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CHEMINFO Record Number: 122
CCOHS Chemical Name: Sulfuric acid

Battery acid
Dihydrogen sulfate
Electrolyte acid
Hydrogen sulfate
Mattling acid
Oil of vitriol
Spirit of sulfur
Sulphuric acid
Acide sulfurique

Chemical Name French: Acide sulfurique
Chemical Name Spanish: Acido sulfúrico
CAS Registry Number: 7664-93-9
UN/NA Number(s): 1830 1831 1832 2796
RTECS Number(s): WS5600000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-639-5
Chemical Family: Mineral acid / inorganic acid / hydrogen sulfate
Molecular Formula: H2-O4-S
Structural Formula: (HO)2-S(=O)2


Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless, odourless, dense, oily liquid when pure; yellow to dark brown when impure. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air).(5,6)

Odour Threshold:
A value of greater than 1 mg/m3 has been reported.(15) Irritation has been experienced between 1 and 3 mg/m3.(10)

Warning Properties:
POOR - odour threshold is above the TLV. Irritation experienced at or above TLV. Tolerance can occur.

Sulfuric acid is sold or used commercially in different concentrations, including technical (78 to 93%) and other grades (96, 98-99, and 100%). Impurities include metals such as iron, copper, zinc, arsenic, lead, mercury and selenium, sulfurous acid (as SO2), nitrates and chlorides.(6,14)

Uses and Occurrences:
The main use is in the manufacture of phosphate and ammonium sulfate fertilizers. Other important uses include production of rayon and other textile fibres, inorganic pigments, nitrate explosives, alcohols, plastics, dyes, drugs, synthetic detergents, natural and synthetic rubber, pulp and paper, cellulosics and catalysts. It is also used to make hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids, aluminum and copper sulfate and chromium chemicals. It is used in petroleum refining, in pickling iron, steel and other metals, as a leaching agent for ores, in electroplating baths, as an alkylation catalyst, as a component of lead storage batteries and as a laboratory reagent.(6,14)


Clear, colourless to dark brown, odourless, dense, oily liquid. Will not burn. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as sulfur oxides. Contact with combustible materials may cause fire. Highly reactive. Contact with many organic and inorganic chemicals may cause fire or explosion. Contact with metals liberates flammable hydrogen gas. Reacts violently with water. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled or swallowed. CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause blindness and permanent scarring. Causes lung injury--effects may be delayed. Strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid are CARCINOGENIC.

Important New Information:
NOTE: The evaluation of this chemical as a chronic toxicity hazard is currently under review. For additional information, contact the CHEMINFO team at


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Sulfuric acid is not very volatile, and therefore workplace exposures are primarily to mists or aerosols. Sulfuric acid is corrosive and can cause severe irritation or corrosive damage if inhaled. The degree and severity of respiratory effects are influenced by factors such as the physical state and particle size of the aerosol, deposition site, concentration and humidity. Sulfuric acid can cause severe lung damage with a life-threatening accumulation of fluid (pulmonary edema). The symptoms of pulmonary edema include coughing and shortness of breath and can be delayed until hours or days after the exposure. These symptoms are aggravated by physical exertion. Long term lung damage may result from a severe short term exposure.(5)
Human volunteers exposed for 5-15 minutes noticed no odour, or irritation below 1 mg/m3. Everyone noticed the exposure at 3 mg/m3 and at 5 mg/m3 some people found it objectionable. A deep breath usually produced coughing and there were respiratory changes. Tolerance to sulfuric acid can occur.(10) In another study, volunteers with high exposures (39 mg/m3 dry mist and 21 mg/m3 wet mist) for 1/2-1 hour experienced severe symptoms of irritation of the upper airways and signs of bronchial obstruction. These symptoms persisted for several days in two volunteers.(3) A worker, overcome by sulfuric acid fumes while working in a closed space, experienced injury to the upper airways, and fluid accumulation and bleeding in the lungs. At a 6-week follow-up, most lung function tests were normal.(11)
Asthma can be aggravated by exposure to sulfuric acid.(5,12,13)

Skin Contact:
Sulfuric acid is corrosive and can cause severe irritation and burns which may result in permanent scarring. Extensive acid burns can result in death. The severity of injury depends on the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the duration of exposure. High mist or aerosol concentrations may cause redness, irritation and burns to the skin if contact is prolonged.

Eye Contact:
Sulfuric acid is corrosive and can cause severe irritation (redness, swelling and pain) and permanent damage, including blindness. The severity of injury depends on the concentration of the sulfuric acid solution and the duration of exposure. Sulfuric acid mists and aerosols are expected to be irritating.

Sulfuric acid is corrosive and will cause burns to the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach if ingested. Symptoms may include difficulty swallowing, intense thirst, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and in severe cases, collapse and death. Small amounts of acid which may enter the lungs during ingestion or vomiting (aspiration) can cause serious lung injury and death.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN: Repeated exposure to low concentrations of mists or aerosols can cause dermatitis (red, itchy, dry skin).
TEETH: Exposures to high concentrations (reportedly up to 16 mg/m3) cause dental erosion.(10) Etching of teeth may occur after a few weeks exposure, progressing to erosion after a few months exposure.(5) Dental etching and erosion occurred about 4 times as frequently in a high exposure group (over 0.3 mg/m3) compared to a low exposure group (below 0.07 mg/m3).(6)
RESPIRATORY EFFECTS: Although sulfuric acid is widely used, there are no specific reports of respiratory effects from long-term exposure. Long-term exposure to sulfuric acid mists or aerosols could cause symptoms of respiratory irritation such as bronchial hyperreactivity.


Many studies have reported more cancer of the larynx, and to a lesser extent the lungs, than expected, in a wide variety of processes involving the use of strong inorganic acids including sulfuric acid. Throughout these studies, sulfuric acid mists were the most common exposure, and in two studies, the number of cancers increased as exposure increased.(6) Several of the studies had design weaknesses, such as exposure to other potentially carcinogenic chemicals at the same time. Nevertheless, some studies were well conducted and the overall trends indicate that occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to humans. Examples of the processes studied include pickling, electroplating and other acid treatment of metals, the manufacture of lead-acid batteries and phosphate fertilizer production.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

However, IARC has concluded there is sufficient evidence that occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).(6) IARC's classification is for inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid and does not apply to sulfuric acid or sulfuric acid solutions.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

However, ACGIH has designated strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid as A2 (suspected human carcinogen).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

However, the US NTP has listed strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid as a known human carcinogen.(24)

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information is available. One animal study indicated that sulfuric acid is not teratogenic, even at maternally toxic doses.(9)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information is available.

There was a significantly higher number of sister chromatid exchanges, micronuclei and chromosomal aberrations in cultured lymphocytes (white blood cells) from workers exposed to sulfur dioxide in a sulfuric acid factory. There was no correlation with length of service.(6) No conclusions can be made based on this information.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information is available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Sulfuric acid mist is absorbed through mucous membranes, ultimately into the bloodstream. The sulfate anion becomes part of the pool of sulfate anions in the body and is excreted in the urine in combination with other chemicals in the body.(15) It is unlikely to accumulate in the body.


Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. if necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor an appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the materials and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
None. Not combustible.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not combustible

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not combustible

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not combustible

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material; probably not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Not applicable. Not combustible.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Sulfuric acid is not combustible. However, fire may result from the heat generated by contact of concentrated sulfuric acid with combustible materials. Sulfuric acid reacts with most metals, especially when diluted with water, to produce highly flammable hydrogen gas, that may explode if ignited. It reacts violently with water and organic materials with the evolution of heat. During a fire, irritating/toxic sulfur oxides may be generated. Containers may explode in the heat of a fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Use extinguishing agents suitable for the surrounding fire. If water is used, care should be taken, since it can generate heat and cause spattering if applied directly to sulfuric acid.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind. If possible, isolate materials not involved in the fire and protect personnel. Containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Move containers from fire area if it can be done without risk. Otherwise, use water in flooding quantities as a spray or fog to keep fire-exposed containers cool and absorb heat. Apply water, as an extinguishant or as a coolant, from as far a distance as possible. Take care that water does not come into contact with the acid.
Sulfuric acid and its decomposition products are very hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.


NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 0 - Will not burn under typical fire conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: Water-reactive.


Molecular Weight: 98.08

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.25 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -12 deg C (10 deg F) (77.7%); - 35 deg C (-31 deg F) (93%); - 2 deg C (28 deg F) (98%); 11 deg C (52 deg F) (100%) (16)
Boiling Point: 193 deg C (380 deg F) (77.7%); 279 deg C (534 deg F) (93%); 327 deg C (621 deg F) (98%); 274 deg C (525 deg F) (100%) (16)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.706 (77.7%); 1.835 (93%); 1.844 (98%); 1.839 (100%) at 15 deg C (6,14,16)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions with generation of much heat.(6)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol (decomposes).(6,15)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Information not available
pH Value: 0.3 (1 N solution); 1.2 (0.1 N solution); 2.1 (0.01 N solution) (15)
Vapour Density: 3.4 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: Less than 0.04 kPa (0.3 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (5,16)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Less than 395 ppm (0.04%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Probably very slow.
Critical Temperature: Approx. 670 deg C (93%); approx. 655 deg C (100%) (14)

Other Physical Properties:
BASICITY: Strong acid; pKa=1.92 at 25 deg C (15)
VISCOSITY: 25 centipoises (25 mPa.s) at 25 deg C (100%) (14)
SURFACE TENSION: 50 dynes/cm at 25 deg C (100%) (14)


Stable at normal temperatures. Decomposes at 340 deg C into sulfur trioxide and water.(6)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

Sulfuric acid reacts vigorously, violently or explosively with many organic and inorganic chemicals including water, acrylonitrile, alkali solutions, carbides, chlorates, fulminates, nitrates, perchlorates, permanganates, picrates, powdered metals, metal acetylides or carbides, epichlorohydrin, aniline, ethylenediamine, alcohols with strong hydrogen peroxide, chlorosulfonic acid, cyclopentadiene, hydrofluoric acid, nitromethane, 4-nitrotoluene, phosphorus (III) oxide, potassium, sodium, ethylene glycol, isoprene, styrene.(15,17,18)
Acetaldehyde and allyl chloride may polymerize violently in the presence of sulfuric acid.(17) Hazardous gases, such as hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen sulfide and acetylene, are evolved on contact with chemicals such as cyanides, sulfides and carbides.(16) References 15, 17 and 18 provide more complete lists of chemicals that may produce hazardous chemical reactions with sulfuric acid.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None known

Conditions to Avoid:

Corrosivity to Metals:
Very corrosive to most metals including cast iron, steel, stainless steel, brass, aluminum, titanium, nickel and some alloys.(19) The corrosivity of sulfuric acid solutions depends on factors such as concentration, temperature and acid impurities. The resistance of alloys to sulfuric acid corrosion increases with increasing chromium, molybdenum, copper and silicon content.(14)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Very reactive substance. The concentrated acid oxidizes, dehydrates, or sulfonates most organic compounds.(15)
Many plastics do not resist concentrated acid well (greater than 50-60%). Teflon is the only common plastic that resists all acid concentrations.(14)


LC50 (rat): 510 mg/m3 (2 hour-exposure) (255 mg/m3 - equivalent 4-hour exposure) (1)
LC50 (mouse): 320 mg/m3 (2-hour exposure) (160 mg/m3 - equivalent 4-hour exposure) (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): 2140 mg/kg (2)

Eye Irritation:

Application of a 1% solution caused tissue death (necrosis) in rabbits.(3) Application of a 5% solution, rinsed with water, caused clouding of the cornea and irritation in rabbits which cleared within 7 days; a 10% solution caused severe irritation and damage which persisted to day 7.(4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Low concentrations of aerosols have produced changes in lung function. There is species variation in sensitivity, with guinea pigs most sensitive (by a factor of 6), then rats and mice, with rabbits most resistant.(5) Aerosol toxicity is influenced by particle size. No harmful changes were observed in rats following one week exposures to up to 100 mg/m3 (particle size 0.5-1.7 micrometres), while 30 mg/m3 caused fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) in guinea pigs.(5) The LC50 in guinea pigs ranged from 100 mg/m3 (particle size 0.4 micrometres) to 30-40 mg/m3 (particle size 0.8 micrometres) and 18 mg/m3 (particle size 2.7 micrometres). The animals that died probably suffocated following laryngeal spasm (due to severe irritation).(5) The lowest concentration at which guinea pigs showed increased airway resistance was 0.1 mg/m3.(6,7) There were no cardiovascular effects in dogs exposed briefly to 8 mg/m3 or to 4 mg/m3 for 4 hours.(5)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Chronic exposure to low concentrations by inhalation have produced changes in respiratory tissues and in measures of lung function.(5,6) In 3 studies, guinea pigs were exposed to 0.1 to 26.5 mg/m3 with particle sizes ranging from fine to coarse for periods of 18 to 140 days. Intermittent exposure produced only minimal lung changes while continuous exposure at lower concentrations (4 mg/m3) caused more extensive damage (fluid accumulation, bleeding and tissue damage). Changes were most marked for exposures with particle size of 0.9 um. No effects were seen at the lowest concentration (0.1 mg/m3).(5) Monkeys were continuously exposed for 78 weeks to two concentrations, with two particle sizes. Effects on pulmonary function and respiratory cells were seen at 4.79 mg/m3 (particle size 0.73 um). At 0.48 mg/m3 (0.54 um) and 0.38 mg/m3 (2.15 um), only minimal effects were noted.(5,6) In a guinea pig study, there were no effects following continuous exposure to 0.1 and 0.08 mg/m3 for 52 weeks.(6) Factors such as mucociliary clearance, alveolar defence mechanisms, cellular changes, and lung function have been evaluated in many studies.(5,6,7,8) While changes in these parameters have been demonstrated, it is not clear whether they relate to chronic lung disease.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Sulfuric acid was not teratogenic in mice and rabbits, but was slightly embryotoxic in rabbits (a minor, rare skeletal variation). The animals were exposed to 5 and 20 mg/m3 (1.6 and 2.4 um respectively) for 7 hours/day throughout pregnancy. Slight maternal toxicity was present at the highest dose in both species.(6,9)

There are no mutagenicity studies specifically of sulfuric acid. However, there are established effects of reduced pH in mutagenicity testing, as would be caused by sulfuric acid.(6) These effects are an artifact of low pH and are not necessarily due to biological effects of sulfuric acid itself.


Selected Bibliography:
(1) RTECS record for sulfuric acid. Date of last update: 9401
(2) Smyth, H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: List VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30, no. 5 (September-October, 1969). p. 470-476
(3) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(4) Murphy, J.C., et al. Ocular irritancy responses to various pHs of acids and bases with and without irrigation. Toxicology. Vol. 23 (1982). p. 281-291
(5) Kristensen, P. Inorganic acid aerosols. In: Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992, edited by B. Beije, et al. Arbete Och Halsa 1993:1. Arbetsmiljoinstitutet, Sweden, 1993. p. 7-54
(6) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 54. IARC, 1992. p. 41-130
(7) Lippmann, M., et al. Basis for a particle size-selective TLV for sulfuric acid aerosols. Applied Industrial Hygiene. Vol. 2, no. 5 (September, 1987). p. 188-199
(8) Gearhart, J.M., et al. Sulfuric acid-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 7 (1986). p. 681-689
(9) Murray, F.J., et al. Embryotoxicity of inhaled sulfuric acid aerosol in mice and rabbits. Journal of Environment, Science, and Health. Vol. C13, no. 3 (1979). p. 251-266
(10) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 5th edition. ACGIH, 1987. p. 544
(11) Knapp, M.J., et al. Adult respiratory distress syndrome from sulfuric acid fume inhalation. Southern Medical Journal. Vol. 84, no. 8 (August, 1991). p. 1031-1033
(12) Avol, E.L., et al. Respiratory dose-response study of normal and asthmatic volunteers exposed to sulfuric acid aerosol in the sub-micrometer size range. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 4, no. 2 (1988). p. 173-184
(13) Linn, W.S., et al. Effect of droplet size on respiratory responses to inhaled sulfuric acid in normal and asthmatic volunteers. American Review of Respiratory Disease. Vol. 140, no. 1 (July, 1989). p. 161-166
(14) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd. edition. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1983. p. 190-232
(15) HSDB record for sulfuric acid. Date of last update: 9308
(16) Sulfuric acid, 77 to 100% (DuPont Canada, Inc). Printout from MSDS database. Date of MSDS: 1993-08-25
(17) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th edition. Butterworths, 1990. p. 92-93, 162-163, 251, 272, 348-349, 362, 708-709, 1146, 1172-1173, 1196, 1215- 1221, 1277, 1292, 1299-1300, 1371, 1432, 1659, 1680
(18) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(19) Corrosion data survey. Metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 124-125
(20) Emergency response planning guidelines. AIHA Journal. Vol. 56, no. 3, 1995. p. 297
(21) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(22) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 290-291, revised 1996
(23) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. September 1, 1993
(24) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 1994-06-28

Revision Indicators:
Materials to avoid 1995-02-01
Respiratory guidelines 1995-09-01
EU safety 1995-09-01
EU risk 1995-09-01
EU safety 1995-09-01
ERPG 1995-09-01
Sampling 1996-01-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 1997-12-01
Handling 1998-01-01
TLV Comments 2001-03-01
US transport 2002-12-11
TDG 2002-12-17
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-23
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-23
Important New Information 2003-05-23
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-23
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-07
TLV-TWA 2004-06-08
TLV-STEL 2004-06-08
TLV basis 2004-06-08
TLV proposed changes 2004-06-08
Bibliography 2005-02-02

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