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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 174
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether

Synonyms:
1-Butoxy-2-propanol
n-Butoxypropanol
Propylene glycol n-butyl ether
Propylene glycol monobutyl ether (non-specific name)
1-Butoxy-2-hydroxypropane
1-Butoxypropan-2-ol
Monopropylene glycol butyl ether
2-Propanol, 1-butoxy-
alpha-Propylene glycol monobutyl ether

Chemical Name French: Éther n-butylique du propylène glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Éter monobutil del propilenglicol

Trade Name(s):
Propasol solvent B
DOWANOL PnB
ARCOSOLV PNB

CAS Registry Number: 5131-66-8
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 29387-86-8
RTECS Number(s): UA7700000 TZ0630000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 225-878-4
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / glycol ether / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / monoaliphatic glycol ether / monoaliphatic glycol monoether / propylene glycol monoether / mono propylene glycol monoether / alkoxy propanol / propylene oxide glycol ether
Molecular Formula: C7-H16-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, ether-like odour.(32)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether is commercially available as an isomeric mixture of the alpha and beta isomers with a minimum purity of 99% for the isomeric mixture. In this mixture, the concentration of alpha isomer (1-butoxy-2-propanol or alpha-PGMnBE; CAS no. 5131-66-8) is at least 95% while the beta isomer (2-butoxy-1-propanol or beta-PGMnBE; CAS no. 15821-83-7) is maximum 5%. The identity of these substances may be reported either with their individual CAS numbers or with the CAS number 29387-86-8, which is assigned to the isomeric alpha and beta mixture. In addition to the beta-PGMnBE impurity and depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may also be present: propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, 1,2-dibutoxypropane, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, butoxy acetone, methyl formate, and other organic trace impurities.(32,41,45)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether was formulated as a replacement for the more toxic ethylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether. The primary use is in the manufacture of household and industrial cleaning products such as glass cleaners, metal cleaners and hard surface cleaners. It is also used as a grease and paint remover, and as a solvent to regulate coalescence.(10)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, ether-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air, may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain) and may result in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. May form explosive peroxides. EYE AND SKIN IRRITANT. Causes moderate to severe eye and skin irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether (PGMnBE) can form a vapour at normal temperatures. However, it is not expected to produce harmful effects, even at maximum attainable vapour concentrations, based on animal information. No human information was located.

Skin Contact:
PGMnBE is a moderate skin irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.
PGMnBE can be absorbed through the skin, based on animal information. However, harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
PGMnBE is a moderate to severe eye irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.

Ingestion:
PGMnBE is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on animal information. No human case reports of ingestion were located. Large doses may cause central nervous system (CNS) depression, with symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness and in-coordination. Ingestion is not a typical route of exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No cases of harmful effects following long-term exposure of humans were located. Harmful effects have not been seen in animal studies with long-term exposure to PGMnBE or other closely related propylene glycol ethers. Repeated or prolonged skin contact may cause dermatitis (dry, red, irritated skin).

Skin:
Prolonged skin contact may produce mild to moderate skin irritation with redness, swelling, and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
PGMnBE is not expected to be a skin sensitizer, based on negative results in an unconfirmed animal test.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information was located. PGMnBE ether is not expected to cause developmental effects, based on animal information.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal studies were located. Negative results were obtained in short-term tests using bacteria and cultured animal cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate, based on comparison to related propylene glycol ethers.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes. Immediately obtain medical attention. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
62 deg C (144 deg F) (closed cup) (46); 63 deg C (145 deg F) (closed cup) (32); 59 deg C (138 deg F) (method not specified; assumed closed cup) (30)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.1% (25)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
15% (25)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
260 deg C (486 deg F) (32)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether liquid may accumulate static charge. Mixtures of propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
1 x 10(4) (estimated)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(33) Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Water spray, dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours may form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of combustible or flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on vapour space and any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of propyl glycol mono-n-butyl ether may be combustible. Explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
This material is slightly hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 132

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.38 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.186 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -90 deg C (-130.0 deg F) (25)
Boiling Point: 171 deg C (340 deg F) (2,26)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.879 at 20 deg C; 0.874 at 25 deg C (27)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (6 g/100 mL) (25,28)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be soluble in polar organic solvents (e.g. methanol and ethanol) and very soluble in non-polar organic solvents (e.g. methylene chloride and n-hexane).
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.98 (estimated) (26)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 3.38 mPa.s (3.38 centipoises) at 20 deg C (10); 2.86 mPa.s (2.86 centipoises) at 25 deg C (29)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 3.85 mm2/s (3.85 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 3.27 mm2/s (3.27 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 36.8-38.6 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 26.3 mN/m (26.3 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (30)
Vapour Density: 4.55 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 0.16 kPa (1.2 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (25,31)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 1600 ppm (0.16%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.07 (30); 0.09 (25) (butyl acetate = 1)
Henry's Law Constant: 3.9 x 10(-1) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 3.8 x 10(-6) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (31); log H = -3.81 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 5.1 at 25 deg C (dimensionless) (27)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether with other substances is moderate because propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(37,38)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(39,40,41)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(39,40,41)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(39,40)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(39,40)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat.(39,40,41)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat (39,40)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(39,40,41)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(39,40)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether can form peroxides on prolonged exposure to air. Light and or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause concentration of the peroxide impurities.(34,35,36)

Conditions to Avoid:
Heating of substance to temperatures of approximately 60 deg C or above, sparks including electrostatic discharges, direct sunlight, open flame, hot surfaces, or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether is expected to be slightly corrosive to aluminum or carbon steel and some stainless steel alloys. It is expected to be slightly corrosive or corrosive to 301, 302, and 440 stainless steel alloys. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(42,43)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether is expected to attack chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, high density polyethylene, polymethacrylate acrylic, and polycarbonate. Polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene, chlorinated polyether, polypropylene, polyphenylene oxide, and thermoset polyesters are slightly attacked. Propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether is not expected to attack fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, most polyamide plastics, and thermoset epoxy. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol monobutyl ether.(44)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Unless specified, the studies reviewed here were conducted with commercial propylene glycol mono-n-butyl ether (PGMnBE) which is generally composed of greater than 95% alpha-PGMnBE (1-butoxy-2-propanol) and less than 5% beta-PGMEE (2-butoxy-1-propanol). Another isomeric form of PGMnBE, 3-butoxy-1-propanol also exists, but has no commercial significance.

LC50 (rat): greater than 650 ppm (4-hour exposure; all rats survived) (1,7,8)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1900 mg/kg (1-unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, rat): 2490 mg/kg (cited as 2.83 mL/kg; 3-butoxypropanol, mixed isomers) (11)
LD50 (oral, rat): 3300 mg/kg (7,8)
LD50 (oral, rat): 5230 mg/kg (cited as 5.95 mL/kg; 3-butoxy-1-propanol) (12)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 3130 mg/kg (cited as 3.56 mL/kg; 3-butoxypropanol, mixed isomers) (11)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 1340 mg/kg (cited as 1.59 mL/kg; 3-butoxy-1-propanol) (12)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (1,7,8)

Eye Irritation:

PGMnBE is a moderate to severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGMnBE caused moderate irritation in rabbits (scored: 34/110).(17) Application of in excess of a 40% solution of 3-butoxypropanol (mixed isomers) caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 7/10).(11) Application of in excess of a 40% solution of 3-butoxy-1-propanol caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 7/10).(12) Repeated contact (one drop for 5 days) caused marked irritation and clouding of the cornea in rabbits. Healing occurred within a week.(1, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

PGMnBE is a moderate skin irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted PGMnBE, under cover for 4 hours, caused moderate irritation in rabbits (scored 4/8).(16) Application of 0.5 mL of a 75% water solution of PGMnBE for 4 hours caused moderate irritation in rabbits (scored 2.5/8). A 50% solution was slightly irritating (scored 0.8/8) and a 25% solution was not irritating (scored 0/8).(18) Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted 3-butoxypropanol (mixed isomers) caused mild irritation in rabbits (graded 3/10).(11) Application of 0.01 mL 3-butoxy-1-propanol caused mild irritation in rabbits (graded 2/10).(12) In an acute lethality study, application of 1800-4400 mg/kg (cited as 1.8-4.4 g/kg), under cover for 24 hours, produced severe skin injury in rats.(1, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
No deaths occurred in rats exposed for 8 hours to a concentrated vapour concentrations of 3-butoxypropanol (mixed isomers) or 3-butoxy-1-propanol.(11,12) Rats showed no signs of toxicity after a 4-hour exposure to a saturated atmosphere of PGMnBE.(1,7-unconfirmed) Rats (2 strains) were exposed to 0, 10, 100, 300 or 600 ppm PGMnBE for 9/11 days (6 hr/d). At 300 and 600 ppm, a low incidence of mild eye lesions and, at 600 ppm, increased liver weights, were observed in one strain of rats. The livers were histopathologically normal.(13) Rats (5/sex/group) were exposed to 0, 50, 200 or 700 ppm PGMnBE for 9 exposures (6 hr/d) over a two-week period. The highest exposure concentration was the maximum attainable at room temperature and pressure. No significant adverse effects were noted. A slight increase in relative liver weight was observe at 700 ppm, but there were no histological lesions or changes in clinical chemistry parameters reflective of liver dysfunction.(15)

Skin Contact:
In an acute lethality study, application of 1800 mg/kg (cited as 1.8 g/kg), for 24 hours under cover, caused 0/5 deaths in rabbits. Application of 2600 or 4400 mg/kg caused 2/5 and 5/5 deaths. Signs of central nervous system depression were observed.(1-unconfirmed) Applications (10/14 days) of PGMnBE caused only mild skin irritation in rabbits. There was some evidence that toxic amounts were absorbed. (1, unconfirmed) Application of 2 mL/kg of 0, 11.4, 114 or 1140 mg/kg (cited as 0, 0.569, 5.69 or 56.9% PGMnBE (50/50 w/v ethanol/distilled water)) to abraded skin for 4 weeks (7 hr/d; 5 d/wk) produced no systemic effects in rabbits (5/sex/group). The 5.69% mixture produced redness in some animals, while the 56.9% mixture caused redness, swelling, shedding and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).(20)

Ingestion:
Oral doses of 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg/kg PGMnBE for 14 consecutive days produced no adverse effects in rats (6/sex/group), including effects on blood parameters.(19) Rats exposed to 3300 mg/kg PGMnBE showed central nervous system (CNS) depression, reduced activity, coma, slowed breathing and tearing.(7-unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Exposure of rats (6/sex/group) to 600 ppm PGMnBE for 31 days (7 hr/d, 5 d/wk) produced no adverse effects, except for increased liver weights in females only.(1,7,8-unconfirmed)

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of 0, 88, 265 or 880 mg/kg/day (cited as 0, 0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mL/kg/day) PGMnBE for 13 weeks (5 d/wk) produced minor local skin effects (redness, swelling and occasional superficial scar tissue) in rats (10/sex/group). No changes in blood parameters or other systemic effects were noted.(1,7,8-unconfirmed) Application of 0, 11.4, 114 or 1140 mg/kg PGMnBE (in 50/50 w/v ethanol/distilled water; cited as 0.569, 5.69 or 56.9%) to rabbits (5/sex/group) for 13 weeks (7 hr/d; 5 d/wk) did not cause systemic effects. The two highest doses caused mild to moderate redness, swelling, shedding and cracking of the skin (erythema).(14,21)

Ingestion:
PGMnBE was given to rats (10/sex/group) in their drinking water at doses of 0, 100, 350 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. No effects were observed in rats given 100 or 350 mg/kg. Increased liver weights (males) and increased kidney weights (females) were observed with exposure to 1000 mg/kg/day, but there were no histological changes.(1,7,8-unconfirmed)

Skin Sensitization:
PGMnBE was not sensitizing to guinea pigs in a modified Buehler test.(1,7,8-unconfirmed)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Developmental effects were not observed following dermal or oral exposure to PGMnBE.
In a well-conducted study, rabbits were dermally exposed to 0, 10, 40 or 100 mg/kg/day PGMnBE on days 7-18 of pregnancy (6 hr/d). No signs of maternal toxicity were observed except for slight redness at the application site in the high dose group. No signs of developmental toxicity were observed.(3) No developmental effects were seen in offspring of rats (25/group) dermally exposed to 0, 265 or 880 mg/kg (cited as 0, 0.3 or 1.0 mL/kg) PGMnBE on days 6-16 of pregnancy. Minor skin reactions were noted in the mothers.(1,7,8,9-unconfirmed) No maternal or developmental effects were observed in mice orally exposed to up to 226.4 mg/kg/day PGMnBE on days 6-15 of pregnancy.(1-unconfirmed)

Mutagenicity:
No studies using live animals were located. Negative results were obtained for tests using bacteria and cultured mammalian cells.
Negative results were obtained in tests with PGMnBE using bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(1,7,8-unconfirmed) Negative results (chromosomal aberrations, gene mutations, unscheduled DNA synthesis) were obtained when PGMnBE was tested in cultured mammalian cells, with and without metabolic activation.(1,7,8-unconfirmed,23,24)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cragg, S.T., et al. Glycol ethers: ethers of propylene, butylene glycols, and other glycol derivatives. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 7. (Chpt. 87). John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) Flick E.W. Industrial solvents handbook. 3rd ed. E.W. Flick, ed. Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. p. 431
(3) Gibson, W.B., et al. Determination of the developmental toxicity potential of butoxypropanol in rabbits after topical administration. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13 (1989). p. 359-365
(4) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(5) Langhorst, M.L. Glycol ethers--validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 6 (1984). p. 416-424
(6) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 83/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(7) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. 4th ed. Technical report no. 95. ECETOC, Feb. 2005
(8) Verschueren, H.G. Toxicological studies with propylene glycol n-butyl ether. Occupational Hygiene. Vol. 2 (1996). p. 311-318
(9) Spencer, P.J. New toxicity data for propylene glycol ethers - a commitment to public health and safety. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 156 (2005). p. 181-188
(10) Karsten, E. et al. Solvents. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(11) Carpenter, et al. Range-finding toxicity data : list VIII. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 28, no. 2 (1974). p. 313-319
(12) Smyth, H.F., Jr., et al. Range-finding toxicity data : list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Vol. 30, no. 5 (Sept.-Oct. 1969). p. 470-476
(13) Bushy Run Research Center. Propasol(R) Solvent B: nine-day vapor inhalation study on rats. Date produced: Jan. 5, 1989. Union Carbide Corp. In: Health and safety studies for 19 chemicals with cover letter dated 06/02/89. EPA/OTS 86-890000263. NTIS/OTS0516797.
(14) Innis, J.D., et al. No evidence of toxicity associated with subchronic dermal exposure of rabbits to butoxypropanol. {Abstract}. Toxicologist. Vol. 8 (1988). p. 213
(15) Propylene glycol-n-butyl ether: two-week vapor inhalation study with Fischer 344 rats (final report) (sanitized). Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: May 15, 1989. EPA/OTS 86-890001260S. NTIS/OTS0520768.
(16) Assessment of primary skin irritation/corrosion by Dowanol-PnB in the rabbit. Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: Jan. 5, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890001252. NTIS/OTS0520762.
(17) Assessment of acute eye irritation and corrosion by Dowanol-PnB in the rabbit with attachments (sanitized). Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: July 1, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890001248S. NTIS/OTS0520758.
(18) Assessment of primary skin irritation/corrosion by Dowanol-PnB diluted of 75%, 50% and 25% (w/w) in the rabbit. Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: June 1, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890001251. NTIS/OTS0520761.
(19) Assessment of the oral toxicity, including the haemolytic activity of Dowanol-PnB in the rat: 14-day study with attachments. Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: July 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890001253. NTIS/OTS0520763.
(20) Hazelton Laboratories. 28-Day subchronic percutaneous toxicity with attachments, cover sheets and letter dated 061289 (sanitized). Date produced: Apr. 25, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890000467S. NTIS/OTS0520508.
(21) Hazelton Laboratories. A 91-day subchronic percutaneous toxicity with attachments, cover sheets and letter dated 061289 (sanitized). Date produced: July 13, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890000466S. NTIS/OTS0520507.
(22) Civo Institutes TNO. Subchronic (13-wk) dermal toxicity study with propylene glycol-n-butyl ether in rats (final report). Dow Chemical Co. Date produced: Apr. 1, 1988. EPA/OTS 86-890001257. NTIS/OTS0520767.
23) Microbiological Associates. Test for chemical induction of mutation in mammalian cells in culture the L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma assay (final report) w-attachments, cover sheets & letter 062189 (sanitized). Date produced: Apr. 5, 1987. EPA/OTS 86-890000471S. NTIS/OTS0520512.
(24) Sitek Research Laboratories. Test for chemical induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary cultures of rat hepat (by autoradiography) (final report) w-attachment, cover sheets & letter 061289 (sanitized). Date produced: Dec. 23, 1986. EPA/OTS 86-890000469S. NTIS/OTS0520510.
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(38) Ogata, Y. et al., Photolytic oxidation of ethylene glycol dimethyl ether and related compounds by aqueous hypochlorite. Journal of Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions 2. Issue 6 (1978). p. 562-567
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(42) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 56-57 (ethylene glycol monobutyl ether)
(43) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 62-73 (butyl cellosolve), p. 290-301 (propylene glycol, propylene oxide)
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2007-05-08



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