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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 167
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

Synonyms:
1-Ethoxy-2-propanol
Propylene glycol ethyl ether
1-Ethoxy-2-hydroxypropane
2-Ethoxy-1-methylethanol
1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol
Monopropylene glycol ethyl ether
2-Propanol, 1-ethoxy-
Propylene glycol 1-ethyl ether
alpha-Propylene glycol monoethyl ether

Chemical Name French: Éther monoéthylique du propylene-1,2 glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Eter monoetílico del propilenglicol

Trade Name(s):
ETHYL-PROXITOL
ARCOSOLV PE

CAS Registry Number: 1569-02-4
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 52125-53-8
RTECS Number(s): UB5250000 TZ0640000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 216-374-5
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy alkanol / glycol ether / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / monoaliphatic glycol ether / monoaliphatic glycol monoether / propylene glycol monoether / mono propylene glycol monoether / alkoxy propanol / propylene oxide glycol ether
Molecular Formula: C5-H12-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH2-O-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, mild, ether-like odour. Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture).(37)

Odour Threshold:
Information not available.

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol monoethyl ether is commercially available as an isomeric mixture of the alpha and beta isomers with a minimum purity of 99% for the isomeric mixture. In this mixture, the concentration of alpha isomer (1-ethoxy-2-propanol or alpha-PGMEE; CAS no. 1569-02-4) is at least 95%, while the beta isomer (2-ethoxy-1-propanol or beta-PGMEE; CAS no. 19089-47-5) is maximum 5%. The identity of these substances may be reported either with their individual CAS numbers or with the CAS number 52125-53-8, which has been assigned to the isomeric alpha and beta mixture. beta-PGMEE is a suspect teratogen and it is important to know how much beta-PGMEE is in the material that you are using. Contact your manufacturer/supplier or Material Safety Data Sheet for specific information on the purity of the propylene glycol monoethyl ether that is in the product that you are using. In addition to the beta-PGMEE impurity and depending on the preparation method, one or more of the following impurities may also be present: propylene glycol, dipropylene glycol, tripropylene glycol, 1,2-diethoxypropane, dipropylene glycol ethers, tripropylene glycol ethers, ethoxy acetone, methyl formate, and other organic trace impurities.(31,37,38)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol ethers were formulated as replacements for the more toxic ethylene glycol ethers.
Propylene glycol monoethyl ether is used in the manufacture of lacquers and paints, leather finishes, wood stains, furniture polishes, printing and other inks, and cleaning products such as glass and rug cleaners. It is also used as antifreeze in industrial engines, as an extractant in the pharmaceutical industry, in agrochemical formulations, in cosmetics (e.g. nail care), in adhesive products, as a chemical intermediate for synthesis of polyglycol ethers, and as a solvent to regulate flow leveling and coalescence.(14,15)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, mild, ether-like odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air, may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain). Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Decomposes at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. May form explosive peroxides after prolonged exposure to air. Irritating to nose, and throat. Mild central nervous system depressant. May cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and incoordination. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol monoethyl ether (PGMEE) easily forms a vapour at normal temperatures. Exposure to high vapour concentrations is expected to irritate the nose, throat and respiratory tract. Higher concentrations may produce depression of the central nervous system (CNS) with headache, nausea, light-headedness, drowsiness, and in-coordination. A severe exposure may result in unconsciousness. However, these concentrations are expected to be intolerable due to severe irritation. These conclusions are based on animal information and comparison to closely related propylene glycol ethers. No human information was located.

Skin Contact:
PGMEE is probably a very mild skin irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.
PGMEE can be absorbed through the skin, but harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
PGMEE is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information. The vapour may also cause eye irritation with tearing of the eyes (lachrymation) at high concentrations (approximately 1600 ppm). No human information was located.

Ingestion:
PGMEE has shown low oral toxicity in animal studies. Ingestion of large amounts may cause depression of the central nervous system (CNS) with symptoms as described under "Inhalation" above. No human case reports were located. Ingestion is not a typical route of exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No reports of long-term health effects in humans were located. The limited animal toxicity information available for PGMEE and information for propylene glycol monomethyl ether, a closely related chemical, suggests low toxicity by all routes of exposure.

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that glycol ethers, including PGMEE, cause developmental effects in humans. Developmental effects were not observed in unconfirmed animal studies following exposure to commercial PGMEE (largely the alpha isomer) even at concentrations that caused slight maternal toxicity.
beta-PGMEE is likely metabolized in a similar way to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, which is teratogenic in animal studies. beta-PGMEE may comprise up to 10% of commercial PGMEE. However, there is no evidence that beta-PGMEE or commercial PGMEE is teratogenic.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located.
beta-PGMEE is likely metabolized in a similar way to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, which has caused male reproductive toxicity in animal studies. beta-PGMEE may comprise up to 10% of commercial PGMEE. However, there is no evidence that beta-PGMEE or commercial PGMEE is reproductive toxin.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal studies were located. Negative results were obtained in short-term tests using bacteria and cultured mammalian cells.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulated, based on comparison to propylene glycol monomethyl ether, which is rapidly eliminated from the body.
Based on comparison to propylene glycol monomethyl ether, the alpha isomer of PGMEE is expected to be largely converted to propylene glycol, which in turn is metabolized and excreted in expired air as carbon dioxide. A small amount will be excreted in the urine as the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of PGMEE, as well as propylene glycol and free PGMEE.
Metabolism and disposition of the beta isomer is expected to be distinctly different from the alpha isomer. The majority will be converted to a carboxylic acid (2-ethoxypropionic acid) and the glucuronide conjugate of PGMEE and excreted in the urine within 48 hours. A smaller amount will be excreted in expired air as carbon dioxide.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
35 deg C (95 deg F) (closed cup) (38); 38 deg C (100 deg F) (closed cup) (23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.3% (37,38)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
14% (37,38)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
280 deg C (536 deg F) (15)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Propylene glycol monoethyl ether liquid is not expected to accumulate static charge. Mixtures of propylene glycol monoethyl ether vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
1 x 10(6) (estimated)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.4 mJ (estimated)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition releases gaseous hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide. Combustion releases carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal, and other irritating and toxic fumes.(24)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Releases vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 35 deg C. Concentrated water solutions may be flammable. Water solutions will burn unless diluted thoroughly with water spray. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Can accumulate in confined spaces and low areas, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Can form explosive peroxides. During a fire, very toxic gases such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde are formed. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical or alcohol resistant foam. Use water spray to keep fire exposed containers cool and to control vapours. Water may be ineffective because of the low flash point of propylene glycol monoethyl ether. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Water may be ineffective for fighting fires because propylene glycol monoethyl ether has a low flash point. However, water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of propyl glycol monoethyl ether may be flammable or combustible. Explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The combusion and thermal decomposition products of this material are hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 104.15

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.25 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.235 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -90 deg C (-130.0 deg F) (15)
Boiling Point: 131 deg C (268 deg F) (16)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.903 at 20 deg C (17); 0.893 at 25 deg C (18) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(19)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Expected to be soluble in all proportions with methanol, ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether and most polar organic solvents. Soluble in non-polar solvents such as n-hexane and other hydrocarbon solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.00 (estimated) (16)
pH Value: 7-8 (estimated)
Acidity: Very weak organic acid.
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 15 (estimated)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 2.1 mPa.s (2.1 centipoises) at 20 deg C (15); 1.30 mPa.s (1.30 centipoises) at 25 deg C (20)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 2.3 mm2/s (2.3 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated); 1.46 mm2/s (1.46 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 31-34 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 25.9 mN/m (25.9 dynes/cm) (2); 29.7 mN/m (29.7 dynes/cm) (21) at 25 deg C
Vapour Density: 3.6 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 1.3 kPa (9.8 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (15)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 13000 ppm (1.3%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.47 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (21)
Henry's Law Constant: 1.5 x 10(-1) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.5 x 10(-6) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (22); log H = -4.22 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 10 at 25 deg C (estimated, dimensionless)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propylene glycol monoethyl ether with other substances is moderate because propylene glycol monoethyl ether reacts with several chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, some of these reactions may be severe.
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites, metal oxides) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Carbon dioxide gas may be released, which will cause pressurization in the container. Reaction with hypochlorites may form alkyl hypochlorites, which are explosive, and chloroform, which is toxic and possibly carcinogenic to humans.(28,29)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium); ZINC or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Release flammable hydrogen gas and a very strong corrosive base.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - May react violently. May release very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(30,31,32)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. thionyl chloride, phosphorous tribromide) - Reaction evolves heat. Very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride) are released.(30,31,32)
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzyl chloride or t-butyl chloride) - Reaction may evolve heat and forms very toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride).(30,32)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(30,32)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids evolves heat.(30,31,32)
CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid with evolution of heat.(30,32)
HALOGENS (e.g. chlorine, bromine) - Reaction may be delayed and releases heat.(30,31,32)
ALDEHYDES, KETONES, ANHYDRIDES (e.g. formaldehyde, acetone) - Reaction may evolve heat.(30,32)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Propylene glycol monoethyl ether can form peroxides on prolonged exposure to air. Light and or heat increase the rate of peroxide formation. Peroxides accumulate at hazardous levels during distillation, evaporation, or any other method that will cause concentration of the peroxide impurities.(25,26,27)

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures of 35 deg C or above, ignition sources such as sparks including electrostatic discharges, open flames and hot surfaces; direct sunlight and prolonged exposure to air.

Corrosivity to Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether is expected to be corrosive to aluminum alloys. It is expected to be slightly corrosive to carbon steel and to 301 and 302 stainless steel alloys, but not corrosive to other 300 series or 400 series stainless steel alloys. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol monoethyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.(33,34)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
There is no specific information available. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether is expected to attack polyvinylidene chloride, polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, polymethacrylate acrylic, polycarbonate, thermoset polyesters, and polystyrene. Polypropylene, chlorinated polyether, high density polyethylene, polyphenylene oxide may be slightly attacked. Propylene glycol monoethyl ether is not expected to attack fluorinated plastics such as Teflon, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, most polyamide plastics, and thermoset epoxy. These conclusions are based on the physical and chemical properties of propylene glycol monoethyl ether as well as corrosion data for ethylene glycol alkyl ethers.(35)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Unless specified, the studies reviewed here were conducted with commercial propylene glycol monoethyl ether (PGMEE), which is generally composed of greater than 90% alpha-PGMEE (1-ethoxy-2-propanol) and less than 10% beta-PGMEE (2-ethoxy-1-propanol). Another isomeric form of PGMEE, 3-ethoxy-1-propanol also exists, but has limited commercial availability.

LC50 (rat): greater than 3337 ppm (4-hour exposure) (whole-body exposure; all animal survived) (8, unconfirmed)
LC50 (rat): greater than 2232 ppm (4-hour exposure) (nose-only exposure; all animals survived) (8, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 4400 mg/kg (3-unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, rat): 7110 mg/kg (cited as 7.11 g/kg) (9)
LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 4480 mg/kg (cited as greater than 5 mL/kg) (8, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, rat): 7000 mg/kg (beta isomer; cited as 7.0 g/kg) (9)
LD50 (oral, rat): 11650 mg/kg (3-ethoxy-1-propanol; cited as 13.0 mL/kg) (10)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): approximately 8065 mg/kg (cited as approximately 9 mL/kg; 6/6 survived 5 mL/kg; 3/5 survived 7 mL/kg; 1/5 survived 10 or 15 mL/kg) (1,8-unconfirmed)
LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 2535 mg/kg (3-ethoxy-1-propanol; cited as 2.83 mL/kg) (10)

Eye Irritation:

PGMEE is a severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted PGMEE caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury, graded 4/10).(4) PGMEE was not severely irritating to rabbit eyes. Discomfort, irritation and corneal reactions were seen with full recovery within seven days.(1,8,11-unconfirmed) Application of 0.02 mL 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, a closely related isomer, caused severe irritation in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 5/10).(10) Application of PGMEE for 5 consecutive days caused moderate irritation and some transient cloudiness of cornea. Healing was essentially complete within 3-7 days.(1-unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

PGMEE is probably a very mild skin irritant.

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, a closely related isomer, produced very mild irritation in rabbits (graded 2/10).(10) Mild irritation was observed in rabbits following application of PGMEE, under cover for 24 hours or partial cover 4 hours.(1,8-unconfirmed) In acute lethality testing, application of large doses of PGMEE, under cover for 24 hours, did not cause appreciable irritation in rabbits.(1,8-unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats inhaling 3337 ppm (whole-body) or 2232 ppm (nose-only) PGMEE for four hours showed signs of central nervous system depression, with salivation and tearing of the eyes (lachrymation) at 3337 ppm. All effects were reversible and no deaths were observed.(8-unconfirmed) Mice exposed to nose-only to 660-1695 ppm (cited as 2800-7200 mg/m3) for 10 minutes did not show changes in respiratory rate. The RD50 was determined to be greater than 1695 ppm.(8,11-unconfirmed) The RD50 is the concentration that produces a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate. Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans). A mouse, guinea pig and rabbit tolerated exposure to 7000 ppm of PGMEE for 1 hour, but experienced eye and respiratory irritation. A 2-hour exposure caused more severe irritation and a rabbit showed signs of kidney injury. Cats, guinea pigs and rabbits were exposed to about 1200 ppm for 8 hr/d. Deaths were observed in 1/2 cats, 1/2 guinea pigs and 2/2 rabbits. Autopsy showed pneumonia and kidney injury.(1-unconfirmed) There are insufficient details available to evaluate this report. Rats exposed to 10000 ppm (essentially the saturated vapour concentration) for 4 hours experienced marked eye and nose irritation and became unconscious.(1-unconfirmed) Rats (6/sex/group) were exposed (nose-only) to 0, 330 or 2090 ppm PGMEE (cited as 0, 1400 or 8900 mg/m3) for nine days (6 hrs/d). Initially exposure lead to sedation, but this effect was less pronounced as the study progressed. Liver weights increased with increasing concentration. However, the microscopic analysis showed that the livers normal.(1,8-unconfirmed)

Skin Contact:
PGMEE was applied to rabbits, under cover for 24 hours, at doses up to 13440 mg/kg (cited as 15 mL/kg). High doses caused central nervous system effects and mortality.(1,8-unconfirmed)

Ingestion:
In an acute lethality study, large doses produced unconsciousness and some kidney injury.(9) In another acute lethality study, signs of central nervous system depression occurred between 1 and 6 hours after treatment. No effects were observed at 1790 mg/kg (cited as 2 mL/kg).(8-unconfirmed) Rats (6/sex/group) orally administered 1790 mg/kg (cited as 2 mL/kg) PGMEE for 10 consecutive days showed little effect, except a slight increase in liver weight. Males had slight changes in blood chemistry and slightly reduced weight gain.(1,8-unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats (15/sex/group) were exposed to 0, 100, 300 or 2000 ppm PGMEE for 13 weeks (6 hrs/d; 5 d/wk). At 2000 ppm, there was minimal, reversible eye and nose irritation and a slight increase in liver weight for females. Detailed autopsy showed that liver tissues were normal. There were no changes in urine or serum composition or cellular changes in the kidney, but urine volume was increased in both sexes. Autopsy showed signs suggestive of lung irritation. At 300 ppm, urine volumes were increased in both sexes during the 12th week of exposure. There were no signs of adverse effect on the testes, blooding forming tissue or blood.(1,8-unconfirmed)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
PGMEE is not expected to cause developmental effects. In unconfirmed studies, significant developmental effects were not observed in the offspring of rats or rabbits exposed by inhalation to concentrations that produced slight maternal toxicity.
Rats (25/group) were exposed to 0, 100, 450 or 2000 ppm PGMEE on days 6-15 of pregnancy (6 hrs/day). Mothers exposed to 450 ppm had slightly reduced body weight gain and possible signs of irritation. At 2000 ppm, signs of maternal toxicity included reduced weight gain and food consumption. No developmental effects were noted.(1,8-unconfirmed) Rabbits (22/group) were exposed to 0, 100, 350 or 1200 ppm PGMEE on days 6-18 of pregnancy (6 hrs/day). At 1200 ppm, signs of maternal toxicity included slight reduction in mean food consumption and slower weight gain. At 100 and 350 ppm, there was no maternal toxicity. There were no treatment-related effects on litter size and weight, pre- and post-implantation losses and mean fetal weights. Overall, there was a slightly higher increase in malformations in treated versus control pups, but this effect was not dose-related and was within historical ranges.(1,8-unconfirmed) In a screening test, 3000 mg/kg/d 3-ethoxy-1-propanol was administered to mice on days 7-14 of pregnancy. There was a high level of maternal mortality (26%) and a reduction in the number of live pups/litter.(12,13) No conclusions can be drawn from this study since there was a high degree of maternal mortality.

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not suggest the PGMEE is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained for tests using bacteria and cultured mammalian cells.
No studies using live animals were located.
Negative results (point mutations) were obtained when PGMEE was tested in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(1,8-unconfirmed) Negative results (chromosomal aberrations) were obtained in cultured mammalian cells, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.(1,8-unconfirmed)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cragg, S.T., et al. Glycol ethers : ethers of propylene, butylene glycols, and other glycol derivatives. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 7 (Chpt. 87). John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) Flick E.W. Industrial solvents handbook. 3rd ed. Noyes Data Corporation, 1985. p. 430
(3) MDL Information Systems, Inc. 2-Propanol, 1-ethoxy-. Last updated: 2003-02. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html> {Subscription required}
(4) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1353-1372
(5) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, 2005.
(6) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(7) Langhorst, M. Glycol ethers - validation procedures for tube/pump and dosimeter monitoring methods. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 6 (1984). p. 416-424
(8) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. 4th ed. Technical report no. 95. ECETOC, Feb. 2005
(9) Smyth, H.F., Jr., et al. The single dose toxicity of some glycols and derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 5 (1941). p. 259-268
(10) Smyth, H.F., Jr., et al. Range-finding toxicity data : list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30 (1969). p. 470-476
(11) 1-Ethoxypropan-2-ol. IUCLID Dataset. European Commission. European Chemicals Bureau, Feb. 18, 2000
(12) Evaluation of 60 chemicals in a preliminary developmental toxicity test. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, and Mutagenesis. Vol. 7 (1987). p. 29-48
(13) Borriston Laboratories Inc. Screening of priority chemicals for reproductive hazards. No. 2. Final report. NTIS PB86-197605. Prepared for: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Jan. 9, 1984
(14) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 12th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1993. p. 493 (ethylene glycol monomethyl ether), p. 971 (propylene glycol monomethyl ether)
(15) Karsten, E. et al. Solvents. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co., 2002. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(16) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(17) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 3-284
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-04-05



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