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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 145
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol methyl ether (alpha isomer; commercial mixture)

Synonyms:
1-Methoxy-2-hydroxypropane
2-Methoxy-1-methylethanol
1-Methoxy-2-propanol
Propylene glycol methyl ether (non-specific name)
alpha-Propylene glycol monomethyl ether
1-Methoxypropan-2-ol
Monopropylene glycol methyl ether (non-specific name)
2-Propanol, 1-methoxy-
alpha-PGME

Chemical Name French: Éther monométhylique de propylène glycol (alpha; commercial)
Chemical Name Spanish: Eter monometílico del propilenglicol (alpha; comercial)

Trade Name(s):
Arcosolv PM
DOWANOL PM
Eastman PM Solvent
METHYL-PROXITOL
Poly-Solv MPM
Propasol Solvent M
Solvenon PM

CAS Registry Number: 107-98-2
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 1320-67-8; 28677-93-2
UN/NA Number(s): 3092
RTECS Number(s): UB7700000 TZ0660000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-539-1
Chemical Family: Alcohol ether / glycol ether / aliphatic ether alcohol / aliphatic glycol ether / alkyl ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / alkyl glycol ether / alkyl glycol monoether / monoalkyl glycol ether / monoalkyl glycol monoether / propylene glycol monoether / monopropylene glycol ether / monopropylene glycol monoether / alkoxy propanol / propylene oxide glycol ether
Molecular Formula: C4-H10-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-O-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, ether-like odour. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture).(45,65)

Odour Threshold:
10 ppm (37 mg/m3) (detection) (11,12); 100 ppm (370 mg/m3) (objectionable) (11,12)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - odour threshold about the same magnitude as TLV (0.1 to 1 times TLV). Olfactory fatigue may occur (odour may not be noticed after short exposures).(11)

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol methyl ether (alpha isomer) also referred to as alpha-PGME. It is generally available with a minimum purity of 99%. Commercial propylene glycol methyl ether is primarily comprised of the alpha isomer. The main impurity is the isomeric compound 2-methoxy-1-propanol (CAS No. 1589-47-5), which is also referred to as beta-PGME or beta-propylene glycol methyl ether. beta-PGME is considered teratogenic by some authorities and it is important to know how much beta-PGME is in the material that you are using. Some commercial mixtures may contain beta-PGME up to 5% and may report the purity as a combination of both the alpha and beta isomers as greater than 99%. In the case of commercial products that contain up to 5% of beta-PGME, the isomers are either identified by their individual CAS Nos. or by the CAS No. 1320-67-8 or 28677-93-2, which represent the isomeric mixture. Contact your manufacturer/supplier or Material Safety Data Sheet for specific information on the purity of the propylene glycol methyl ether that is in the product that you are using. In addition to the beta-PGME impurity and depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may also be present: propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, 1,2-dimethoxypropane, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, methoxy acetone, methyl formate, and other organic trace impurities.(59,63,64)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol methyl ether was formulated as a replacement for the more toxic ethylene glycol methyl ether and ethylene glycol ethyl ether.
It is used in the manufacture of lacquers and paints, printing and other inks, dyes, stains, cleaning products such as glass and rug cleaners, carbon and grease removers, paint and varnish removers, and laminates for circuit boards. It is also used as antifreeze in industrial engines, in agrochemical formulations, cosmetics (e.g. nail care), adhesive products, and as a chemical intermediate for synthesis of polyglycol ethers.(45)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with an ethereal odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air, may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain). Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. May form explosive peroxides. Irritating to eyes, nose, and throat. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, confusion and unconsciousness.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) readily forms high vapour concentrations at normal temperatures. At 50-100 ppm, the odour is objectionable, but tolerance to the odour can develop. At 250 ppm and above, eye, nose and throat irritation can occur. Over time and with higher concentrations, the irritation will become severe. At 300-400 ppm and above, central nervous system depression with symptoms such as headache, nausea, light-headedness and incoordination can develop. These concentrations will also produce intolerable irritation.
Six male volunteers exposed to 15, 50 and 95 ppm of PGME for 6 hours reported no headaches and no nose or throat irritation. There was rapid development of odour tolerance.(24) In a series of experiments, male volunteers exposed to 100 ppm found the odour objectionable. However, odour tolerance developed after a short while (25 minutes in one test). Twenty-three volunteers were exposed to approximately 250 ppm PGME vapour for 1-7 hours. The majority complained of eye, nose or throat irritation after 15-30 minutes. Over time, the irritation became more pronounced. Performance on visual, coordination, and neurological tests was normal.(11) In the same study, 2 volunteers were exposed to a PGME concentration steadily increasing from 1-2050 ppm over a 2-hour period. The volunteers noted the odour at 25 ppm, reported objectionable odour at 50-75 ppm, light-headedness and mild eye irritation at 300-400 ppm, eye, nose and throat irritation at 500 ppm and lachrymation and runny nose at 700 ppm. At 1000 ppm, one volunteer became incapacitated by eye irritation and was unable to perform a neurological test. The second volunteer continued exposure for 1 more hour, with concentrations reaching 2050 ppm. Performance on neurological tests was normal. Severe nose pain, lachrymation and a very sore throat were experienced. Eye irritation disappeared after about 1 hour, while nasal congestion was present for 24 hours.(11)

Skin Contact:
PGME is not irritating to skin, based on animal information.
Experiments with human volunteers show that PGME can be absorbed through the skin, but the contribution to overall exposure is considered small and harmful effects are not expected to occur by this route of exposure.(24,30,32)

Eye Contact:
Direct contact with PGME is expected to cause mild irritation of the eyes, based on animal information.
PGME vapour at 250 ppm and above are irritating to the eyes. Twenty-three volunteers were exposed to approximately 250 ppm PGME vapour for 1-7 hours. The majority complained of eye irritation after 15-30 minutes. Over time, the irritation became more pronounced. In the same study, 2 volunteers were exposed to a PGME concentration steadily increasing from 1-2050 ppm over a 2-hour period. The volunteers noted mild eye irritation at 300-400 ppm and severe irritation with tearing at 700 ppm. At 1000 ppm, one volunteer became incapacitated by eye irritation. The second volunteer continued exposure for 1 more hour, with concentrations reaching 2050 ppm. Severe lachrymation was experienced. The eye irritation disappeared after about 1 hour.(11) In another study, 12 male volunteers were exposed to 0, 100 or 150 ppm PGME for 2.5 hours. Minimal subjective (self-reported) eye effects, but no changes in objective measures, were noted following exposure to 150 ppm.(38)

Ingestion:
PGME is expected to have low toxicity if ingested, based on animal information. If large amounts are ingested, effects of PGME could include headache, nausea, vomiting, light-headedness, and drowsiness, indicating depression of the nervous system. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are no reports of harmful effects in humans with long-term exposure to PGME. Based on animal information, no chronic effects are expected.

Skin Sensitization:
PGME is not considered a skin sensitizer. No human case reports were located. Negative results were obtained in animal tests.

Carcinogenicity:

No human information was located. Negative results were obtained in the one animal study located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that glycol ethers, including PGME, cause developmental effects in humans. Commercial PGME is largely the alpha isomer, with small amounts of the beta isomer. Developmental effects were not observed in animal studies following exposure to commercial PGME at concentrations that did not cause significant maternal toxicity. The beta isomer is metabolized differently in the body than the alpha isomer. beta-PGME is considered teratogenic based on animal information and comparison to ethylene glycol methyl ether, which metabolized in a similar way to the beta isomer. Research indicates that the potential for developmental effects occurring following exposure to commercial PGME, which contains a very small amount of the beta isomer, is low.(39)
Four human studies have assessed the relationship between occupational exposure to glycol ethers (including the more toxic ethylene glycol ethers) and birth defects. Two studies found a positive association between glycol ether exposure and malformations in a number of different organs and one found no association between glycol ether exposure and neural tube defects. Detailed analysis of these 3 studies showed that the results could have been due to problems with the methods used by the researchers. The fourth study was determined to be uninformative due to the small number of people evaluated.(31)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Two human population studies examined the miscarriage rate in female employees exposed to a number of chemicals, one of which was propylene glycol methyl ether acetate, in the semiconductor industry. Propylene glycol methyl ether acetate is closely related to PGME and is metabolized in the body to form PGME. In both studies, detailed analysis of the data did not show a statistically significant increased risk of miscarriages in workers exposed to ethylene glycol ethers (including propylene glycol methyl ether acetate).(1)
In animal studies, commercial PGME has not caused reproductive toxicity in the absence of significant other toxicity in the test animals. Ethylene glycol methyl ether, which is metabolized in the same way as beta-PGME, is considered a male reproductive toxin. There are no studies available for beta-PGME. Developmental toxicity research indicates that the potential for harmful effects occurring following exposure to commercial PGME, which contains a very small amount of the beta isomer, is low.(39)

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not suggest that PGME is mutagenic. There is no human information available. Negative results were obtained in an in vivo study. Negative results were also obtained in bacteria and most tests using cultured mammalian cells. Weak positive results (sister chromatid exchange) were obtained in one test using cultured mammalian cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Studies with human volunteers demonstrate that PGME is rapidly eliminated and is unlikely to accumulate in the body.(24,32) Differences in the way they are metabolized in the body explains the difference in developmental and possible reproductive toxicity between the two isomeric forms of PGME.
Studies of metabolism of alpha-PGME in rats have shown that the majority (50-60%) is converted to propylene glycol, which in turn is metabolized and excreted in expired air as carbon dioxide. A small amount (10-20%) is excreted in the urine as the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of PGME, as well as propylene glycol and free PGME. Minor amounts (about 1%) are recovered in the feces.(2,36)
Metabolism and disposition of the beta isomer is distinctly different from the alpha isomer. The majority (70-77%) is converted to a carboxylic acid (2-methoxypropionic acid) and the glucuronide conjugate of PGME and is excreted in the urine within 48 hours. A smaller amount (10-17%) is excreted in expired air as carbon dioxide. Minor amounts are recovered in the feces (less than 2%).(2,36)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing and obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persist, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
32 deg C (90 deg F) (closed cup) (14)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.6% (14)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
13.8% (14)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
290 deg C (554 deg F) (50)

Electrical Conductivity:
1 X 10(7) (estimated)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.4 mJ (estimated)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(51) Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Use water spray to keep fire exposed containers cool and to control vapours. Water may be ineffective because of the low flash point of propylene glycol monomethyl ether. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Water may be ineffective for fighting fires because propylene glycol monomethyl ether has a low flash point. However, water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of propyl glycol monomethyl ether may be flammable or combustible. Explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
This material is slightly hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 90.14

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.68 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.272 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -142 deg C (-223 deg F) (46)
Boiling Point: 119 deg C (246 deg F) (46)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.917 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (47,48)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(46)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be very soluble in methanol, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether and most polar organic solvents. Solubility decreases in non-polar solvents such as n-hexane and other hydrocarbon solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.49 (estimated) (46)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 1.68 mPa.s (1.68 centipoises) (48); 1.72 mPa.s (1.72 centipoises) (47) at 25 deg C
Viscosity-Kinematic: 1.83 mm2/s (1.83 centistokes) (calculated); 1.88 mm2/s (1.88 centistokes) (calculated) at 25 deg C
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 32.0 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 27.7 mN/m (27.7 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (49)
Vapour Density: 3.11 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 1.67 kPa (12.5 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (46)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 16400 ppm (1.64%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.78 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (49)
Henry's Law Constant: 9.32 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 9.2 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (46); log H = -4.42 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 10 at 25 deg C (estimated, dimensionless)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propylene glycol methyl ether with other substances is moderate because propylene glycol methyl ether reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(55,56)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(57,58,59)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(57,58,59)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(57,58)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(57,58)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat.(57,58,59)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat (57,58)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(57,58,59)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(57,58)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Can form peroxides on prolonged exposure to air. Light and/or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause concentration of the peroxide impurities.(52,53,54)

Conditions to Avoid:
Heating of substance to temperatures of 32 deg C or above, ignition sources such as sparks including electrostatic discharges, open flame, hot surfaces, direct sunlight or prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. Expected to be corrosive to aluminum alloys. Expected to be slightly corrosive to carbon steel and to 301 and 302 stainless steel alloys, but not corrosive to other 300 series or 400 series stainless steel alloys. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol methyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.(60,61)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Expected to attack polyvinylidene chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyether, polyurethane, polyphenylene oxide, polymethacrylate acrylic, polycarbonate, thermoset polyesters, thermoset epoxy, and polystyrene. Not expected to attack polypropylene (PP), fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, polyamide plastics, and high density polyethylene. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol methyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.(15)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Unless specified, the studies reviewed here were conducted with commercial propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) which is generally composed of greater than 97% alpha-PGME (1-methoxy-2-propanol) and smaller amounts of beta-PGME (2-methoxy-1-propanol). beta-PGME is present in commercial PGME, but is not available commercially by itself.

LC50 (rat): approximately 15000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (5/10 died) (10)
LC50 (rat): greater than 1630 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 6 mg/L (4-hour exposure) (beta) (3, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 4016 mg/kg (23)
LD50 (oral, rat): 5190 mg/kg (cited as 5.66 mL/kg) (19)
LD50 (oral, rat): 6050 mg/kg (cited as 6.6 mL/kg) (10)
LD50 (oral, rat): 7510 mg/kg (cited as 7.51 g/kg) (18)
LD50 (oral, rat): 5710 mg/kg (cited as 5.71 g/kg; beta isomer) (18)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 12930 mg/kg (cited as 14.1 mL/kg) (19)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 11000-13755 mg/kg (cited as 12.0-15.0 mL/kg; 2/10 died at 12.0 mL/kg; 4/5 died at 15.0 mL/kg) (10)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (0/10 died) (23)

Eye Irritation:

PGME is a mild irritant, based on a well-conducted study with detailed scoring information. Older studies, with less detail, showed moderate to severe irritation.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGME produced mild irritation in rabbits (mean scores for 24, 48 and 72 hours: redness: 1.5/3; chemosis: 0.6/4; corneal opacity: 0.1/4; iritis effects: 0/2).(23) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGME caused moderate irritation (scored up to 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 3/10).(19) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGME caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 4/10).(13) Application of one drop of undiluted PGME to rabbit eyes for 5 days caused mild transitory irritation (scoring not provided).(10) Undiluted PGME (beta isomer) was not irritating to rabbit eyes.(3, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

PGME is not irritating to skin.

Application of 0.5 mL PGME was not irritating to rabbit skin after a 4-hour contact, under cover. Application of 0.5 mL PGME produced slight irritation in a Draize test, with a 24-hour contact (primary irritation index 1.3/8).(29) Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted PGME for 4 hours was not irritating (group mean scores at 24, 48 and 72 hours: erythema: 0/4; redness 0/4).(23) Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted PGME caused mild irritation (graded 2/10).(19) Application of undiluted PGME (beta isomer), under cover for 24 hours, was not irritating to intact or damaged rabbit skin in a Draize test.(3, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

The information available suggests the PGME has low acute toxicity.

Inhalation:
Rats and mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PGME for 9/11 days (6 hrs/d). No significant blood effects, changes to clinical chemistry parameters or altered body weights were observed in either species. At 3000 ppm, increased liver weights were observed in rats and mice. The urine of rats exposed to 1000 (males) or 3000 ppm (males and females) had lower specific gravity and higher pH, suggesting a change in kidney function. However, no organs, including the liver and kidneys, showed gross or microscopic changes or lesions. Signs of central nervous system depression (anesthesia and sedation) were observed at 3000 ppm. The effects on liver weight and urine chemistry did not persist through a 6-week follow-up.(33) Rats were exposed to 7000, 10000 or 15000 ppm PGME for 1-10 hours. Evidence of central nervous system depression was observed for all exposures. Exposure to 15000 ppm for 1 hour, 10000 ppm for 1.5 hours or 7000 ppm for 3 hours caused the rats to become drowsy and unsteady. Unconsciousness was produced in all rats exposed to 15000 ppm for 6 hours. For rats exposed to 10000 ppm for 6 hours, autopsy showed increased liver, kidney and lung weights and slight local irritation and congestion of the lungs was noted. Minimal harmful effects were noted in rats exposed to 3000 or 6000 ppm for 7 hours. However, microscopic examination showed evidence of slight local lung irritation and cellular changes in the liver in all exposure groups.(10) The data was not presented and statistical analysis was not reported in this study.

Skin Contact:
Rabbits dermally exposed to 1000 mg/kg/day PGME for 3 weeks developed only slight irritation and no systemic effects.(2,3-unconfirmed)

Ingestion:
In acute lethality studies, death occurred due to central nervous system depression.(10) Slight blood effects (decreased erythrocyte numbers and hemoglobin content) were reported in rats following the ingestion of 1800 mg/kg/day PGME (beta isomer) ten times in a two-week period.(3, unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Well-conducted inhalation studies indicate that PGME has low toxicity following long-term exposure.

Inhalation:
Rats and rabbits were exposed to 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PGME for 13 weeks (6 hrs/d, 5 d/wk). Mild central nervous system depression (CNS) was observed in the first few days of exposure to 3000 ppm. This effect disappeared after 1-2 weeks of exposure, indicating a tolerance to the CNS effects. Increased liver weights were found in rats exposed to 3000 ppm, but no liver damage was evident. No effects on the kidneys, blood or testes were found.(9) Rabbits and rats were exposed to 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PGME for 13 weeks (6 hr/d; 5 d/wk). Animals exposed to 3000 ppm appeared to be sedated during the initial exposures. These effects were no longer apparent after 1-2 weeks exposure. There were no clinical signs of toxicity in animals exposed to 300 or 1000 ppm. At 3000 ppm, rats had minimal liver effects (higher relative liver weights and hepatocellular swelling in females), but there was no evidence of degenerative changes. There were no treatment-related effects on blood chemistry. Minor change in urine parameters (which may indicate liver injury) were noted in animals exposed to 3000 ppm. There were no significant effects noted in rats or rabbits exposed to 300 or 1000 ppm.(8) In a series of studies, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs and monkeys were exposed to various concentrations of PGME for 3-7 months (5 d/wk). Guinea pigs tolerated exposure to 3000 ppm, rats tolerated 1500 ppm and monkeys and rabbits tolerated 800 ppm without adverse effects. Common effects were central nervous system effects (narcosis) and minor injuries to the lungs and liver.(10) This study is limited by factors such as the relatively small numbers of animals/group, incomplete reporting of results and lack of statistical analysis of the data. Rats and mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PGME for up to 2 years (6 hr/d; 5 d/wk). At 3000 ppm, cumulative mortality was increased, but not statistically significantly, in male rats and mice in the last few months of exposure. Mortality in female rats and mice was unaffected by exposure. Decreased body weight was observed in female rats exposed to 3000 ppm for more than 118 days and in mice exposed to 3000 ppm over much of the 2 years. There were no changes in blood or urine chemistry, except in male rats exposed to 3000 ppm (increased serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, and serum alkaline phosphatase). Serum changes consistent with hepatocellular degeneration were increased in male rats exposed to 3000 ppm during the first year, but not the second. Absolute liver weight was increased in rats and mice exposed to 3000 ppm. Cellular changes in the liver and kidney disease were observed in male rats exposed to 1000 and 3000 ppm. Accelerated atrophy of the adrenal gland X-zone was noted in female mice exposed to 1000 or 3000 ppm.(22,26) The type of kidney disease observed is unique to male rats and is not considered relevant to human risk assessment.

Skin Contact:
In a limited study, male rabbits were exposed to 0-9170 mg/kg/day (cited as 0-10.0 mL/kg) PGME for 90 days (5 d/wk). Deaths due to narcosis resulted from doses of 6420-9170 mg/kg/day (cited as 7-10 mL/kg). There was also moderate, marked kidney damage at these levels. Lower doses produced only mild anesthesia with no other effects. No significant skin lesions were observed.(10) This study is limited by the small number of animals studied and poor reporting.

Ingestion:
In a limited study, male rats were exposed to 0, 90, 275, 920 or 2750 mg/kg (cited as 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mL/kg) of PGME in olive oil for 5 weeks (5 times/week). There were no PGME-related deaths. Rats exposed to the highest dose had increased liver and kidney weights and some microscopic organ damage.(10) This study is limited by the small number of animals/group and poor reporting. No conclusions can be drawn from a poorly reported, translated study.(27)

Skin Sensitization:
PGME is not a skin sensitizer.
Negative results (0/20 reactions) were obtained when PGME was tested for skin sensitization in guinea pigs using the Magnusson-Klugman method.(23) Negative results are also reported for modified Maguire test using guinea pigs.(2,3-unconfirmed)

Carcinogenicity:
Negative results were obtained in the one study located.
Rats and mice were exposed to 0, 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm PGME for up to 2 years (6 hr/d; 5d/wk). There were no statistically significant increases in the incidence of tumour formation in either species. The incidence of kidney tumours in male rats was increased over historical controls. This increase was associated with male rat kidney disease. The type of kidney disease observed is unique to male rats and is not considered relevant to human risk assessment.(22)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Commercial PGME, which is mostly composed of the alpha isomer with a small amount of the beta isomer, has not caused developmental effects in animals in the absence of maternal toxicity. The beta-PGME, which is not available commercially by itself, has shown some teratogenic potential when inhaled by rabbits, in a limited study.
Rats and rabbits were exposed by inhalation to 0, 500, 1500 or 3000 ppm PGME (98.68% alpha; 1.32% beta) on days 6-15 (rats) or 6-18 (rabbits) of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity, as evidenced by mild transient incoordination, reduced activity, slightly decreased weight and food consumption and slight to moderate pigmentation around the eyes, was observed in rats exposed to 3000 ppm. There was a significant increase in the incidence of delayed ossification in the offspring at 3000 ppm. No maternal or fetal effects were observed at 500 or 1500 ppm. Mild, transient central nervous system depression with a significant reduction in weight gain was observed in maternal rabbits exposed to 3000 ppm. There were no significant developmental effects.(6,35) In a two-generation study, rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm of PGME (97.99-98.07% alpha; 1.86-1.90% beta) for 10 weeks (6 h/d; 5 d/wk) prior to mating and during mating, pregnancy and lactation for two generations (6 hrs/d; 7 d/wk). At 3000 ppm, sedation (incoordination and decreased activity) and decreased body weights were observed in the parents. At 1000 ppm, female body weights were significantly lower during a limited portion of the pre-mating phase, but not during pregnancy or lactation. Offspring from the 3000 ppm exposure group had reduced weight, delayed onset of puberty, decreased absolute kidney, liver, spleen, testes, thymus and brain weights, increased relative brain weights, cellular liver damage and thymic atrophy. No significant effects were noted in offspring from the 1000 or 300 ppm exposure groups.(25) In a continuous breeding study, mice were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% PGME (unspecified composition) in drinking water for 7 days pre-mating and for 14 subsequent weeks of paired cohabitation. Pups from the 2.0% dose group were continued on treatment through lactation and mating for a second generation. The calculated consumption estimates were 0, 950, 1900 or 3300 mg/kg/day (cited as 0, 0.95, 1.9 or 3.3 g/kg/day). For the first generation, no significant chemical-related clinical signs of toxicity were noted in the adults. There was no reduction in the number of live pups/litter or the viability of pups. Average pup weight in the high dose group was significantly reduced. For the second generation, no significant developmental effects were noted. Autopsy of the parents showed increased liver weight in females and reduced male body weight.(37,41) Rabbits (10-11/group) were exposed by inhalation to 0, 145, 225, 350 or 545 ppm PGME (98.05% beta isomer) on days 6-18 of pregnancy (6 hrs/d). Maternal toxicity, as evidenced by decreased body weight, was observed at 350 and 545 mg/kg/day. At 350 and 545 ppm, post-implantation loss and resorptions were significantly increased. Mean fetal weights were decreased at 545 ppm. External examination showed marked, dose-related anomalies and variations at 350 and 545 ppm. Soft tissue examination showed an increase in variations at all exposure concentrations. Skeletal examinations revealed a 100% rate of anomalies for animals exposed to 545 ppm and the majority of fetuses in the 350 ppm group. A statistically significant increase in skeletal variations was also observed with exposure to 225 ppm.(20) This study is limited by the small number of animals/group. No conclusions can be drawn from other studies with commercial PGME due to poor reporting and incomplete assessment of developmental toxicity endpoints.(4,5,27)

Reproductive Toxicity:
PGME has not caused reproductive toxicity in the absence of significant other toxicity in the test animals.
In a two-generation study, rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm of PGME (97.99-98.07% alpha; 1.86-1.90% beta) for 10 weeks (6 h/d; 5 d/wk) prior to mating and during mating, pregnancy and lactation for two generations (6 hrs/d; 7 d/wk). At 3000 ppm, there was sedation (incoordination and decreased activity) and decreased body weights in the parents. Parental females (both generations) exposed to 3000 ppm had lengthened estrous (fertility) cycles, decreased fertility, decreased ovary weights, and ovarian atrophy. Decreased pup survival was noted during the lactation phase for litters from the 3000 ppm exposure group. Decreases in male fertility were also noted in the 2nd generation. The observed effects are considered secondary to other toxicity observed in the animals.(25) In a continuous breeding study, mice were exposed to 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% PGME (unspecified composition) in drinking water for 7-days pre-mating and for 14 subsequent weeks of paired cohabitation. Pups from the 2.0% dose group were continued on treatment through lactation and mating for a second generation. The calculated consumption estimates were 0, 950, 1900 or 3300 mg/kg/day (cited as 0, 0.95, 1.9 or 3.3 g/kg/day). No effects on fertility were noted for either generation. At 2%, male body weights were reduced compared to controls, as were relative epididymis and prostate weights.(37,41) Ovaries from mice exposed to PGME in this study were analyzed histologically. No ovarian toxicity was detected.(42) Male rats (10/group) were exposed to 0, 200 or 600 ppm PGME (unspecified composition) for 10 consecutive days. No testicular abnormalities were noted at postmortem examination, but histological examination showed a few seminiferous tubules with disordered spermatogenesis.(4,5) This study is limited by poor reporting of the data. Testicular atrophy was not observed in male mice (5/group) exposed to 0 or 2% PGME (approximately 3300 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 25 days.(28)

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not suggest that PGME is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in an in vivo study. Negative results were also obtained in bacteria and most tests using cultured mammalian cells. Weak positive results (sister chromatid exchange) were obtained in one test using cultured mammalian cells.
Negative results (micronuclei induction in bone marrow cells) were obtained when mice were exposed by intraperitoneal injection to PGME.(21) This route of exposure is not relevant to occupational situations.
Weak positive results (sister chromatid exchanges) were obtained when PGME was tested in cultured mammalian cells.(21) Negative results (chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei induction; morphological transformation; aneuploidy) were obtained in cultured mammalian cells exposed to PGME.(21) Negative results (unscheduled DNA synthesis, chromosomal aberrations) were obtained when PGME was tested in cultured mammalian cells, with and without metabolic activation.(3-unconfirmed,34) Negative results (gene mutation) were obtained when PGME was tested using bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(3-unconfirmed,34) Negative results (gene mutation) were also obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation, in a test using PGME (beta isomer).(3, unconfirmed)
PGMME enhanced the mutagenic activity (chromosomal aberrations) of methylmethanesulfonate in cultured mammalian cells.(21)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

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(42) Bolon, B., et al. Differential follicle counts as a screen for chemically induced ovarian toxicity in mice: Results from continuous breeding assays. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 39 (1997). p. 1-10
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2007-05-08

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