The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 197
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol phenyl ether

Synonyms:
1-Phenoxy-2-propanol
Propylene phenoxetol
Monopropylene glycol phenyl ether
Monopropylene glycol monophenyl ether
1-Phenoxy-2-hydroxypropane
1-Phenoxypropan-2-ol
1-Phenoxypropanol
2-Propanol, 1-phenoxy-
alpha-Propylene glycol monophenyl ether
Propylene glycol monophenyl ether

Chemical Name French: Éther monophenylique du propylène glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Monofenileter del propilenglicol

Trade Name(s):
DOWANOL PPh Glycol Ether
Solvenon PP

CAS Registry Number: 770-35-4
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 41593-38-8
RTECS Number(s): UB8886500
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 212-222-7
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / glycol ether / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / monoaliphatic glycol ether / monoaliphatic glycol monoether / propylene glycol monoether / mono propylene glycol monoether / alkoxy propanol / propylene oxide glycol ether / propylene glycol alkyl ether
Molecular Formula: C9-H12-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-Ph Ph = phenyl

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, fruity odour.(2,11)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol phenyl ether (PGPE) is commercially available as an isomeric mixture of the alpha and beta isomers with a minimum purity of 93% for the isomeric mixture. In this mixture, the individual concentrations for the alpha isomer (1-phenoxy-2-propanol or alpha-PGPE; CAS no. 770-35-4) and for the beta isomer (2-phenoxy-1-propanol or beta-PGPE; CAS no. 4169-04-4) are not reported. The identity of these substances may be reported either with their individual CAS numbers or with the CAS number 41593-38-8, which is assigned to the isomeric alpha and beta mixture. Another major impurity in the commercial product is dipropylene glycol phenyl ether which may be present up to 7%. In addition to these impurities and depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may be present: phenol (typically present in less than 0.1%), propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, phenoxy acetone, methyl formate, and other organic trace impurities.(2,11,27)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol phenyl ether was formulated as a replacement for the more toxic ethylene glycol phenyl ether. It is mainly used as a solvent in various preparations. It is present in dewaxing cleaners, cathodic electrodeposition paints, and in inks of ball point and felt tip pens, stamp pads, and textile printing pastes. It is also used as a carrier solvent for textile dyes, as a solvent to regulate coalescence, a bactericidal agent, fixative for soaps and perfumes, and as an intermediate for plasticizers.(2,11,12)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, fruity odour. This material will burn when strongly heated and when involved in fire. May form hazardous peroxides on prolonged storage or exposure to air. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation. May cause blindness.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol phenyl ether (PGPE) does not readily form a vapour at room temperature. Therefore, it must be heated or misted before inhalation exposure will occur. Exposure to the mist or vapour is not expected to produce significant harmful effects, based on animal information. Exposure to extremely high concentrations (essentially saturated vapour concentrations) may cause nose and throat irritation. No human information was located.

Skin Contact:
PGPE is not irritating to the skin, based on animal information. PGPE has been used in acne treatments and cosmetic formulations (5, unconfirmed) and is not expected to be irritating.
PGPE is not expected to produce harmful effects if absorbed through the skin, based on animal toxicity information.

Eye Contact:
PGPE is a severe eye irritant based on animal information. Permanent injury, including blindness, could result. No human information was located.

Ingestion:
PGPE is not expected to be harmful if ingested, based on comparison to other propylene glycol ethers and animal information for PGPE. No human case reports were located. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No human or animal information was located. In general, propylene glycol ethers are not expected to product harmful effects following long-term exposure.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information was located. Developmental toxicity was not observed in the absence of maternal toxicity in the only animal study located.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Mutagenicity:
PGPE is not expected to be mutagenic. No human information was located. Positive results were obtained in an unconfirmed test using live animals. However, the route of exposure was not specified and statistical significance was only achieved at a dose that caused significant other toxicity in the animals. In unconfirmed studies, negative results were obtained in one study using bacteria and another using cultured human cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. In rats, the major route of excretion was in the urine (93-96%). Fecal excretion was less than 10%. The entire administered dose was eliminated within 48 hours.(9)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing and obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens until flushing is done. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Obtain medical advice.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
120 deg C (248 deg F) (closed cup) (2); 127 deg C (260 deg F) (closed cup) (18)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.8% (2)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
495 deg C (923 deg F) (2)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Propylene glycol phenyl ether liquid can accumulate static charge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Less than 1 x 10(4) (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, phenol, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, aromatic compounds, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(19)

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material will burn when strongly heated and when involved in fire. May form hazardous peroxides on prolonged storage and exposure to air and or heat. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. Heat from a fire can cause a build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Water or foam may cause frothing. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. Dike to prevent spread of liquid. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out.
Water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of combustible or flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to cool and disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water or foam may cause frothing. However, a water spray or fog that is gently applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on vapour space and any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.
After the fire has been extinguished, toxic atmospheres due to the presence of the toxic combustion products may remain. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, ventilate the area, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The thermal decomposition and combustion products are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 152.2

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6.21 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.160 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: 13 deg C (55 deg F) (13)
Boiling Point: 243 deg C (469 deg F) (14)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.062 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (15)
Solubility in Water: Slightly to moderately soluble (1.0-1.1 g/100 mL) (2,14)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be moderately soluble in polar organic solvents (e.g. methanol and ethanol) and either miscible or very soluble in non-polar organic solvents (e.g. diethyl ether and n-hexane).
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.5 (estimated) (14,16)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 34 mPa.s (34 centipoises) at 20 deg C (11,17); 23.2 mPa.s (23.2 centipoises) at 25 deg C (18)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 32.02 mm2/s (32.02 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 150.3 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 39.7 mN/m (39.7 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (11); 38.1 mN/m (38.1 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (2)
Vapour Density: 5.25 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: Less than 0.001 kPa (less than 0.01 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (17)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Less than 13 ppm (0.0013%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Less than 0.01 (butyl acetate = 1) (13)
Henry's Law Constant: 4.4 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 4.3 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (16); log H = -4.8 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 5 at 25 deg C (dimensionless, estimated)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propylene glycol phenyl ether with other substances is moderate because propylene glycol phenyl ether reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(23,24)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(25,26,27)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(25,26,27)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(25,26)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(25,26)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat and formation of phenol, a very toxic substance.(25,26,27)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat (25,26)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(25,26,27)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(25,26)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Propylene glycol phenyl ether can form peroxides and a very toxic phenol on prolonged exposure to air. Light and or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause increase in concentration of the peroxide impurities.(20,21,22)

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures of 120 deg C or above, sparks including electrostatic discharges, direct sunlight, open flame, very hot surfaces (greater than 400 deg C), or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol phenyl ether is expected to be slightly corrosive to aluminum or carbon steel. It is expected to be either slightly corrosive or corrosive to 301, 302, and 440 stainless steel alloys. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol phenyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(28,29)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol phenyl ether is expected to attack chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, high density polyethylene, polymethacrylate acrylic, and polycarbonate. Polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene, chlorinated polyether, polypropylene, polyphenylene oxide, and thermoset polyesters may be slightly attacked. Propylene glycol phenyl ether is not expected to attack fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, most polyamide plastics, and thermoset epoxy. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol phenyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(30)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Unless otherwise specified, the studies reviewed here are for commercial propylene glycol phenyl ether (PGPE).

LC50 (rat): greater than saturated vapour concentration generated at 100 deg C (7-hour exposure) (1,5-unconfirmed)
LC50 (rat): greater than 5.4 mg/L (4-hour exposure; aerosol; mass median aerodynamic diameter: 1.9 microm; nose-exposure; 0/10 deaths) (10)

LD50 (oral, male rat): 2830 mg/kg (1,5-unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, female rat): 3730 mg/kg (1,5-unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 2000 mg/kg (10)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (no deaths) (1,5-unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

PGPE is a severe eye irritant. It caused injury to the eyes which did not reverse after 23 days.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGPE produced mild irritation in rabbits. Average scores at 24, 48 and 72 hours for each of 3 rabbits were: corneal opacity: 1/4, 1/4, 1/4; iris injury: 0.67/2, 0.33/2, 0/2; redness: 2/3, 2/3, 2/3; chemosis: 1.33/4, 1/4, 0.33/4. There was still eye injury present after 23 days with scores of: corneal opacity 1/4, 1/4, 0/4; iris injury: 0/2, 0/2, 0/2; redness: 3/3, 2/3, 1/3; chemosis: 0/4, 0/4, 0/4..(10) Application of 2 drops of undiluted PGPE caused slight irritation and slight transient corneal injury in rabbit eyes. Recovery occurred within a week.(1,5-unconfirmed) Scoring information was not provided.

Skin Irritation:

PGPE is not irritating to the skin.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted PGPE for 4 hours produced no irritation in rabbits (scored 0/8).(10) Repeated, prolonged contact (duration not specified) with undiluted PGPE produced slight irritation in rabbits.(5, unconfirmed) Scoring information was not provided.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
A 7-hour exposure to the maximum vapour concentration generated at room temperature produced no deaths. A 7-hour exposure to the maximum concentration generated at 100 deg C produced nasal, respiratory and eye irritation during exposure, but no deaths.(1, unconfirmed)

Skin Contact:
Female rabbits dermally exposed to 1000 mg/kg/day for 14 days, under cover, had no obvious adverse effects. No hemolytic anaemia was observed.(7) In another study, dermal exposure to 1000 mg/kg PGPE (79% alpha isomer; 13% beta isomer) for 14 days (23 hr/d) produced severe dermal irritation (erythema, fissuring and apparent corrosivity) in female rabbits (10/group). Absolute and relative kidney weights were increased.(6) In a 28-day study, rabbits (5/sex/dose) received 19 daily dermal applications of 0, 100, 300 or 1000 mg/kg. The only effect related to treatment was mild, transient dermal irritation, which was observed at all dose levels. There was no evidence of systemic toxicity.(1,5-unconfirmed)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Developmental toxicity was not observed in the absence of maternal toxicity in the only study located.
Rabbits (14-15/group) were orally exposed to 0, 60, 180 or 540 mg/kg/day of a commercial product containing PGPE on days 7-19 or pregnancy. Maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption, reduced weight gain, apathy and/or lateral position) was observed at 540 mg/kg/day. There was also a statistically significant increased rate of fetuses with skeletal variations at this dose. At 60 and 180 mg/kg/day, there was no maternal or developmental toxicity noted.(8)

Mutagenicity:
The limited information available does not suggest that PGPE is mutagenic.
Positive results (micronuclei induction) were obtained in mice administered 0, 500, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg/day on 2 consecutive days by an unspecified route of exposure. A statistically significant increase in micronucleated cells were observed at 2000 mg/kg/day. However, a remarkable decrease (approximately 10 deg C) in body temperature, indicating excessive toxicity, was also observed at this dose. The increase in micronucleated cells was interpreted as being caused by the hypothermia, rather than a direct mutagenic effect.(5, unconfirmed)
Negative results (gene mutation) were obtained in tests using bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(1,5-unconfirmed) Negative results (chromosomal aberrations) were also obtained in a test using cultured human lymphocytes, with and without metabolic activation.(1,5-unconfirmed)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cragg, S.T., et al. Glycol ethers: ethers of propylene, butylene glycols, and other glycol derivatives. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 7 (Chpt. 87). John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) DOWANOL PPh glycol ether (propylene glycol phenyl ether). The Dow Chemical Company Website. The Dow Chemical Company. Technical data sheet. Available at: <www. dow.com/oxysolvents.html>
(3) blank
(4) Langhorst, M.L. Glycol ethers - validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 6 (1984). p. 416-424
(5) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. 4th ed. Technical Report No. 95. ECETOC, Feb. 2005
(6) Summary of results from a acute dermal toxicity study in rabbits with EPA acknowledgment letter. Date produced: July 22, 2986. Emery Uncommon Chem. EPA/OTS: FYI-OTS-0786-0503. NTIS/OTS0000503-0.
(7) Initial submission: ethylene glycol phenyl ether & propylene glycol phenyl ether: comparative 2-week dermal toxicity study in rabbits (final report) w cover letter dated 051492. Date produced: Dec. 19, 1985. Dow Chemical Co. EPA/OTS 88-920003157. NTIS/OTS0539745.
(8) Study of the prenatal toxicity of Protectol PP containing 2-propanol, 1-phenoxy- in Himalayan rabbits after oral administration (gavage) with cover letter dated 01/31/96. Date produced: Dec. 15, 1995. BASF Corp. EPA/OTS 8696000029. NTIS/OTS0572958.
(9) Saghir, S.A., et al. Oral absorption, metabolism and excretion of 1-phenoxy-2-propanol in rats. Xenobiotica. Vol. 33, no. 10 (Oct. 2003). p. 1059-1071
(10) Letter from BASF Corp to USEPA Re: report on the study of Palatinol A (dep) (ZST test substance no. 92/187) in the Ames Test w/attachments & cover letter dated 05/06/94 (sanitized). Date produced: June 7, 1993. BASF Corp. EPA/OTS 86940000390S. NTIS/OTS0572493.
(11) Solvenon PP. BASF Website. BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Unternehmensberich Petrochemikalien. Technical leaflet. Available at: <www2.basf.de/en/produkte/chemikalien/intermed/products/?id=1VxTG77FWbw23li>
(12) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 490 (ethylene glycol monophenyl ether)
(13) Turcotte, G.M., et al. Solvents. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 1997. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(14) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(15) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 3-284
(16) Staples, C.A., et al. An examination of the physical properties, fate, ecotoxicity and potential environmental risks for a series of propylene glycol ethers. Chemosphere. Vol. 49 (2002). p. 61-73
(17) Karsten, E. et al. Solvents. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(18) Flick E.W. Industrial solvents handbook. 3rd ed. Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. p. 430
(19) Bruneau, C. Thermal behavior of some glycol ethers. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development. Vol. 21, no. 1 (1982). p. 74-76
(20) Clark, E.D. Peroxides and peroxide-forming compounds. Chemical Health and Safety. Vol. 8, no. 5 (2001). p. 12-21
(21) Glastrup, J. Stabilisation of polyethylene and polypropylene glycol through inhibition of a beta-positioned hydroxyl group relative to an ether group. A study of modified triethylene and tripropylene glycols. Polymer Degradation and Stability. Vol. 81 (2003). p. 273-278
(22) Kelly, R.J. Review of safety guidelines for peroxidizable organic chemicals. Occupational Health and Safety. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1996). p. 28-36
(23) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999 (alcohols & ethers)
(24) Ogata, Y. et al., Photolytic oxidation of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and related compounds by aqueous hypochlorite. Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2. Issue 6 (1978). p. 562-567
(25) Kenneally, J.C. Alcohols, higher aliphatic, survey and natural alcohols manufacture. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 2001. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(26) Falbe, J., et al. Alcohols, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(27) Karas, L. et al. Ethers, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(28) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 56-57 (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether)
(29) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 62-73 (butyl cellosolve), p. 290-301 (propylene glycol, propylene oxide)
(30) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 74-95 (butyl cellosolve)

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-03-08



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6