The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 18
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Propanol

Synonyms:
Dimethylcarbinol
2-Hydroxypropane
IPA
Isopropanol
Isopropyl alcohol
Propan-2-ol
sec-Propyl alcohol
2-Propyl alcohol
Propanol (non-specific name)
Propyl alcohol (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Alcool isopropylique
Chemical Name Spanish: Alcohol isopropílico
CAS Registry Number: 67-63-0
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 8013-70-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1219
RTECS Number(s): NT8050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-661-7
Chemical Family: Saturated secondary aliphatic alcohol / secondary alkanol / secondary alkyl alcohol / propanol / propyl alcohol
Molecular Formula: C3-H8-O
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(OH)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a sharp, musty odour of rubbing alcohol.(1,34)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely; 3.3-610 ppm (geometric mean: 43 ppm) (detection) (39); 7.6-49 ppm (geometric mean: 19 ppm) (recognition) (1,39)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is about 10 times the mean odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Commercial grades available are 70% (rubbing alcohol), 91% (azeotrope with water), 95%, 99%, anhydrous (99.5% or more) and nanograde (greater than 99.99%). Impurities may include water, aldehydes and ketones (mainly acetone).(1,31)

Uses and Occurrences:
Used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives, and other chemicals, such as methyl isobutyl ketone, isopropylamine and isopropyl acetate. Extensively used as a solvent in the production of vegetable and animal oils and fats; as a solvent for alkaloids, gums, and resins, phenolic varnishes, nitrocellulose lacquers, cement, primers, paints, inks, glass cleaners, liquid soaps, detergents and cosmetics; medical, pharmaceutical, veterinary and personal care products; as rubbing alcohol; as an antiseptic and disinfectant; as an aerosol solvent and in the manufacture of agricultural chemicals, pharmaceuticals, process catalysts, and solvents. Also used in antifreeze products; as a deicing agent; dehydrating agent; denaturant in industrial solvents; coolant in beer manufacture; preservative; foam inhibitor; synthetic food flavouring agent; and as a heat-exchange medium.(1,31,32) It occurs naturally as a metabolic product of a variety of microorganisms and as a flavour volatile in foodstuffs, primarily plant products.(1)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a sharp musty odour of rubbing alcohol. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and confusion. Higher exposures may result in unconsciousness and death. May be irritating to the respiratory tract. EYE IRRITANT. Causes eye irritation. POSSIBLE REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may cause harmful effects to the fetus, based on animal evidence. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may cause aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.

Important New Information:
NOTE: The evaluation of this chemical as a reproductive hazard is under review. For additional information, contact the CHEMINFO team at cheminfo@ccohs.ca.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
There are no reports of harmful effects developing following occupational exposure to 2-propanol. Exposure of volunteers to approximately 400 ppm for 3 to 5 minutes produced mild irritation of the nose and throat, while 800 ppm was considered objectionable.(27) It can probably cause central nervous system (CNS) depression, based on animal information and comparison to related alcohols. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and incoordination. High exposures may result in unconsciousness and death.

Skin Contact:
2-Propanol is not irritating or mildly irritating to the skin, based on human and animal evidence. Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-propanol to the abraded skin of volunteers for 4 hours produced no irritation.(17) Similar results have been obtained in another study.(1)
There have been case reports of young children becoming ill following dermal, and probably inhalation, exposure to 2-propanol as an ingredient of rubbing alcohol. These reports are not relevant to occupational exposure situations. There are no reports of toxic effects developing following dermal occupational exposure.

Eye Contact:
2-Propanol is a moderate to severe eye irritant, based on animal evidence. Exposure of volunteers to vapours at approximately 400 ppm for 3 to 5 minutes produced mild irritation, while 800 ppm was considered objectionable.(27)

Ingestion:
2-Propanol is not expected to produce significant toxicity if ingested. No adverse effects were observed in 8 healthy male volunteers who drank a daily dose of 2.6 or 6.4 mg/kg of 2-propanol for 6 weeks.(1) A daily dose of approximately 180 mg/kg (cited as 16 mL) for 3 days produced no discomfort, although 280 mg/kg (cited as 25 mL) produced symptoms.(24) Ingestion of large amounts can result in symptoms of CNS depression, as described in "Inhalation" above.(1,16)
Based on animal information and physical properties (viscosity and surface tension), 2-propanol can probably be inhaled into the lungs (aspirated) during ingestion or vomiting. Aspiration can result in severe, life-threatening lung damage.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged skin contact can cause drying and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
A female worker who had been occupationally exposed to commercial 2-propanol, demonstrated a positive reaction when closed patch tested with chemically pure 2-propanol in concentrations from 2.5% to 99%. Past medical history indicated that she had previously had a slight case of eczema.(4) There are other reports of positive allergy tests to 2-propanol. However, in some cases, the material tested was not pure 2-propanol, the exposures were not occupational and/or previous history of allergies was not discussed.(1-3)

Carcinogenicity:

There are studies which have shown an increase in paranasal sinus cancer and/or laryngeal cancer in employees exposed to 2-propanol produced by strong-acid processing.(1,12,25,29) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that occupational exposure to strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).(29) The concerns about carcinogenicity from the strong-acid processing are related to sulfuric acid and to by-products, such as dialkyl sulfates that are formed during manufacture, not to 2- propanol itself.(28) A recent paper indicates that 2-propanol is no longer produced by the strong-acid process.(49) IARC has determined there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2-propanol to humans and experimental animals.(44)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. However, 2-propanol is considered teratogenic/embryotoxic based on animal information. One inhalation rat study has shown that 2-propanol is fetotoxic (caused reduced fetal weight gain) in the absence of maternal toxicity. An oral rat study showed decreased survival in the early postnatal period, in the presence of minimal maternal toxicity. Other studies have shown no effects or effects in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. It is not possible to draw any conclusions from the available animal studies.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that 2-propanol is mutagenic. There is no human information available. There are insufficient details available to evaluate one positive study using live animals and another study was negative. Positive and negative results have been obtained in mammalian cells in vitro and negative results in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
2-Propanol has enhanced the toxicity of carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, chloroform, trichloroethylene, and dimethylnitrosamine in rodents.(1,16) There is also one case report of 2-propanol workers becoming ill following exposure to carbon tetrachloride. The actual concentrations of 2-propanol and carbon tetrachloride were not measured. However, the authors felt that the workers were predisposed to carbon tetrachloride toxicity due to the historical and concurrent exposure to 2-propanol.(30)

Potential for Accumulation:
2-Propanol does not accumulate in the body. It is readily absorbed by the oral and inhalation routes of exposure and rapidly distributed throughout the body. It is metabolized to acetone, which is further metabolized to acetate, formate and finally carbon dioxide. 2-Propanol is eliminated partly unchanged and partly as acetone, mainly in exhaled air, with smaller amounts in the urine. Carbon dioxide is eliminated in the exhaled air. In animal studies, small amounts of unchanged 2-propanol were also excreted in saliva, gastric juice and breast milk. To a lesser extent, 2-propanol reacts with glucuronic acid to form an O-glucuronide, which is excreted in the urine.(1,28)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is flammable and a possible reproductive hazard. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. remove any sources of ignition and wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re- use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 oz (240 to 300 mL) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material or its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
12 deg C (53 deg F) (closed cup) (24,34); 14 deg C (57 deg F) (33)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.0% (1); 2.3% (34)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
12% (1,24); 12.7% at 93 deg C (33)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
399 deg C (750 deg F) (24,34)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
2-Propanol will not accumulate static charge since it has a high electrical conductivity. Mixtures of 2-propanol vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
3.5 X 10(8) pS/m at 25 deg C (35)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.65 millijoules (36)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Irritant gases, which may include unburned alcohol and toxic constituents.(34,37)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can readily form explosive mixtures with air, at or above, 12 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Vapours can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(37) Water soluble alcohols will breakdown the common foams. Special "alcohol resistant fire-fighting foams" are recommended for use with any polar flammable liquid that is slightly soluble or completely soluble (like 2-propanol) in water. Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates. Water may not be effective for extinguishing a fire because it may not cool 2-propanol below its flash point.(33,34)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
2-Propanol is hazardous to health and toxic thermal and combustion products should be expected. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self- contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 60.09

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.45 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.41 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -88.5 deg C (-127 deg F) (freezing point) (31,34,40)
Boiling Point: 82.3 deg C (180 deg F) (31,34,40,41)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.786 at 20 deg C (35,40); 0.781 at 25 deg C (40) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(1,31,34,41)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in most organic solvents, such as ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether and chloroform; soluble in benzene.(24,32,35)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.05 (42,43)
pH Value: Not available
Acidity: Very weak acid: pKa = 17.1 (41)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 2.4 mPa.s (2.4 centipoises) at 20 deg C (31); 2.04 mPa.s (2.04 centipoises) at 25 deg C (53)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 3.05 mm2/s (3.05 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 2.61 mm2/s (2.61 centistokes) (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 34.66-36.03 Saybolt seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated) (54)
Surface Tension: 21.32 mN/m (20.8 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (55); 20.93 mN/m (20.93 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (53,55)
Vapour Density: 2.07 (air = 1) (1)
Vapour Pressure: 4.41 kPa (33.1 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (1,31,40); 6.06 kPa (45.4 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (41)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 43600 ppm (4.36%) at 20 deg C; 59700 ppm (5.97%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 1.5 (butyl acetate = 1); 11.0 (diethyl ether = 1) (52)
Henry's Law Constant: 1.06 Pa.m3/mol (1.016 X 10(-5) atm.m3/mol) (cited as log H = -3.48 (dimensionless)) at 25 deg C (experimental) (56)
Critical Temperature: 235.2 deg C (455.4 deg F; 508.3 K) (31,35,40,53)
Critical Pressure: 4760 kPa (47 atm) at 20 deg C (31,32,53)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 20.18 at 20 deg C (53); 13.8 at 22 deg (35)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. However, 2-propanol may form peroxides when the anhydrous (no water) material is stored for long periods in contact with air and light. The peroxides are not hazardous unless concentrated by distillation.(57,58)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, chlorine, chromium trioxide, sodium dichromate, hydrogen peroxide and other peroxides, nitric acid and nitrates, permanganates and perchlorates) - increased risk of fire and explosion.(34,36,37,57)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. nitric acid, sulfuric acid, oleum) or ACID ANHYDRIDES - reaction may be vigorous or violent.(36,37)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium or potassium) or ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. magnesium or calcium) - reaction may be violent resulting in explosions. Can give off flammable hydrogen gas.(36)
ALUMINUM - reaction is very vigorous and gives off heat and flammable hydrogen gas. There may be an induction period.(57)
CROTONALDEHYDE or PHOSGENE - reaction may be violent.(36)
POTASSIUM t-BUTOXIDE - may cause ignition.(57)
TRINITROMETHANE - frozen mixtures exploded during thawing. Trinitromethane dissolves exothermally in 2-propanol, the heat effect increasing with concentration.(36)
Mixtures or reactions of alcohols with the following materials may cause explosions: ethylene oxide, hexamethylene diisocyanate and other isocyanates and tri-isobutyl aluminum.(33,57)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Unstable peroxides. See Stability and Stability and Reactivity Comments for additional information.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, sparks, electrostatic discharge, heat and other ignition sources, light.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Anhydrous 2-propanol is not corrosive to the common metals. Carbon steel, cast iron, stainless steels (types 304/347, 316, 400 series, 17-4 PH, and 20 Cb 3), Hastelloy, Inconel, Monel, high silicon iron, aluminium, copper, brass, bronze, naval bronze, nickel and its alloys tantalum, and titanium have good resistance (penetration less than 20 mils (505 um)/year) at normal temperatures.(59,60) 2-Propanol, particularly the anhydrous grade, attacks aluminium at high temperatures (greater than 55 deg C).(60) 2-Propanol containing water may cause plain steel to rust.(31)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
2-Propanol can attack some plastics (such as Nylon and isophthalic and terephthalic (PET) polyesters) at normal temperatures; Acetyl copolymer, Styrene-Acrylonitrile and natural rubber at high temperatures), elastomers (such as polyether-urethane and polyurethane) and coatings.(59,61)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Peroxidation reactions may occur in anhydrous secondary alcohols, such as 2-propanol, when stored for long periods in contact with air or oxygen. A number of explosions have been reported, which occurred during distillation of 2-propanol following prolonged storage (4 years and longer). The explosions were caused by the presence of peroxides which had become concentrated in the distillation residue. There is no indication that peroxides in 2-propanol are hazardous or will explode unless concentrated by a process such as distillation.(57, 58)
The rate of peroxidation was greatest under the following conditions: anhydrous solvent (no water), contact with air or oxygen in a partially full container, exposure to sunlight and the presence of trace amounts of contaminants such as 2-butanone which accelerated the reaction.(57, 58)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 17000 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 12000 ppm (8-hour exposure) (18)

LD50 (oral, male rat): 4720 mg/kg (cited as 6.0 mL/kg) (19)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 3600 mg/kg (20, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 12890 mg/kg (cited as 16.4 mL/kg) (14)

Eye Irritation:

2-Propanol is a moderate to severe irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-propanol (99.9% pure) produced moderate irritation (corneal opacity: 0.75/4; iris injury: 0.75/4; redness: 2.25/4; chemosis: 1.58/4; Modified Maximum Average Score: 30.5/110) in rabbits. There was no reading at 1 hour, where maximum scores would have been expected.(45) Therefore, these results possibly underestimate the severity of irritation. In another study, application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-propanol also produced moderate irritation (maximum mean score 29.5/110) in rabbits. One rabbit (of 6) had a corneal opacity which persisted through day 21, indicating a corrosive effect.(46) In a Draize test, application of 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mL of 70% 2-propanol produced moderate irritation (clearing within 7 days) in rabbits at the low dose and substantial irritation (clearing within 14 days) at the higher doses.(15) In another study, application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-propanol caused severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 4/10).(14) In a study which compared results between laboratories, application of 0.1 mL of 70% 2-propanol produced mild irritation (mean scores: 0.6/4 corneal opacity; 0.3/2 iritis; 1.5/4 redness; 1.3/4 chemosis) in rabbits.(1,16)

Skin Irritation:

2-Propanol is either not irritating or a mild irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-propanol (100% pure) to rabbits for 4 hours produced mild irritation (erythema: 0.78/4; edema: 0/4).(47) Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted 2-propanol to clipped or abraded skin of rabbits and guinea pigs for 4 hours produced no irritation.(17) Application of 500 mg to rabbits in a standard Draize test produced mild irritation.(20, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Inhalation of 8000-26100 ppm for 8 hours produced concentration and time-dependent severe irritation of the mucous membranes and depression of the central nervous system (CNS) (incoordination, unconsciousness and death) in rats. At 4000 and 8000 ppm, congestion of the liver, lung and spleen and, at 18000-20000 ppm, liver, lung and spleen damage was observed in animals which survived the exposure.(21) Inhalation of 500, 1500, 5000, or 10000 ppm for 6 hours produced concentration-dependent CNS depression (laboured respiration, muscle incoordination, unconsciousness) in rats at concentrations above 1500 ppm. Recovery was apparent after 24 hours, in all cases.(11) The RD50 (the concentration which produced a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate) was 5015 ppm (cited as 12300 mg/m3) or 17750 ppm (cited as 43525 mg/m3) in 2 different strains of mice.(1) Exposure to these concentrations is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat (sensory) irritation in humans.

Ingestion:
In a study designed to assess the risk of aspiration, 6/10 rats died due to cardiac and respiratory arrest. Severe lung damage was observed in most animals.(22)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term exposure by inhalation or ingestion has produced decreased body weight, a reversible increase in motor activity, increased liver weight, and signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression in rats and mice. Decreased testes weight has been observed in mice, while increased testes weight has been observed in rats exposed to high concentrations. Kidney injury has been observed in rats (especially males) and mice exposed to high concentrations. No conclusions can be drawn from other published reports due to poor study designs and/or lack of information required for evaluation.(1,23,24)

Inhalation:
Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 100, 500, 1500, or 5000 ppm for 13 weeks. At 5000 ppm, decreased body weight, increased motor activity, incoordination and an increase in liver weight were observed. Slight kidney changes (hyaline droplet formation) were observed in male rats at all exposure concentrations.(13) Female rats were exposed to 0 or 5000 ppm for 9 or 13 weeks. An apparent decrease in movement and diminished startle reflex were observed during exposure. After 3 weeks, significant increases in body weight and body weight gain were noted. In both groups, a significant increase in motor activity was observed. This effect reversed by day 2 in the 9-week exposure group and day 35 in the 13-week exposure group.(48) Rats were exposed to 0, 500, 2500 or 5000 ppm for at least 104 weeks. Complete mortality was observed in males exposed to 5000 ppm. Reduced activity, lack of a startle reflex and unconsciousness were observed during exposure to 5000 ppm. At 2500 ppm, reduced activity and lack of a startle reflex were observed in some animals. No signs of toxicity were observed during exposure to 500 ppm. Evidence of impaired kidney function was noted in males exposed to 5000 ppm. Testicular weights were increased in males exposed to 2500 or 5000 ppm for 72 weeks. Microscopic evaluation showed increased testicular seminiferous tubule atrophy in males exposed to 5000 ppm. Kidney weights were significantly decreased in females exposed to 500 or 2500 ppm. Microscopic evaluation showed a dose-dependent increase in kidney lesions for all rats exposed to 2500 or 5000 ppm. Typically, both the severity and incidence of chronic renal disease was greater in males.(49,50) Mice were exposed to 0, 500, 2500 or 5000 ppm for at least 78 weeks. Reduced activity, lack of a startle reflex, muscle incoordination, and unconsciousness were observed during exposure to 2500 or 5000 ppm. No signs of toxicity were noted at 500 ppm. Increased body weight and/or body weight gain were noted at 2500 or 5000 ppm. Testes weight was significantly increased for males exposed to all concentrations for the duration of the study. A significantly increased frequency of seminal vesicle enlargement was observed at 5000 ppm. Minimal to mild renal tubular proteinosis was observed in males exposed to 500 or 2500 ppm and females exposed to 500 or 5000 ppm.(49,50)

Ingestion:
In a 12 week study, male rats (weight 270 g) were dosed with approximately 0, 925, 1850, 2780, or 4630 mg/kg (cited as 0, 1, 2, 3, or 5%) 2-propanol in their drinking water. A dose-dependent increase in organ weights (liver, kidney and adrenal) and decreased body weights were observed at the 2 high doses. Dose-dependent signs of kidney injury (increased formation of hyaline casts and droplets) were also observed.(5)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is inadequate evidence to evaluate the carcinogenicity of 2-propanol to experimental animals.(44)
Mice were exposed by inhalation to 3100 ppm for 5 to 8 months. The incidence of lung tumours among treated mice was not increased compared to the controls.(12) No conclusions can be drawn from this study since it does not meet current standards for carcinogenicity testing. In another study, mice and rats were exposed by inhalation to concentrations up to 5000 ppm for 78 to 104 weeks, respectively. No increase in tumours was observed in mice. A slight increase in cancer of the testis was observed in male rats who were found dead or dying.(49,50) This study had design limitations.(44) Other studies reported either used inappropriate routes of exposure or lack of details necessary for evaluation.(1,16,25)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
2-Propanol has produced fetoxicity (reduced fetal weight) in rats exposed by inhalation, in the absence of maternal toxicity. Reduced survival in the early postnatal period has been observed in the offspring of rats exposed to high oral doses, in the presence of minimal maternal toxicity.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3500, 7000 or 10000 ppm during days 1-19 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity was observed at the 2 high doses, but not at 3500 ppm. Fetal weights were significantly reduced in a concentration related manner at all treatment levels. At 7000 and 10000 ppm, teratogenicity and/or embryotoxicity were observed.(10) In a two-generation study, rats were orally dosed with 0, 100, 500 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks prior to mating. Females were dosed during mating, gestation and lactation and males were dosed during mating through delivery of the last litter sired. In the first generation, a significant reduction was observed in the live birth index and the survival index on days 1 and 4 for the offspring of animals exposed to 1000 mg/kg/day. The day 4 survival index was also reduced for the offspring of animals exposed to 500 mg/kg/day. In the second generation, a significant reduction in the survival index was noted at days 1, 4 and 7 for the offspring of animals exposed to 1000 mg/kg/day. Day 1 and 7 survival index was also reduced in the offspring of animals exposed to 500 mg/kg/day. In the 1000 mg/kg/day groups, offspring body weight was reduced during the early post-natal period. Only minimal maternal toxicity (increased liver weight) was observed at 500 mg/kg/day. At 1000 mg/kg/day, 2/30 females in the first generation (P1) and 2/26 females died in the second generation (P2).(7) Another rat study has also shown fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight), but only in the presence of maternal toxicity (treatment-related deaths).(6) Studies with rabbits have not shown any effects even at doses which were maternally toxic.(6,28) No maternal, embryotoxic, teratogenic or fetotoxic effects have been seen in two other studies with rats.(8,9) Other studies do not provide sufficient details for evaluation.(1)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No conclusions can be made based on the available evidence. In one study, a reduction in mating index was observed in males demonstrating evidence of significant other toxicity.
In a two-generation study, rats were orally dosed with up to 1000 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks prior to mating. Females were dosed during mating, gestation and lactation and males were dosed during mating through delivery of the last litter sired. A statistically significant reduction was observed in the male mating index of the high dose second generation males. This change was observed in the presence of significant toxicity (centrilobular hepatocyte hypertrophy and kidney injury (hyaline droplets)). No treatment-related changes in reproductive tissues were observed in males or females.(7) There was no effect on reproduction in a three-generation study where rats were dosed with 2.5% 2-propanol in drinking water.(8) When female rats received oral doses of 252 or 1008 mg/kg of 2-propanol for 45 days, the length of the reproductive (estrus) cycle was increased by 23-24%.(1) There are insufficient details available to evaluate this study.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that 2- propanol is mutagenic, based on the available information.
Negative results were obtained in one study using live mice.(44) Statistical increases in mitotic aberrations were reported in rats exposed to 0, 1.03 or 10.2 mg/m3 for 4 months.(1) However, insufficient details were provided to evaluate this report.
Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells.(1) Negative results have been obtained in bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(1,28,44,50)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental health criteria 103: 2-Propanol. World Health Organization, 1990
(2) Wasilewski, C., et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from isopropyl alcohol. Archives of Dermatology. Vol. 98 (Nov., 1968). p. 502-504
(3) Fregert, S., et al. Hypersensitivity to secondary alcohols. Acta Dermato-Vernereologica. Vol. 51, no. 4 (1971). p. 271-272
(4) Ludwig, E., et al. Sensitivity to isopropyl alcohol. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1977). p. 240-24
(5) Pilegaard, K., et al. Toxic effects in rats of twelve weeks' dosing of 2-propanol and neurotoxicity measured by densitometric measurements of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the dorsal hippocampus. In Vivo. Vol. 7, no. 4 (July-Aug., 1993). p. 325-330
(6) Tyl, R.W., et al. Developmental toxicity evaluation of isopropanol by gavage in rats and rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 22, no.1 (Jan., 1994). p. 139- 151
(7) Bevan, G., et al. Two-generation reproduction toxicity study with isopropanol in rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Mar./Apr., 1995). p. 117-123
(8) Lehman, A.J., et al. Isopropyl alcohol: acquired tolerance in dogs, rate of disappearance from the blood stream in various species, and effects on successive generations of rats. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 85, no. 1, (Sept., 1945). p. 61-69
(9) Bates, H.K., et al. Developmental neurotoxicity evaluation of orally administered isopropanol in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 1 (Jan., 1994). p. 152-158
(10) Nelson, B.K., et al. Teratogenicity of n-propanol and isopropanol administered at high inhalation concentrations to rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 3 (1988). p. 247-254
(11) Gill, M.W., et al. Isopropanol: acute vapour inhalation neurotoxicity study in rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Mar./Apr., 1995). p. 77-84
(12) Weil, C.S., et al. Quest for a suspected industrial carcinogen. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 5 (June, 1952). p. 535-547
(13) Burleigh-Flayer, H.D., et al. Isopropanol 13-week vapor inhalation study in rats and mice with neurotoxicity evaluation in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 3 (Oct., 1994) p. 421-428
(14) Smyth, Jr., H.F. et al. Further experience with the range finding test in the industrial toxicology laboratory. Journal Industrial Hygiene Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 1 (1948). p. 63-68
(15) Griffith, J.F., et al. Dose-response studies with chemical irritants in the albino rabbit eye as a basis for selecting optimum testing conditions for predicting hazard to the human eye. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 55, no. 3 (1980). p. 501-513
(16) Criteria for recommended standard: occupational exposure to isopropyl alcohol. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Mar., 1976
(17) Nixon, G.A., et al. Interspecies comparisons of skin irritancy. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 31, no. 3 (Mar., 1975). p. 481-490
(18) Smyth, Jr., H.F. Improved communication: hygienic standards for daily inhalation. The Donald E. Cummings Memorial Lecture. Industrial Hygiene Quarterly. Vol. 17 (June, 1956). p. 129-185
(19) Kimura, E.T., et al. Acute toxicity and limits of solvent residue for sixteen organic solvents. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 19, no. 4 (Aug., 1971). p. 699-704
(20) RTECS database record for isopropyl alcohol. Last updated: 2000-03
(21) Laham, S., et al. Studies on inhalation toxicity of 2-propanol. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 3, no. 4 (1980). p. 343-360
(22) Gerarde, H.W., et al. The aspiration hazard and toxicity of a homologous series of alcohols. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 13 (Oct., 1966). p. 457-461.
(23) Lehman, A.J., et al. The acute and chronic toxicity of isopropyl alcohol. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 29, no. 6 (June, 1944). p. 561-567
(24) Isopropyl alcohol: toxicology update. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 15, no. 6 (Nov./Dec., 1995). p. 501-506
(25) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 15. Some fumigants, the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, chlorinated dibenzodioxins and miscellaneous industrial chemicals. World Health Organization, 1977. p. 223-243
(26) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. Suppl. 7. World Health Organization, 1987. p. 229
(27) Nelson, K.W., et al. Sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 7 (Sept., 1943). p. 282-285
(28) Lington, A.W., et al. Alcohols. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 2585-2760
(29) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Occupational exposures to mists and vapour from sulfuric acid and other strong inorganic acids. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 54. Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids; and other industrial chemicals. World Health Organization, 1992. p. 41-130
(30) Folland, D.S., et al. Carbon tetrachloride toxicity potentiated by isopropyl alcohol: investigation of an industrial outbreak. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 236, no. 16 (Oct. 18, 1976). p. 1853- 1856
(31) Logsdon, J.E., et al. Propyl alcohols: isopropyl alcohol. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 20. John Wiley and Sons, 1996. p. 216-240
(32) HSDB record for isopropanol. Last revision date: 2000-02-02
(33) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491
(34) Emergency action guide for isopropanol. Association of American Railroads, Jan., 1988
(35) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.286, 5.119, 6.145, 8.163
(36) Isopropyl alcohol. In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 512
(37) Sigma-Aldrich Canada Ltd. (URL: http://www.sigma- aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Pages/Main?EditDocument- Password required)
(38) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(39) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 21, 64
(40) Wilhoit, R.C. et al. Physical and thermodynamic properties of aliphatic alcohols. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 2 (Suppl. no. 1) (1973). p. 1-77 to 1-87
(41) The physical properties database (PHYSPROP). (URL: http://esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/PhysProp.htm)
(42) On-line LogP (octanol/water partition coefficient) database, including experimental data (Interactive LogKow (KowWin)) (URL: http://esc- plaza.syrres.com/interkow/kowdemo.htm)
(43) Sangster, J. Octanol-water partition coefficients of simple organic compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 18, no. 3 (1989). p. 1151
(44) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. World Health Organization, 1999
(45) Eye irritation: reference chemicals data bank. 2nd ed. ECETOC Technical Report No. 48(2). European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), June, 1998. p. 64-65
(46) Fillmore, G.E., Redfield Laboratories. Primary ocular irritation study of isopropanol in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, with cover letter dated 04/06/95. Study No.: 036-001-B. The Boeing Company, Apr. 6, 1995. NTIS/OTS 0557682. EPA/OTS 86950000169
(47) Skin irritation and corrosion: reference chemicals data bank. ECETOC Technical Report No. 66. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Mar., 1995. p. 54
(48) Burleigh-Flayer, H., et al. Motor activity in female Fischer 344 rats exposed to isopropanol for 90 days. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 18, no. 5 (Sept./Oct., 1998). p. 373-381
(49) Burleigh-Flayer, H., et al. Isopropanol vapor inhalation oncogenicity study in Fisher 344 rats and CD-1 mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 36, no. 2 (Apr., 1997). p. 95-111
(50) Kapp, Jr., R.W., et al. Isopropanol: summary of TSCA Test Rule studies and relevance to hazard identification. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 23, no. 3 (June, 1996). p. 183-192
(51) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(52) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 479, 484
(53) Lide, D., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. (CD- ROM). (CD-ROM). CRCnetBASE 1999. Chapman and Hall/CRCnet BASE, 1999
(54) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard practice for conversion of kinematic viscosity to Saybolt Universal viscosity or to Saybolt Furol viscosity. ASTM Designation: D 2161 -93 (Reapproved 1999). American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999
(55) Jasper, J.J. Surface tension of pure liquid compounds. In: Compilation of data of some 2200 pure liquid compounds. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data. Vol. 1, no. 4 (1972). p. 849
(56) Hine, J. et al. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of organic compounds. Correlations in terms of structural contributions. Journal of Organic Chemistry. Vol. 40, no. 3 (1975). p. 292-298
(57) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth- Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(58) Mirafzal, G. A. et al. Control of peroxidizable compounds: an addendum. Journal of Chemical Education. Vol. 65, no.9 (Sept., 1988) p. A226-A229
(59) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part B, E-O. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1637-1640
(60) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 74-2 to 75-2
(61) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 19 (9- 14), 20 (1-16)
(62) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2000/32/EC. May 19, 2000
(63) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Isopropyl alcohol. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct., 31, 2001. [cited 2001-11-30]. Available from World Wide Web: http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html
(64) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Alcohols I. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug., 1994). Available from World Wide Web: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Volatile Organic Compounds (Screening). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2001-12-30

Revision Indicators:
Flash point 2003-04-19
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-13
Important New Information 2003-05-13
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-26
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-09
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-09
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-10
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-10
Bibliography 2005-04-10
Short-term ingestion 2005-06-29



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6