyanate (MDI) and hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI), where no previous exposure to MDI or HDI was known.(3,16)

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated skin contact with TDI has caused skin sensitization in humans, although the condition is not common.(3,4) Once a person is sensitized, contact with even a small amount of TDI can cause outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as redness, rash, itching and swelling. This can spread from the hands or arms to the face and body. Some people who inhaled TDI developed extensive skin rashes that lasted 1 to 1.5 weeks. There was no direct skin contact with the liquid.(17)

Carcinogenicity:

The risk of cancer associated with exposure to isocyanates has been examined in 4 human population studies. No strong association or consistent pattern has been observed. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of toluene diisocyanates in humans. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of toluene diisocyanates in experimental animals.(32)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

NOTE: ACGIH has published a Notice of Intended Change proposing that the carcinogenicity designation be changed to A3 (animal carcinogen).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human or animal information is available

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information is available

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that TDI is mutagenic. There is no human information available. A technical grade TDI (80% 2,4-TDI:20% 2,6-TDI) induced chromosome aberrations and induced DNA damage in cultured human lymphocytes, with and without metabolic activation (19,20) It did not significantly affect the number of sister chromatid exchanges, with and without metabolic activation.(19) The commercial mixture (80:20) gave negative results in the in vivo mouse and rat white blood cell micronucleus test.(7,12)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
TDI probably does not accumulate in the body. It can enter the body by inhalation or by ingestion. It is probably metabolized to toluenediamine (7), which is metabolized further and excreted.

Health Comments:
Many reports have not adequately identified the TDI forms (2,4- and 2,6-TDI) involved. Also, certain sampling/analysis methods may be inaccurate for 2,6-TDI and may underestimate exposure to total TDI.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue, e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves and respiratory protection if necessary. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts) and place in covered container. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 20 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves and respiratory protection, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. SOLID: Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to eye(s). LIQUID: Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink about 250 mL (8 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its condition of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
127 deg C (261 deg F) (closed cup) (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate) (23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.9% (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate) (23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
9.5% (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate) (23)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
620 deg C (1148 deg F) (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate) (23)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Probably not sensitive, since it has a high flash point.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Hydrogen cyanide, nitrogen oxides

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material can probably burn if strongly heated. During a fire, irritating/toxic hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides may be generated. May react violently with water at temperatures above 50 deg C. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, carbon dioxide, water-based foam, dry chemical powder.(14)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Water or water-based foam, if used in very large quantities, may be effective for fighting fires involving toluene diisocyanate (TDI). However, care must be taken since the reaction between water or water-based foam and hot TDI can be vigorous.(14)
Isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Otherwise, keep fire-exposed tanks or containers cool by spraying with water to minimize the risk of rupture, but avoid direct contact of TDI with water. Water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat and protect exposed material of structures. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. After the fire has been extinguished, the area should not be considered safe until a thorough inspection for residual isocyanate has been carried out by properly protected personnel.
TDI and its decomposition products, such as hydrogen cyanide and nitrogen oxides, are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self- contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate)
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur. (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate)
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water. (toluene-2,4-diisocyanate)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 174.16

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 7.11 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.14 ppm (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: 3-5 deg C (37-41 deg F) (1); 4.4-8 deg C (40-46 deg F) (21)
Boiling Point: 251 deg C (484 deg F) (7,14)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.22 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (1,21)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (reacts with water)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in diethyl ether, acetone, nitrobenzene; soluble in all proportions in benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chlorobenzene, kerosene and olive oil.(7)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable (reacts)
pH Value: Not applicable (reacts with water)
Vapour Density: 6.0 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.0033 kPa (0.025 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (21)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approx. 33 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 3-6 centipoises (3-6 mPa.s) at 25 deg C (estimated) (14)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
TDI may undergo uncontrollable polymerization upon contact with water or other materials which react with TDI. It may also polymerize if heated above 177 deg C or above 45 deg C for prolonged periods. Carbon dioxide and heat are generated during the polymerization process.(7,23,24) The resulting heat and pressure build-up could rupture closed containers.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


WATER - Reacts non-violently at room temperature with release of heat to form carbon dioxide and inert material made up of polyureas which could rupture closed containers.(14) Toluenediamine is formed as an intermediate product in this reaction.(4) Above 50 deg C, the reaction becomes progressively more vigorous which could rupture closed containers.(14)
AMINES, ALCOHOLS, ACIDS, OR BASES - May react violently with generation of heat.(14,23)
METAL COMPOUNDS (e.g. organometallic catalysts, such as organotin compounds) - May polymerize with the generation of heat and pressure.(23,24)
AMIDES, PHENOLS, MERCAPTANS, URETHANES, UREAS AND SURFACE ACTIVE AGENTS (surfactants, e.g. non-ionic detergents) - May react vigorously or violently with the generation of heat.(24)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Toluenediamine (formed by reaction of TDI with water) (7)

Conditions to Avoid:
Moisture, heat, direct sunlight

Corrosivity to Metals:
May cause some corrosion to copper, zinc and their alloys, and aluminum.(14)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Isocyanates are very reactive compounds and are especially highly reactive toward a large number of compounds with active hydrogens, particularly at high temperatures and in the presence of catalysts. See reference 20 for some of the reactions of isocyanates. May attack and embrittle plastic (e.g. polyethylene, polypropylene and polyurethane) and rubber materials in a short time.(14)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (guinea pig): 13 ppm (4-hour exposure) (TDI composition not specified) (1)
LC50 (rat): 14-50 ppm (4-hour exposure) (TDI composition not specified) (1)
LC50 (mouse): 10 ppm (4-hour exposure) (TDI composition not specified) (1)
LC50 (rabbit): 11 ppm (4-hour exposure) (TDI composition not specified) (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 4000 mg/kg (80% 2,4-TDI:20% 2,6-TDI) (1)
LD50 (oral, rat): 7500 mg/kg (TDI composition not specified) (7)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 10000 mg/kg (TDI composition not specified) (1)

Eye Irritation:

No studies on the effects of 65% toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (2,4-TDI):35% toluene-2,6-diisocyanate (2,6-TDI) were located. Pure 2,4-TDI and the 80:20 mixture caused pain, redness, swelling, tearing, severe irritation, mild corneal injury and clouding of the cornea.(1,2,3)

Skin Irritation:

No studies on the effects of 65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI were located. Pure 2,4-TDI and the 80:20 mixture have caused moderate to severe skin irritation, including moderate to marked redness, swelling and leathery skin. Prolonged contact with the skin can cause redness, swelling, blistering and burns.(1,3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
TDI is corrosive. Inhalation of sublethal concentrations by mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs has caused severe respiratory effects such as bronchitis, bronchopneumonia, emphysema and bleeding of the lungs (pulmonary hemorrhage).(4) All rats died following two, three or five 6- hour exposures to 10 ppm of TDI (65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI) while 10 6-hour exposures to 1 ppm were lethal to 15/20 rats. No lung changes were seen in rats exposed for 40 6-hour exposures to 0.1 ppm.(5) TDI is a sensory irritant. Sensory irritants inhibit respiration. A single 6-hour exposure to 0.18 ppm TDI (unspecified composition) reduced the respiratory rate of guinea pigs by 50% (RD50). Lower concentrations of 0.02 to 0.05 ppm had no effect on the breathing rate. Significant reductions in the breathing rate were noted in animals who had been exposed to high levels (2 to 5 ppm) when they were subsequently exposed to levels as low as 0.02 ppm.(4) In a study with mice, the RD50 was found to be 0.39 ppm.(7) A cumulative effect was observed when the 2,4-TDI concentration was greater than 23 ppb. With repeated daily exposures to the same concentration, irritation became more severe and overnight recovery was not complete. However, after several days without exposure, responses to renewed exposure were the same as those seen in animals that had not previously been exposed.(8)

Ingestion:
TDI has been reported to cause gastrointestinal effects and effects on the liver and kidneys when administered orally to animals.(1,3)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats, guinea pigs and rabbits exposed to 0.1 ppm TDI (unspecified composition) 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for up to 58 exposures or 6 hours/day for 38 consecutive days, developed lung inflammation. Lung damage generally increased in severity for several days after exposure ended.(4,6) No effects on other organs were observed. No lung changes were seen in rats and rabbits exposed to 0.01 ppm once a week for 38 weeks.(6)

Skin Sensitization:
Skin sensitization was produced in animals by direct application of 2,4-TDI.(11) Skin sensitization has also been produced in animals following inhalation exposure.(10)

Respiratory Sensitization:
Concentration dependent respiratory sensitization has been produced in guinea pigs. Threshold levels of 0.25-0.36 ppm TDI (80% 2,4-TDI:20% 2,6-TDI) have been observed.(9,10) Respiratory sensitization has also been produced in animals exposed by skin contact with 2,4-TDI.(11)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of toluene diisocyanates to experimental animals.(7,13,32)
No specific animal information is available on the carcinogenicity of the 65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI mixture. No tumours were observed in male and female rats and mice that inhaled 0.05 and 0.15 ppm of the 80% 2,4-TDI:20% 2,6-TDI mixture for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for approximately 2 years.(12) However, tumours did develop at a number of sites after male and female rats and female mice were given large daily oral doses of commercial grade TDI (80%:20% mixture) (30 mg/kg to 240 mg/kg), 5 days/week for 105 or 106 weeks. No tumours were observed in male mice.(12)

Mutagenicity:
No specific information is available on the mutagenicity of 65% 2,4-TDI:35% 2,6-TDI.
A commercial mixture of 80% 2,4-TDI:2,6-TDI gave negative results in the in vivo mouse and rat white blood cell micronucleus test (exposure to 0.05 or 0.15 ppm TDI for 4 weeks).(7,12)
Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells.(32) There are conflicting reports on the mutagenicity of both 2,4-TDI and the 80:20 mixture in bacteria tests (Ames test). Positive results were obtained in some strain with metabolic activation, while negative results were found in other strains.(7,12)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Daugherty, M.L. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Chemical hazard information profile : draft report. United States Environmental Protection Agency, July, 1984.
(2) Duprat, P., et al. Irritant and allergic action of two isocyanates: toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and diphenyl methane diisocyanate (MDI). European Journal of Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 1 (1956). p. 41-53 (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00101587)
(3) Woolrich, P.F. Toxicology, industrial hygiene and medical control of TDI, MDI and PMPPI. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 43, no. 2 (February 1982). p. 89-97
(4) Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to toluene diisocyanate. NIOSH, 1973
(5) Henschler, D., et al. The toxicology of the toluene diisocyanates. Archiv fur Toxikologie. Vol. 19 (1962). p. 364- 387 (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00102123)
(6) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 5th ed. ACGIH, 1986. p. 580-585
(7) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 39. IARC, 1985. p. 287-323
(8) Sangha, G.K., et al. Sensory irritation by toluene diisocyanate in single and repeated exposures. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 50 (1979). p. 533-547
(9) Karol, M.H. Respiratory effects of inhaled isocyanates. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 16, no. 4 (1986). p. 349- 379
(10) Karol, M.H. Concentration-dependent immunologic response to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) following inhalation exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 68 (1983). p. 229-241
(11) Karol, M.H., et al. Dermal contact with toluene diisocyanate (TDI) produces respiratory tract hypersensitivity in guinea pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 58 (1981). p. 221-230
(12) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of commercial grade 2,4 (80%)- and 2,6 (20%)- toluene diisocyanate (CAS no. 26471-62-5) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). (NTP TR 251). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1986
(13) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Supplement 7. IARC, 1987. p. 61, 72
(14) Recommendations for the handling of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). International Isocyanate Institute, Inc. Edition: January 1976. Revised: November 1980.
(15) Precautions for the proper usage of polyurethanes, polyisocyanurates, and related materials (technical bulletin 107). 2nd edition. Kalamazoo, MI : The Upjohn Company, 1980
(16) Musk, A.W., et al. Isocyanates and respiratory disease: current status. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 13 (1988). p. 331-349
(17) Karol, M.H., et al. Longitudinal study of tolyl-reactive IgE antibodies in workers hypersensitive to TDI. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 21, no. 5 (May 1979). p. 354-358
(18) Mapp, C.E., et al. Persistent asthma due to isocyanates: a follow-up study of subjects with occupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). American Review of Respiratory Diseases. Vol. 137 (1988). p. 1326-1329
(19) Maki-Paakkanen, J., et al. Chromosome aberrations and sister-chromatid exchanges induced by technical grade toluene diisocyanate and methylenediphenyl diisocyanate in cultured human lymphocytes. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 36, no. 1 (March 1987). p. 37-43
(20) Marczynski, B., et al. Indication of DNA strand breaks in human white blood cells after in vitro exposure to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 8, no. 3 (1992). p. 157-169
(21) Mondur TD (Mobay Chemical Corporation). Printout from MSDS database. Date of MSDS: 1987-02-02
(22) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(23) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491 (Toluene diisocyanate; Isocyanates)
(24) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 13, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. 789-818
(25) Rando, R.J., et al. Modified Marcali method for the determination of total toluene diisocyanate in air. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 46, no. 4 (1985). p. 206-210
(26) Booth, K.S., et al. State-of-the-art monitoring and analysis for airborne isocyanates. In: Polyurethane-marketing & technology-partners in progress : Proceedings of the SPI 28th annual technical/marketing conference. Society of the Plastics Industry, 1984. p. 10-16
(27) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program
(28) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 312-313
(29) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr. 29, 2004
(30) Key-Schwartz, R.J. Analytical problems encountered with NIOSH method 5521 for total isocyanates. AIHA Journal. Vol. 56 (1995). p. 474-479
(31) Streicher, R.P., et al. Investigation of the ability of MDHS method 25 to determine urethane-bound isocyanate groups. AIHA Journal. Vol. 56 (1995). p. 437-442
(32) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1994-06-28

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS (effects) 1994-11-01
Acute exposure (inhalation) 1994-11-01
Chronic effects 1994-11-01
First aid (eyes) 1994-11-01
First aid (skin) 1994-11-01
Handling 1994-11-01
Sampling 1995-10-01
Respiratory guidelines 1995-10-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 1997-07-01
US Transport 1998-03-01
Mutagenicity 1999-12-01
Toxicological info 1999-12-01
EU Number 2000-05-01
EU Class 2000-05-01
EU Risk 2000-05-01
EU Safety 2000-05-01
EU Comments 2000-05-01
TDG 2002-05-27
NFPA (health) 2003-03-28
NFPA (flammability) 2003-03-28
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-03-28
Autoignition temp 2003-05-05
Flash point 2003-05-05
LFL/LEL 2003-05-05
UFL/UEL 2003-05-05
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-06
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-06
PEL-STEL final 2003-11-06
PEL-C transitional 2003-11-06
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28
TLV basis 2004-06-09
TLV comments 2004-06-09
TLV definitions 2004-06-09
EU classification 2005-01-26
EU safety 2005-01-26
EU risks 2005-01-26
EU comments 2005-01-26
Bibliography 2005-02-02
Short-term ingestion 2005-12-05
TLV-TWA 2006-03-15
TLV-STEL 2006-03-15
TLV definitions 2006-03-15
TLV proposed changes 2006-03-15
Carcinogenicity 2006-03-16
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-03-16



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