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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 178
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether

Synonyms:
1-Propoxy-2-propanol
n-Propoxypropanol
Propylene glycol n-propyl ether
Propylene glycol monopropyl ether (non-specific name)
Monopropylene glycol n-propyl ether
2-Propanol, 1-propoxy-
1-Propoxy-2-hydroxypropane
2-Propoxy-1-methylethanol
1-Propoxypropan-2-ol
alpha-Propylene glycol monopropyl ether
Propylene glycol propyl ether

Chemical Name French: Éther n-propylique du propylène glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Éter monopropílico del propilenglicol

Trade Name(s):
Propasol solvent P
Propasol P
DOWANOL PnP
ARCOSOLV PNP
Eastman EP

CAS Registry Number: 1569-01-3
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 30136-13-1
RTECS Number(s): UB9351000 UB9350000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 216-372-4
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / glycol ether / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / monoaliphatic glycol ether / monoaliphatic glycol monoether / propylene glycol monoether / monopropylene glycol ether / monopropylene glycol monoether / alkoxy propanol / propylene oxide glycol ether
Molecular Formula: C6-H14-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, ether-like odour. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture).(19,21)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether is commercially available as an isomeric mixture of the alpha and beta isomers. In this mixture, the concentration of alpha isomer (1-n-propoxy-2-propanol or alpha-PGMnPE, CAS no. 1569-01-3) is at least 95%, while the beta isomer (2-n-propoxy-1-propanol or beta-PGMnPE, CAS no. 10215-30-2) is maximum 5%. The identity of these substances may be reported either with their individual CAS numbers or with the CAS number 30136-13-1, which has been assigned to the isomeric alpha and beta mixture. In addition to the beta-PGMnPE impurity and depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may also be present: propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, 1,2-dipropoxypropane, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, propoxy acetone, methyl formate, and other organic trace impurities.(19,21,30)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether was formulated as a replacement for the more toxic ethylene glycol monobutyl ether. The primary use is in the manufacture of household and industrial cleaning products such as glass cleaners, metal cleaners and hard surface cleaners. It is also used as a grease and paint remover, and as a solvent to regulate coalescence.(4)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear colourless liquid with a mild, ether-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air, may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain) and may result in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. May form explosive peroxides. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether (PGMnPE) can form a vapour at normal temperatures. No significant harmful effects are expected following inhalation of PGMnPE, based on animal information. Extremely high concentrations (essentially saturated vapour concentrations) may cause nose and throat irritation and signs of mild central nervous system (CNS) depression (headache, nausea and light-headedness). No human information was located.

Skin Contact:
Mild irritation is expected following a short exposure (a few hours), based on animal information. Prolonged or repeated exposure (24 hours) may cause more severe irritation with ulceration and tissue death. No human information was located.
PGMnPE can be absorbed through the skin, but is not expected to produce significant harmful effects by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
Contact with the liquid is expected to produce severe irritation, based on animal information. No human information was located.

Ingestion:
PGMnPE has low toxicity if ingested, based on animal information. If significant ingestion occurred, symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression such as headache, nausea and vomiting may be observed. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No human information was located. Animal information for PGMnPE and other propylene glycol ethers suggests low toxicity following long-term exposure.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged exposure to PGMnPE may cause dermatitis (drying, cracking and inflammation).

Eyes/Vision:
No human information was located. Eye effects were observed in rats exposed by inhalation to PGMnPE, but the authors concluded that the strain of rats that developed the eye effects were particularly susceptible to this effect.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information was located. PGMnPE is not considered a developmental toxin, based on animal studies. In rats exposed by inhalation, a slight developmental effect was observed in the presence of maternal toxicity. In rabbits exposed by inhalation, no developmental effects were observed even in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal information was located. Negative results were obtained in short-term tests using cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Not expected to accumulate, based on comparison to closely related propylene glycol ethers.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing and obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
48 deg C (119 deg F) (closed cup) (18,19)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% (19)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
15% (estimated)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
252 deg C (486 deg F) (19)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether liquid is not expected to accumulate static charge. Mixtures of propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
1 x 10(5) (estimated)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.4 mJ (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(23)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Releases vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 48 deg C. Concentrated water solutions may be combustible. Vapour is heavier than air and can accumulate in confined spaces and low areas, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Can form explosive peroxides. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of combustible or liquid liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on vapour space and any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of propyl glycol mono-n-propyl ether may be combustible. Explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The thermal decomposition products of this material are hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 118.2

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.84 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.206 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -80 deg C (-112 deg F) (13)
Boiling Point: 150 deg C (302 deg F) (13)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.886 at 20 deg C (14); 0.881 at 25 deg C (15)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(17)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be soluble in all proportions with methanol, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether and most polar organic solvents. Soluble in non-polar solvents such as n-hexane and other hydrocarbon solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.49 (estimated) (13)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 2.389 mPa.s (2.389 centipoises) at 25 deg C (15)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 2.71 mm2/s (2.71 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 34.9 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 27.0 mN/m (27.0 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (18)
Vapour Density: 4.1 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 0.227 kPa (1.7 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (13)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 2200 ppm (0.22%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.22 (butyl acetate = 1) (18)
Henry's Law Constant: 3.50 x 10(-3) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 3.46 x 10(-8) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (13); log H = -5.81 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: less than 10 at 25 deg C (estimated, dimensionless)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether with other substances is moderate because propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(27,28)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(29,30,31)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(29,30,31)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(29,31)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(29,31)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat.(29,30,31)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(29,31)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(29,30,31)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(29,31)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether can form peroxides on prolonged exposure to air. Light and or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause concentration of the peroxide impurities.(24,25,26)

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures of 48 deg C or above, sparks including electrostatic discharges, direct sunlight, open flame, hot surfaces, or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether is expected to be slightly corrosive to aluminum or carbon steel and some stainless steel alloys. It is expected to be slightly corrosive or corrosive to 301, 302, and 440 stainless steel alloys. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(32,33)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether is expected to attack chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, high density polyethylene, polymethacrylate acrylic, and polycarbonate. Polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene, chlorinated polyether, polypropylene, polyphenylene oxide, and thermoset polyesters may be slightly attacked. Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether is not expected to attack fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, most polyamide plastics, and thermoset epoxy. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(22)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Unless specified, the studies reviewed here were conducted with commercial propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether (PGMnPE), which is generally composed of at least 95% alpha-PGMnPE (1-n-propoxy-2-propanol) and up to 5% beta-PGMnPE (2-n-propoxy-1-propanol). beta-PGMnPE is present in commercial PGMnPE, but is not commercially available by itself.

LC50 (rat): greater than approximately 2450 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as greater than the saturated vapour concentration (approximately 2200 ppm; 6-hour exposure; 10/10 survived) (3,7)

LD50 (oral, female rat): 2500 mg/kg (cited as 2.83 mL/kg) (3,7)
LD50 (rat): 2875 mg/kg (cited as 3.25 mL/kg) (10)
LD50 (oral, male rat): 4350 mg/kg (cited as 4.92 mL/kg) (3,7)

LD50 (dermal, male rabbit): 3795 mg/kg (cited as 4.29 mL/kg) (3,7)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 3535 mg/kg (cited as 4.00 mL/kg) (10)
LD50 (dermal, female rabbit): 4350 mg/kg (cited as 4.92 mL/kg) (3,7)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 2805 mg/kg (cited as 3.17 mL/kg) (1, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Propylene glycol mono-n-propyl ether (PGMnPE) is a severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of PGMnPE produced severe irritation in rabbits (maximum scores: corneal opacity: 1.0/4 at 1 hour to 2 days; iris: 1.0/2 at 1 hour to 24 hours; redness: 1.0/3 at 1 hour to 2 days; swelling: 3.5/4 at 1.0 hour). Signs of injury persisted to the end of the 3-week observation period. Application of smaller amounts produced less severe injury.(3,7) Application of in excess of a 40% solution of PGMnPE caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 7/10).(10) Eye irritation was reported in rats exposed to statically generated saturated vapour concentrations (approximately 2230 ppm) of PGMnPE for 6 hours.(3,7)

Skin Irritation:

PGMnPE is a mild skin irritant following a 4-hour contact. A 24-hour contact produced necrosis.

Application of 0.5 mL of PGMnPE, under cover for 4 hours, produced mild irritation in rabbits (maximum scores: erythema: 1.2/4 at 1 day; edema: 0.5/4 at 1 hour and 1 day). Rabbits exposed continuously for 24 hours had more severe redness and swelling as well as fissuring, ulceration and necrosis.(3,7) Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted PGMnPE produced mild irritation in rabbits (graded 2/10).(10)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Male and female rats exposed to a statically generated saturated vapour concentration at room temperature (approximately 2230 ppm) of PGMnPE for 6 hours showed reduced activity within one hour. Following exposure, effects included incoordination and loss of righting reflex. Recovery occurred within a day. No animals died during the 14-day observation period and autopsy showed no significant effects.(3) Rats (10/sex/group) exposed to 0, 503, 983 or 2000 ppm for 9/11 days (6 hr/d) showed central nervous system (CNS) depression (muscle incoordination and unconsciousness) at 2000 ppm only. All exposures caused corneal lesions (keratitis, superficial ulceration, vascularization and stromal mineralization), depressed body weights and increased kidney and liver weights. No cellular changes were noted in the liver or kidneys.(7) Male rats (2 strains), guinea pigs and rabbits were exposed to 0, 105, 486 or 1824 ppm for 9/11 days (6 hr/d). Eye irritation and lesions, and CNS depression (muscle incoordination and unconsciousness) were observed in rats (both strains) and rabbits exposed to 1824 ppm and 3/6 rabbits died. Minimal toxicity was seen in guinea pigs exposed to 1824 ppm. At 105 and 486 ppm, some potentially irreversible eye effects were observed in one strain of rats (the lesions persisted throughout a 4-week recovery period). The authors concluded that this particular strain of rat was apparently predisposed to the observed effect.(7) In a follow-up study, the same strains of rats were exposed to 0, 5.2, 48.1 or 99.1 ppm PGMnPE with no signs of toxicity, including eye effects.(8) Six female rats exposed to 600 ppm for 10 days (7 hr/d) showed no observable adverse effects. Six male rats exposed under these same conditions for 29 days also experienced no observable adverse effects.(10)

Skin Contact:
In an acute lethality study, application of 1770-7070 mg/kg (cited as 2.0-8.0 mL/kg) PGMnPE to rabbits caused a comatose appearance within 15-30 minutes of application. Autopsy of animals that died following exposure showed dark red lungs and tracheas. No pathological changes were seen in surviving rabbits.(3)

Ingestion:
In acute lethality studies, high doses caused central nervous system (CNS) depression and some evidence of kidney injury.(1, unconfirmed) In another acute lethality study, rats showed signs of CNS depression (sluggishness, an unsteady gait and prostration) at 1770 mg/kg (cited as 2.0 mL/kg) PGnMPE and above. Autopsy showed a reddened glandular stomachs and dark red lungs. No abnormalities were seen in surviving animals.(3)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Two strains of rats (20/sex/group) were exposed to 0, 30, 100 and 300 ppm for 14 weeks (6 hr/d; 5 d/wk). Half of the animals were monitored for toxicity over a 90-day recovery period. No clinical signs related to exposure were observed. The eyes of all animals appeared normal upon detailed eye examination. At 100 ppm, female rats had decreased body weight gains during the first two weeks of exposure. During exposure to 300 ppm, the females had lower body weights throughout the study. No other differences in weight gain or food consumption were noted. Detailed autopsy showed no gross lesions and organ weights were normal. No exposure-related microscopic lesions were observed. Corneal dystrophy was observed in all groups, including the control animals.(9)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
PGMnPE is not considered a developmental toxin. In rats exposed by inhalation, a slight developmental effect was observed in the presence of maternal toxicity. In rabbits exposed by inhalation, no developmental effects were observed even in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Rats (25/group) and rabbits(22/group) were exposed by inhalation to 0, 100, 750, or 1500 ppm PGMnPE on days 6-15 (rats) and 6-18 (rabbits) of pregnancy. In rats, maternal toxicity (eye irritation, reduced food consumption and body weight) was observed at 1500 ppm. No developmental effects were observed, except reduced ossification in fetuses born to mothers exposed to 1500 ppm. In rabbits, maternal toxicity (mortality, reduction in weight gain, food and water consumption) was observed at 1500 ppm. No developmental effects were observed.(11)

Mutagenicity:
The information located does not suggest that PGMnPE is mutagenic. No studies using live animals were located. Negative results were obtained in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.
Negative results (chromosomal aberration) were obtained in cultured mammalian cells, both with and without metabolic activation.(12, unconfirmed) Negative results (gene mutation) were also obtained in bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(12, unconfirmed)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cragg, S.T., et al. Glycol ethers: ethers of propylene glycol, butylene glycols, and other glycol derivatives. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 5 (Chpt. 87). John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 489 (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether)
(3) Ballantyne, B., et al. The acute toxicity and primary irritancy of 1-propoxy-2-propanol. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 2 (1988). p. 126-129
(4) Karsten, E. et al. Solvents. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at:<www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(5) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(6) Langhorst, M.L. Glycol ethers--validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 6 (1984). p. 416-424
(7) Initial submission: letter concerning information on three toxicity test studies with Propasol Solvent P in rats, rabbits & guinea pigs with attachments. Date Produced: May 6, 1992. Union Carbide Corp. EPA/OTS 88-920002627. NTIS/OTS0536527.
(8) Bushy Run Res. Ctr. Propasol Solvent P - additional 2-week vapor exposure study with rats with cover letter dated 041889. Date produced: Apr. 4, 1989. Union Carbide Corp. EPA/OTS : 89-890000150. NTIS/OTS0513453-2.
(9) Bushy Run Res. Ctr. Propasol Solvent P: fourteen-week vapor inhalation study with Fischer 344 and Sprague-Dawley rats with cover letter. Date produced: Aug. 9, 1990. Union Carbide Corp. EPA/OTS 89-900000372. NTIS/OTS0513453-3.
(10) USEPA status report: 1-propoxy-2-propanol with cover letter dated 061786. Date produced: June 17, 1986. USEPA. EPA/OTS 8EHQ-0686-0603. NTIS/OTS0513453.
(11) Bushy Run Res. Ctr. Initial submission: letter from Union Carbide Corp to USEPA regarding developmental toxicity studies of Propasol Solvent P vapor in rats and rabbits with cover letter dated 092692. Date produced: Sept. 26, 1992. EPA/OTS 88-920009592. NTIS/OTS0571249.
(12) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. 4th ed. Technical Report No. 95. ECETOC, Feb. 2005
(13) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(14) Fernandez, J. et al. ppT measurements and EoS predictions of glycol ethers from (283.15 to 353.15) K at pressures up to 25 MPa. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data. Vol. 49 (2004). p. 1400-1405
(15) Tu, C.-H. et al. Density and viscosity of mixtures of alkoxypropanols with ethanol at T = (298.15, 308.15, and 318.15) K. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data. Vol. 46 (2001). p. 1392-1398
(16) Pal, A., et al. Excess molar volumes of binary liquid mixtures of 1-propanol and of 2-propanol + propane-1,2-diol, 1-methoxy-2-propanol, 1-ethoxy-2-propanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol and water + 1-methoxy-2-propanol and 1-ethoxy-2-propanol at 298.15 K. Journal of Chemical Engineering Data. Vol. 42 (1997). p. 1157-1160
(17) Kunz, W., et al. Temperature dependence of industrial propylene glycol alkyl ether/water mixtures. Journal of Molecular Liquids. Vol. 115 (2004). p. 23-28
(18) Weathers, J., et al. Formulating water-based systems with propylene-oxide-based glycol ethers. Journal of Coatings Technology. Vol. 72, no. 905 (2000). p. 67-72
(19) DOWANOL PnP (Propylene glycol n-propyl ether). The Dow Chemical Company Website. The Dow Chemical Company. Technical data sheet and specification sheet. Available at: <www. dow.com/oxysolvents.html>
(20) Turcotte, G.M., et al. Solvents. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 1997. Available at <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(21) ARCOSOLV PNP (Propylene glycol n-propyl ether). Lyondell Chemical Company Website. Lyondell Chemical Company. Technical data sheet and specification sheet. Available at: <www.lyondell.com/html/products/product_selector.shtml>
(22) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 74-95 (butyl cellosolve)
(23) Bruneau, C. Thermal behavior of some glycol ethers. Industrial Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development. Vol. 21, no. 1 (1982). p. 74-76
(24) Clark, E.D. Peroxides and peroxide-forming compounds. Chemical Health and Safety. Vol. 8, no. 5 (2001). p. 12-21
(25) Glastrup, J. Stabilisation of polyethylene and polypropylene glycol through inhibition of a beta-positioned hydroxyl group relative to an ether group. A study of modified triethylene and tripropylene glycols. Polymer Degradation and Stability. Vol. 81 (2003). p. 273-278
(26) Kelly, R.J. Review of safety guidelines for peroxidizable organic chemicals. Occupational Health and Safety. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1996). p. 28-36
(27) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999 (alcohols & ethers)
(28) Ogata, Y. et al., Photolytic oxidation of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and related compounds by aqueous hypochlorite. Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2. Issue 6 (1978). p. 562-567
(29) Falbe, J., et al. Alcohols, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(30) Karas, L. et al. Ethers, aliphatic. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(31) Kenneally, J.C. Alcohols, higher aliphatic, survey of natural alcohols manufacture. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Wiley and Sons, 2001. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs> (Subscription required)
(32) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 56-57 (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether)
(33) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 62-73 (butyl cellosolve), p. 290-301 (propylene glycol, propylene oxide)
(34) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Date: April 1993. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(35) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Propylene glycol monomethyl ether. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). March 2003. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-03-07



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