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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 572
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propylene glycol diacetate

Synonyms:
1,2-Diacetoxypropane
Methylethylene diacetate
1,2-Propanediol, diacetate
Propylene diacetate
1,2-Propylene diacetate
1,2-Propylene glycol diacetate
alpha-propylene glycol diacetate Propylene glycol diacetate
Propylene acetate

Chemical Name French: Diacétate de propylène glycol

Trade Name(s):
Dowanol PGDA

CAS Registry Number: 623-84-7
RTECS Number(s): TY4900000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 210-817-6
Chemical Family: Aliphatic polyhydric alcohol carboxylic ester / aliphatic dihydric alcohol dicarboxylic ester / alkane diol dicarboxylic ester / glycol ester / glycol diester / glycol acetate / glycol diacetate / propylene glycol acetate / propylene glycol diacetate
Molecular Formula: C7-H12-O4
Structural Formula: CH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH(O-C(=O)-CH3)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid (1)

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Propylene glycol diacetate is available in grades of purity of 97.6-99.7%.(5)

Uses and Occurrences:
Propylene glycol diacetate is used as a solvent for coatings, silkscreen printing inks and a wide range of resin types, including acrylics, epoxies, alkyds, polyesters (11,12); as an emulsifier food additive (13); as a plasticizer for cellulosics; as a coalescing agent for paints (14); and as a research chemical (6).


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 86 deg C (187 deg F). Generally has very low toxicity.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Propylene glycol diacetate does not form high vapour concentrations at room temperature. Therefore, it must be heated or misted before significant inhalation exposure would occur. It is unlikely to cause harmful effects by this route of exposure. There is no specific information available.

Skin Contact:
Propylene glycol diacetate is not irritating or only slightly irritating, based on human information. Application of 0.1 mL of propylene glycol diacetate to injured (scarified) skin, under a covering, once a day for 3 days caused slight irritation; scored 2/4, where 1 is "low" and 4 is "marked".(3) This method of exposure is considered extreme, suggesting that propylene glycol diacetate is, at most, slightly irritating.
It is not expected to cause harmful effects if absorbed through the skin.

Eye Contact:
Propylene glycol diacetate is a mild irritant, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
Propylene glycol diacetate is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on animal toxicity values. There is no human information available. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is no human or animal information available. Propylene glycol diacetate is generally considered to have very low toxicity.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persists, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
86.1 deg C (187 deg F) (closed cup) (5)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not available

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Propylene glycol diacetate will probably not accumulate static charge, since esters generally have high electrical conductivities. Mixtures of propylene glycol diacetate vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range will not be ignited by a static discharge, since it has a moderately high flash point.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.(5) Incomplete combustion may also produce irritating fumes and acrid smoke.(6)

Fire Hazard Summary:
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 86 deg C (187 deg F). During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(5) Special "alcohol-resistant fire fighting foams" are recommended for use with any polar flammable liquid that is soluble in water, such as propylene glycol diacetate. Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible, withdraw from fire area. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Propylene glycol diacetate is essentially non-toxic. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 160.17

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6.54 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.15 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -31 deg C (-23.8 deg F) (solidification) (1)
Boiling Point: 190.5 deg C (374.9 deg F) (8,9)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.059 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (8)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (10 g/100 mL at 25 deg C) (9)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol and diethyl ether (8)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.82 (estimated) (10)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not available
Surface Tension: Not available
Vapour Density: 5.52 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 0.077 kPa (0.578 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (6,9)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 760 ppm (0.08%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Henry's Law Constant: 1.40 X 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.38 X 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (6,9); log H = -5.25 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Propylene glycol diacetate is probably stable at normal temperatures.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not polymerize

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chromium trioxide, calcium hypochlorite, nitric acid, potassium permanganate, peroxides) - reacts violently. Can Increase the risk of fire and explosion.(5)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
No information available.

Conditions to Avoid:
High temperatures (temperatures greater than 86 deg C).

Corrosivity to Metals:
Based on comparison to related compounds, propylene glycol diacetate is not expected to be corrosive to the common metals, such as steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, nickel, tantalum and titanium.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No specific information is available.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 13530 mg/kg (cited as 13.53 gm/kg) (4)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): 3420 mg/kg (cited as 3.42 gm/kg) (4)

Eye Irritation:

Propylene glycol diacetate is a mild eye irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted propylene glycol diacetate caused mild injury in rabbits (scored 1-5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 2/10).(2)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Von Oettingen, W.F. The aliphatic acids and their esters : toxicity and potential dangers. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 (Jan. 1960). p. 40/28-77/65
(2) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(3) Frosch, P.J., et al. The chamber-scarification test for assessing irritancy of topically applied substances. In: Cutaneous toxicity: proceedings of the 3rd conference, 1976. Edited by V.A. Drill, et al. Academic Press, 1977. p. 127-154
(4) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. The single dose toxicity of some glycols and derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 6 (June 1941). p. 259-268
(5) Propylene glycol diacetate, 99.7%. Sigma-Aldrich Website. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Date updated: 2002-10. Available at: <www.sigmaaldrich.com/suite7/homepage/New_Site_Redirect.html> (Password required)
(6) US National Library of Medicine. 1,2-Propylene diacetate. Last revision date: 2002-02-13. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(7) Blank
(8) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999
(9) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(10) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(11) Dowanol PGDA. The Dow Chemical Company. Available at: <www.dow.com/glycolether/eur/products/pgda.htm>
(12) Propylene glycol diacetate. TransChem, Inc. Available at: <www.wesellchemicals.com/propyleneglycoldiacetate.html>
(13) Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Toxicological evaluation of some food additives including anticaking agents, antimicrobials, antioxidants, emulsifiers and thickening agents. WHO food additives series no. 5. World Health Organization, 1974. Available at: <www.inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v05je01.htm>
(14) Propylene glycol diacetate. Tessenderlo Fine Chemicals. Available at: <www.acordis-chemicals.com/product_search.htm>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-01-06



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