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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 275
CCOHS Chemical Name: Sodium lauryl sulfate

Synonyms:
Dodecyl sodium sulfate
Lauryl sodium sulfate
Monododecyl sodium sulfate
SDS
SLS
Sodium dodecyl sulfate
Dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt
Dodecyl alcohol, hydrogen sulfate, sodium salt
Lauryl sulfate, sodium salt
Sodium dodecyl sulphate
Sodium lauryl sulphate
Sodium monolauryl sulfate
Sodium monododecyl sulfate
Sodium n-dodecyl sulfate
Sulfuric acid, monododecyl ester, sodium salt

Chemical Name French: Lauryl sulfate de sodium
Chemical Name Spanish: Sulfato de sodio y dodecilo

Trade Name(s):
Carsonol SLS
Duponol
Stepanol WA
Sulfotex WA
Dreft
Irium
Stanfax 996

CAS Registry Number: 151-21-3
RTECS Number(s): WT1050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 205-788-1
Chemical Family: Organic sulfate salt / linear detergent range alcohol sulfate salt / linear primary alkyl sulfate salt / dodecyl sulfate salt / sodium salt / anionic surfactant
Molecular Formula: C12-H25-O4-S.Na
Structural Formula: CH3-(CH2)10-CH2-O-S(=O)2-O-.Na+

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Small, white, cream-coloured or light yellow crystals, flakes or powder with a faint "fatty" odour.(1,4)

Odour Threshold:
No information available.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Commercially available in a variety forms including a white to yellow powder (90-98% purity), paste (30-41%) or a clear, viscous liquid (28-30%). Also shipped as 28-50% solutions in water. Impurities may include dodecanol, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride and small amounts of similar sodium alkyl sulfates (e.g. the C14 compound).(9,13) Up to 0.1% formaldehyde may be present as a preservative.(13) This CHEMINFO profile reviews the hazards and control measures for sodium lauryl sulfate flakes, powder and water solutions. Sodium lauryl sulfate liquid and paste contain impurities which affect its physical properties and may influence the overall hazards.

Uses and Occurrences:
Sodium lauryl sulfate is used as a detergent, wetting, foaming, and/or emulsifying agent in the cosmetics industry. It is used in shampoos, bath products, make-up, hair products, toothpastes and mouthwashes, deodorants, shaving creams, hand soaps, skin products and hand creams; as a wetting agent and detergent in the textile industry; in carpet shampoos, dishwashing detergents, liquid laundry detergents, light-duty household cleaners and many other cleaning compounds; as a food additive (emulsifier and thickener); in the pharmaceutical industry; in biological and biomedical research, including electrophoretic separation and molecular weight estimation of proteins; in manufacturing; for emulsion polymerization; in metal processing; in the electroplating industry, particularly nickel and zinc; as an emulsifier, wetting agent and adjuvant in insecticides; as an emulsifier and penetrant in varnish and paint removers; in the formulation of injection-moulded explosives; as an anti-foaming agent in solid rocket propellants; and as a model surfactant and reference toxicant in aquatic and mammalian toxicological testing.(1,4,9)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Small, white, cream-coloured or light yellow crystals, flakes or powder. with a faint "fatty" odour. May burn if strongly heated. POTENTIAL COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARD. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. Can decompose at high temperatures forming irritating/toxic sulfur oxides and sodium oxides. EYE AND SKIN IRRITANT. Can cause moderate to severe eye and skin irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Sodium lauryl sulfate is a solid, which is also used in solution, that does not form a vapour at room temperature. Inhalation of the dust or mists formed from solutions can occur. It is not considered toxic, but inhalation of high concentration would be irritating to the nose and throat, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Skin Contact:
Dry sodium lauryl sulfate powder is a severe irritant, based on animal information. The degree of irritation caused by solutions depends on the volume and concentration of the solution. In most animal studies, 2-20% solutions have caused moderate to severe irritation. Studies with humans have been done with sodium lauryl sulfate solutions using various experimental protocols, with different concentrations and exposure times. In general, irritation increases with concentration and uncovered exposures are less irritating than exposures under closed patches.
Sodium lauryl sulfate is readily absorbed through the skin, because it degenerates the protective barrier provided by skin.(9,13) It is not expected to cause harmful effects by this route of exposure unless significant exposure occurs.

Application of 0.5 mL of 10% sodium lauryl sulfate in water for 24 hours caused negligible irritation to the clipped forearm skin of 16 male volunteers.(19)
Twenty volunteers were patch tested with single or double applications of 50 microL sodium lauryl sulfate for 24 hours at concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% in water and examined for irritation daily for up to 3 weeks. Most people experienced some itching at the test site. The frequency and intensity of irritation was dose-related with maximum irritation usually occurring at 48 hours. For single applications, the highest average scores for inflammation were 0.72/5 at 3 days for 1%; 1.33/5 at 2 days for 2%; 1.83/5 at 2 days for 3%; 2.39/5 at 2 days for 4%; and 2.50/5 at 2 days for 5%, where 5 represents tissue death (necrosis).(8) These results indicate that dilute solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate are mildly to moderately irritating.
Thirty-six male volunteers were patch tested with 0. 2 mL of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5% sodium lauryl sulfate in water for 24 hours and examined for inflammation when the patch was removed and after 24 hours. With the exception of the 5% solution, a second application of the same solution to the same place was made and observations made over the following 4 weeks. One application caused severe redness at 5%, moderate redness at 3 or 4%, and mild redness at 1 or 2%. Double applications caused an increase in the reaction at all concentrations.(27)
Application of an unspecified amount of 50% sodium lauryl sulfate in water for 4 hours to the intact and abraded skin of volunteers caused slight irritation (primary irritation index 0.9/6).(20)
In a study to determine the relationship between concentration, exposure duration and reaction severity, tests done on 17 women and 13 men indicated that the concentration had more impact on the reaction severity than the exposure duration.(28)

Eye Contact:
Dry sodium lauryl sulfate powder is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information. The degree of irritation caused by solutions depends on the volume and concentration of the solution administered. In general, a 2-3% solution causes slight or mild irritation, 10% causes moderate irritation and more concentrated solutions (up to 40%) are severely irritating, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
Sodium lauryl sulfate is not considered toxic if ingested, based on animal information. There is no human information available. Ingestion of large amounts is expected to cause stomach irritation and diarrhea. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Sodium lauryl sulfate is primarily an irritant to the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. It is not a skin sensitizer.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact, in situations where sodium lauryl sulfate is trapped against the skin, can cause severe irritation.
Sodium lauryl sulfate was tested at 1, 10, 20, and 40%, under a patch for 21 days, in 2 male volunteers/concentration. Irritation was scored daily on a scale of 0-4, where 0 was no reaction, 1 was redness of the entire area, 2 was redness and hardening of the area, 3 was blistering (vesiculation) and 4 was formation of large blisters (bullous reaction). The scores on each day were added together to give a cumulative irritation index out of 84. Cumulative irritation indexes at different concentrations were 14.5/84 for 1%, 71/84 for 10%, 77/84 for 20% and 78.5/84 for 40%. The same procedure carried out on a total of 10 male volunteers with 10% sodium lauryl sulfate resulted in an average cumulative irritation index of 34.1. When sodium lauryl sulfate was applied in an open test with the same range of concentrations (1-40%), no irritation resulted.(19)

Skin Sensitization:
Sodium lauryl sulfate is not an occupational skin sensitizer. There have been a few positive patch tests in humans exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate non-occupationally, but no occupational case reports were located. Animal studies indicate that it is not a sensitizer.
In a human maximization test, 5% in water did not cause sensitization in 22/22 volunteers.(29) No sensitization reactions were observed in 20 volunteers patch tested with 50 microL 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% sodium lauryl sulfate in water.(30) In a study of 330 patients with eczema, 21 were considered to give a true allergic response to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate in water in a patch test.(30)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. In an unpublished study, dogs fed sodium lauryl sulfate at concentrations up to 2% in the diet did not develop tumours or cancers. There are insufficient details available to evaluate this study.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. The limited animal evidence available does not indicate that sodium lauryl sulfate causes developmental toxicity in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. In an unconfirmed animal study, sodium lauryl sulfate did not cause sperm effects in male mice.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. The available evidence does not indicate that sodium lauryl sulfate is a mutagen. Negative results were obtained in an in vivo study in mice and in studies with cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Anionic surfactants like sodium lauryl sulfate enhance the skin, eye and oral absorption of some chemicals and have been used to promote drug absorption.(9)
Combined exposure to sodium lauryl sulfate and nickel chloride resulted in an increased allergic response in 20 volunteers who had a pre-existing allergy to nickel. The authors of this study conclude that the increase allergic response is probably due to both the increased penetration of nickel and non-specific pro-inflammatory effects induced by sodium lauryl sulfate, which would lower the threshold for inducing an allergic reaction.(38)

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. Sodium lauryl sulfate is well absorbed through the skin and through the digestive tract and elimination is rapid.(9)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes. Immediately obtain medical attention. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
248 deg C (powder containing 90% sodium lauryl sulfate); 447 deg C (solution containing 14.8% sodium lauryl sulfate) (31)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides (3) and sodium oxides are formed when heated to decomposition.

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
During a fire, irritating/toxic sulfur oxides and sodium oxides may be generated. Well-sealed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous and toxic decomposition products.
Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of dust explosion. Water can be used in the form of spray or fog to prevent dust formation.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Decomposition products of sodium lauryl sulfate that are formed in a fire (sulfur oxides and sodium oxides) are toxic and irritating. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 288.38

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 204-207 deg C (399.2-404.6 deg F) (2,9); also reported as 205.5 deg C (401.9 deg F) (14)
Boiling Point: Not applicable (decomposes) (2)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.396 (powder) (water = 1) (9,13)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (10 g/100 mL). (9,13)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in polar solvents, like methanol and ethanol.(13)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.60 (experimental) (36)
pH Value: 7.5-11 (powder; unspecified concentration in water) (13)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable (powder)
Surface Tension: Not applicable (powder)
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Approximately zero (14)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZERS (e.g. chromic acid, perchlorates or peroxides) - vigorous or violent reaction, with increased risk of fire and explosion.(3)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid) (particularly in the presence of iron or other heavy metals) - vigorous or violent reaction.(13)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, high temperatures, sparks, generation of dust.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information is available.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Sodium lauryl sulfate attacks thermoset polyester isophthalic acid.(37) Sodium lauryl sulfate does not attack plastics, like Teflon, and other fluorocarbons, like ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (Tefzel), ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (Halar) and polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene, nylon 11, polyurethane (Riged), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), and thermoset polyester bisphenol-A fumerate.(37)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Will decompose (hydrolyze) at room temperature under slightly acidic conditions (below a pH of 5).(13)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (male rat): greater than 3900 mg/m3; cited as greater than 3.9 mg/L (0/6 rats died; administered as a dust) (15)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1280 mg/kg (administered as 25% water solution) (6)
LD50 (oral, male rat): 1650 mg/kg (administered as 25% water solution) (15)
LD50 (oral, rat): 1000 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2700 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, male rabbit): 580 mg/kg (administered as 33% water solution to intact and abraded skin*) (11)
LD50 (dermal, guinea pig): 1200-2000 mg/kg (administered as 33% water solution to intact and abraded skin*; 0/4 died at 1200 mg/kg and 4/4 died at 2000 mg/kg) (11)
LD50 (dermal, rat): less than 2000 mg/kg (administered as 33% water solution to intact and abraded skin*; 5/5 died) (11)
* Note: The accepted method is with intact skin only. The purity of the material used was not indicated.

Eye Irritation:

Dry sodium lauryl sulfate powder is a severe eye irritant. The degree of irritation caused by solutions depends on the volume and concentration of the solution administered. For the standard quantity of 0.1 mL, a 2-3% solution causes slight or mild irritation, a 10% solution causes moderate irritation, and more concentrated solutions (up to 40%) cause severe irritation.

Application of 100 mg of the dry powder caused severe irritation in rabbits (average maximum score 54/110 at 24 hours).(15) Application of 0.1 mL of 3% sodium lauryl sulfate (98% purity) caused slight irritation in rabbits (corneal opacity: 0.5/4; iris injury 0.06/2; redness, 1.11/4; chemosis 0.61/4; Modified Maximum Average Score: 16/110). At 15%, irritation was severe (corneal opacity, 1.61/4; iris injury 1.06/2; redness 2.06/4; chemosis 1.83/4; Modified Maximum Average Score: 59.2/110). Severe irritation was also caused by 30% sodium lauryl sulfate (corneal opacity: 1.94/4; iris injury: 0.89/2; redness: 2.22/4; chemosis: 2.56/4; Modified Maximum Average Score: 60.5/110).(12) Application of 0.003 mL of 40% sodium lauryl sulfate caused mild irritation (maximum average score: 12/110; eyes normal in 4-7 days) in rabbits, while 0.01 and 0.03 mL caused moderate irritation (30/110; eyes normal in 7-14 days and 40/110; eyes normal in 7-greater than 14 days) and 0.1 mL caused severe irritation (54/110; eyes normal in 14 days). Application of 0.01-1 mL of 10% sodium lauryl sulfate produced moderate irritation (25-40/110; median 7 days to clear).(16) Application of 0.1 mL of 2, 10 or 20% sodium lauryl sulfate in water caused mild irritation in rabbits at 2% (average score approximately 11/110 for 24, 48 and 72 hours), and moderate irritation at 10% and 20% (average scores approximately 44/110 for 24, 48 and 72 hours).(17)

Skin Irritation:

Dry sodium lauryl sulfate powder is a severe irritant. The degree of irritation caused by solutions depends on the volume and concentration of the solution administered. In most studies, for the standard quantity of 0.5 mL, 2-20% caused moderate to severe irritation.

Application of 50 mg dry powder moistened with 0.1 mL of water to intact and abraded skin for an unspecified duration caused severe irritation in rabbits (primary irritation score: erythema 4/4; edema 4/4). Observations were conducted up to 72 hours and the scores were still 4/4 for erythema and edema at this time.(15) Application of 0.5 mL of 20% sodium lauryl sulfate in water for 4 hours caused severe irritation in rabbits (primary irritation scores: erythema 3.78/4; edema 3.0/4; primary irritation index: 6.78/8). Application of a 50% solution also produced severe irritation (primary irritation scores: erythema 3.89/4; edema 2.11/4; primary irritation index: 6.0/8).(18) Application of 0.5 mL of 2, 10 or 20% sodium lauryl sulfate in water under cover for 24 hours caused severe irritation in rabbits at 2, 10 and 20% (scored approximately 5.2/8, 6/8 and 6/8).(17) Several unpublished studies show that application of 10-100% solutions of sodium lauryl sulfate, using a variety of protocols, produce either moderate or severe irritation in rabbits.(13, unconfirmed) A small number of studies report mild irritation for 10 and 50% sodium lauryl sulfate solutions.(19,20)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Mice exposed to sodium lauryl sulfate aerosol (head-only) for 2 minutes exhibited a decrease in respiratory rate with the RD50 (the dose resulting in a decrease in the respiratory rate by 50%) calculated to be 88 mg/m3 (cited as 88 microg/L).(17) The RD50 is an indicator of sensory irritation (irritation to the eyes and nose). People exposed to the RD50 would experience intolerable burning of the eyes, nose and throat. Female guinea pigs were exposed to 17.3, 28.9, or 48.6 mg/m3 sodium lauryl sulfate aerosol (generated by aerosolizing 2, 4 and 6% solutions; mass median diameter: 3.3 micrometres) for 30 minutes, with the number and severity of coughs recorded. Isolated coughs and coughing episodes occurred at all concentrations and there was a dose-related increase in the total number of coughs during the exposure period, indicating irritation of the respiratory tract.(7)

Skin Contact:
Application of 150, 300, 600, 1200 or 2000 mg/kg 33% sodium lauryl sulfate in water to the intact and abraded skin of male rabbits for 24 hours resulted in mortality of 10, 20, 40, 80 and 100%, respectively. In guinea pigs, there was no mortality at 1200 mg/kg and 100% mortality at 2000 mg/kg. In rats, mortality was 100% at 2000 mg/kg. Symptoms were tremors, convulsions and respiratory failure.(11) The purity of the material used was not indicated. Guinea pigs were dermally exposed to 0 or 50 mg/kg sodium lauryl sulfate in 1.0 mL distilled water for 7 and 14 days. Detailed autopsy showed no significant changes in kidney tissue. There was a significant decrease in enzyme activity (e.g. aspartate aminotransferase at days 7 and 14 and alanine aminotransferase at day 14).(33)

Ingestion:
In a study, which is not available in English, rats given oral doses of 500-900 mg/kg developed severe diarrhea leading to death.(9, unconfirmed) There are insufficient details available for evaluation.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Skin Contact:
Rabbits (3 controls; 6/treatment group) were dermally exposed (intact and abraded skin) to 0, 6, 60 and 150 mg/kg/day of a 20% water solution for 90 days (5 d/wk). There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, blood chemistry, or blood cell counts. Detailed examination of tissues showed no alterations at any dose. At 150 mg/kg, 2/6 rabbits died, one with diarrhea and one with pulmonary congestion. However, the researchers report that these deaths appeared unrelated to treatment.(11) The small number of animals/group limits this study and the purity of the material used was not indicated.

Ingestion:
Rats were given 0, 40, 200, 1000 and 5000 ppm sodium lauryl sulfate in their diet for 13 weeks. Approximate doses were 2, 10, 50 or 250 mg/kg/day for females and 2.4, 12, 60 or 300 mg/kg/day for males. There were no effects on health, behaviour, body weight, food intake, or blood and urine chemistry. Females fed 250 mg/kg/day had a significant increase in absolute liver weight.(6) Male rats received 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0% (approximate doses were 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg/day) in the diet for 2 years or 2, 4 or 8% (approximate doses 1200, 2400 or 4800 mg/kg/day) in the diet for up to 16 weeks. No effects were observed in the 2-year study. In the 16-week study, sodium lauryl sulfate caused a dose-related decrease in body weight, which was significant at 2400 mg/kg/day. At 4800 mg/kg/day, the rats died within the first 2 weeks with severe diarrhea and bloating of the intestine.(10) Rats (4-11/group) were dosed with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0% sodium lauryl sulfate containing small amounts of related alkyl derivatives in the drinking water for 120-160 days. Approximate doses were 100, 250, 500, 1000, 5000 or 10000 mg/kg/day for males and females. At 5000 and 10000 mg/kg/day, all animals died within 5 days. There was a dose-related decrease in body weight (significance not reported) at 250 mg/kg/day and higher. Mortality was 1/9 at 250 mg/kg/day, 5/11 at 500 mg/kg/day and 7/11 at 1000 mg/kg/day. Animals that died showed evidence of gastrointestinal irritation. In survivors, no differences in kidneys, livers or digestive tracts were observed.(21) This study is limited by the small number of animals used and by the impurity of the sodium lauryl sulfate.

Skin Sensitization:
Sodium lauryl sulfate is not a skin sensitizer.
In the Guinea Pig Maximization Test, it caused sensitization in 0/25 animals.(22) In the Mouse Ear Swelling Test, 10% sodium lauryl sulfate in water gave a negative result.(23)

Carcinogenicity:
In an unpublished study, dogs fed sodium lauryl sulfate at concentrations up to 2% (approximately 500 mg/kg/day) in the diet did not develop tumours or cancers.(13,unconfirmed) No further details are available for evaluation.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
The limited information available does not indicate that sodium lauryl sulfate causes developmental toxicity in the absence of maternal toxicity.
In a study, which is not available in English, mice were exposed dermally to 0, 6, 60 or 90 mg/kg/day (cited as 1.5 mL/kg of 0.4, 4.0 or 6.0%) sodium lauryl sulfate in water from days 6-13 of pregnancy. There was a marked decrease (significance not reported) in maternal body weight and skin discolouration at 60 and 90 mg/kg/day. At 90 mg/kg/day, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of pregnancies brought to term. In the fetuses, there was delayed ossification and a significant decrease in body weight, also at 60 and 90 mg/kg/day.(13, unconfirmed) There are not enough details available to evaluate this study.

Reproductive Toxicity:
An unconfirmed study does not suggest that sodium lauryl sulfate causes reproductive toxicity in male mice.
Mice given sodium lauryl sulfate in the diet at 0.1% (approximate dose 120 mg/kg/day) for 42 days and 1.0% (approximate dose 1200 mg/kg/day) for 14 days showed no impairment of epididymal sperm.(9, unconfirmed)

Mutagenicity:
The available evidence does not indicate that sodium lauryl sulfate is a mutagen. Negative results were obtained in an in vivo study in mice and in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.
A negative result (chromosome aberrations in bone marrow) was obtained in mice fed sodium lauryl sulfate in the diet at 0.56 and 1.13% (approximate doses 670 and 1360 mg/kg/day) for 90 days.(24)
A negative result (gene mutation) was obtained in mammalian cells, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.(25) A negative result (gene mutation) was also obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(26)

Toxicological Synergisms:
Combined dermal exposure to sodium lauryl sulfate and nickel sulphate hexahydrate caused more kidney injury (histological and enzyme changes) than exposure to either chemical alone.(33)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Sodium lauryl sulfate. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 1543
(2) Sodium dodecyl sulfate. In: Compendium of safety data sheets for research and industrial chemicals. Edited by L.E. Keith, et al. Part III. VCH Publishers, 1985. p. 732
(3) Dodecyl sulfate, sodium salt. In: The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 1495C
(4) Sodium lauryl sulfate. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. Edited by R.J. Lewis, Sr. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002
(5) Sigrist, H. Gas chromatographic determination of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Analytical Biochemistry. Vol. 57 (1974). p. 564-568
(6) Walker, A.I.T., et al. Toxicity of sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium lauryl ethoxysulphate and corresponding surfactants derived from synthetic alcohols. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 5 (1967). p. 763-769
(7) Zelenak, J.P., et al. Assessment of the cough reflex caused by inhalation of sodium lauryl sulfate and citric acid aerosols. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 2, no. 4 (1982). p. 177-180
(8) Bruynzeel, D.P., et al. Delayed time course of irritation by sodium lauryl sulfate: Observations on threshold reactions. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 8, no. 4 (1982). p. 236-239
(9) Singer, M.M., et al. Fate and effects of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 133 (1993). p. 95-149
(10) Fitzhugh, O.G., et al. Chronic oral toxicities of surface-active agents. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. Vol. 37, no. 1 (1948). p. 29-32
(11) Carson, S., et al. Dermal toxicity of sodium lauryl sulfate. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. Vol. 15 (1964). p. 137-147
(12) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). Sodium lauryl sulfate. Eye irritation: reference chemicals data bank. 2nd ed. ECETOC Technical Report No. 48 (2). ECETOC, 1998. p. 174-179
(13) Beyer, K.H., et al. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 2, no. 7 (1983). p. 127-181
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-10-30

Revision Indicators:
LFL/LEL 2006-10-04
UFL/UEL 2006-10-04



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