The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 16
CCOHS Chemical Name: 1-Propanol

Synonyms:
Ethyl carbinol
1-Hydroxypropane
n-Propanol
Propan-1-ol
normal Propyl alcohol
n-Propyl alcohol
Propylic alcohol
Propanol (non-specific name)
Propyl alcohol (non-specific name)
Alcool propylique

Chemical Name French: Alcool propylique normal
Chemical Name Spanish: n-propanol
CAS Registry Number: 71-23-8
UN/NA Number(s): 1274
RTECS Number(s): UH8225000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-746-9
Chemical Family: Saturated primary aliphatic alcohol / primary alkanol / primary alkyl alcohol / propanol / propyl alcohol
Molecular Formula: C3-H8-O
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-CH2-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a sweet, pleasant, mild alcoholic odour.(14,28)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely; 0.031-41 ppm (detection) (geometric mean: 5.3 ppm); 0.081-61 ppm (geometric mean: 11 ppm) (recognition) (14,32)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is about 20 times the mean odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Commercial 1-propanol is generally 95% to 99.85% or more pure. Typically contains water, aldehydes, ethanol and methanol as impurities.(14)

Uses and Occurrences:
Solvent for flavourings, waxes, vegetable oils, natural and synthetic resins, natural or synthetic gums, ethers, synthetic polymers, cellulose esters, lacquers, and PVC adhesives. Used in the polymerization and spinning of acrylonitrile, printing inks and dyeing of wool. Used as a chemical intermediate. Used in drugs, cosmetics, nail polishes, degreasing agents, polishing compounds, brake fluids, in non-alcoholic beverages, ice cream, candy and baked goods, feed additive for cattle.(14,26) Occurs naturally in fusel oils, as a metabolic product of microorganisms, as a flavour volatile in foodstuffs and non-alcoholic drinks and as a product of fermentation in alcoholic drinks.(14)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a sweet, pleasant, mild alcoholic odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and confusion. EYE IRRITANT. Causes severe eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs. May be a reproductive hazard - caused reduced male fertility in a limited animal study.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
There are no reports of harmful effects developing from occupational exposure to 1-propanol. It can probably cause central nervous system (CNS) depression, based on animal information and comparison to related alcohols. Symptoms may include headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting and incoordination. High exposures may result in unconsciousness and death.

Skin Contact:
1-Propanol is not a skin irritant, based on animal information. No to weak irritation was observed following closed patch tests performed on 16 volunteers.(6)
1-Propanol can be absorbed through the skin but is not expected to produce harmful effects by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
1-Propanol is a severe eye irritant, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
There is one case report of a woman who ingested a product containing 1- propanol.(14) There are insufficient details to evaluate this report. 1- Propanol is a normal component of alcoholic beverages and food. Ingestion will probably result in symptoms of CNS depression, as described in Inhalation.
Based on animal information and physical properties (viscosity and surface tension), 1-propanol can probably be inhaled into the lungs (aspirated) during ingestion or vomiting. Aspiration can result in severe, life- threatening lung damage. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are no reports of health effects developing from long-term occupational exposure to 1-propanol.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged skin contact can cause drying and cracking of the skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
Positive results were obtained in one individual previously sensitized to isopropanol.(22)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. One animal study was poorly conducted. Therefore, no conclusions can be made.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

ACGIH has published a Notice of Intended Change to revise the carcinogenicity designation from A3 (animal carcinogen) to A4 (not classifiable as a human carcinogen).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. In animal studies, embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity have been observed at slightly maternally toxic doses.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. It is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the potential reproductive toxicity of 1-propanol, based on the available animal information. Significant reproductive toxicity (reduced fertility) was observed in male rats in one study with design limitations.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal in vivo studies, nor studies on human cell cultures have been reported. In vitro mammalian cell tests have been negative. Both positive and negative results have been obtained in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Alcohols may interact synergistically with chlorinated solvents (e.g. carbon tetrachloride), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylene) or dithiocarbamates (e.g. disulfiram).

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. 1-Propanol is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and skin and distributed throughout the body. 1-Propanol is oxidized to propionaldehyde, which is the further oxidized to propionic acid, which may be further metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. 1-Propanol may be eliminated from the body in the expired air (mainly as carbon dioxide) or in the urine.(4,14,26)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). Remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material or its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
15 deg C (59 deg F) (closed cup) (14); 23 deg C (74 deg F) (closed cup) (27)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.2% (27)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
13.7% (27)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Reported values vary; 371 deg C (700 deg F); 412 deg C (775 deg F); 440 deg C (824 deg F) (28)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Probably will not accumulate static charge, since it has a high electrical conductivity.(29,30) Mixtures of 1-propanol vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Toxic, irritating chemicals.(28)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 15 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam or polymer foam. Water may be ineffective because it will not cool 1-propanol below its flash point. Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires.(28,31)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite. Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and toprotect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stayaway from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
1-Propanol is hazardous to health. Do not enter area without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 60.09

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 2.45 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.408 ppm at 25 deg C and 760 mm Hg (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -127 to -126 deg C (-196.6 to -195 deg F) (28)
Boiling Point: 97.2 to 97.8 deg C (207-208 deg F) (28)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.804 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (14,30,31)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions (14,28,30)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol and other alcohols, diethyl ether and propylene glycol; soluble in acetone and benzene.(26,28,30)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.25 (26); 0.34 (14)
pH Value: Not available
Viscosity-Dynamic: 2.26 mPa.s (2.26 centipoises) at 20 deg C (26,30)
Surface Tension: 23.8 mN/m (23.8 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (26,30)
Vapour Density: 2.07 (air = 1) (14,30)
Vapour Pressure: 1.9 to 2 kPa (14.5 to 15 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (14,28,30)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 19080 to 19740 ppm (1.9 to 1.97%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 11.1 (ether = 1); 1.3 (butyl acetate = 1)
Critical Temperature: 263.6 deg C (506.5 deg F) (30)
Critical Pressure: 5169.6 kPa (51 atm) (30)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitrates, perchlorates, peroxides) - increased risk of fire and explosion.(29,31)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. nitric acid, sulfuric acid), ACID CHLORIDES or ACID ANHYDRIDES - reaction may be vigorous or violent.(31)
ALKALI or ALKALINE EARTH METALS - can give off flammable hydrogen gas.(29)
POTASSIUM TERT-BUTOXIDE - may cause ignition.(33)

Mixtures or reactions of alcohols with the following materials may cause explosions: barium perchlorate, chlorine, hypochlorous acid, ethylene oxide, hexamethylene diisocyanate and other isocyanates, nitrogen tetroxide, permonosulfuric acid and tri-isobutyl aluminum.(27)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, sparks, electrostatic discharge, heat and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive to common metals at normal temperatures.(28,34) Undiluted 1-propanol is corrosive to aluminum at temperatures of 38 deg C and above.(34)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
May attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.(28)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): approximately 4000 ppm (4-hour exposure); 2/6 animals died (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1870 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, young female rat): 660 mg/kg (3)
LD50 (oral, young male rat): 560 mg/kg (3)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 2820 mg/kg (2)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 4000 mg/kg (cited as 5.04 mL/kg) (1)

Eye Irritation:

1-Propanol is a severe eye irritant.

Application of 0.02 mL of undiluted 1-propanol produced severe injury in rabbits (scored over 5, where 5 is severe injury; graded 5/10).(1) In another study, application of 0.1 mL produced marked to severe redness, irritated irises, cloudiness of the cornea and ulcerations in rabbits.(4, unconfirmed) In another unconfirmed study, application of 20 mg in a standard Draize test produced moderate irritation in rabbits.(5, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

1-Propanol is not irritating to the skin.

Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted 1-propanol produced no irritation in rabbits (Graded 1/10).(1)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

1-Propanol has caused symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression in animals following oral and inhalation exposures.(4,7) 1-Propanol can be aspirated if ingested.(8)

Inhalation:
In a limited study, mice (2/group) were exposed by inhalation to increasing concentrations (3250, 4100, 8150, 12250, 16300 or 24500 ppm) for decreasing times (480, 240, 135, 120, 90 or 60 minutes). Deep CNS depression (incoordination and unconsciousness) developed more quickly as the concentration increased. Incoordination appeared in 10-14 minutes at 24500 ppm and in 90-120 minutes at 3250 ppm. Mice exposed to 2050 ppm for 8 hours showed no effects.(4, unconfirmed) The RD50, the concentration which reduces the respiratory rate by 50%, in mice is 12704 ppm. This is the concentration that would be expected to produce intolerable sensory irritation in humans.(24) 1-Propanol is 2.5 times more intoxicating than ethanol in the rat.(25)

Ingestion:
Liver and kidney damage were observed in very young rats that died following a single oral dose of 150-3000 mg/kg.(3) However, oral dosing of young adult rats with 2160 mg/kg for 4 days showed no kidney or liver effects.(7) Oral administration of 3 mL/kg (approximately 2400 mg/kg) of a 25% solution to rats 24 and 12 hours prior to killing caused formation of fatty acids in the liver, pancreas and the lungs.(9) To determine the effects of aspiration, anaesthetized rats were forced to inspire 0.5 mL (400 mg) of undiluted 1-propanol. Complete lethality due to respiratory arrest occurred. Lungs were full of fluid with small areas of bleeding.(8) Neonatal rats exposed to extremely high levels of 1-propanol for 4 days during lactation showed signs of intoxication and withdrawal. Autopsy showed inhibited brain development.(10)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Mice exposed to 0.05-0.25 mL of 1-propanol in 5 litres of air daily for 3- 4.5 hours showed reversible fatty degeneration of the liver after 28 days.(12)

Ingestion:
No harmful effects on the liver, food consumption or weight gain were observed in male rats given a 1 molar solution (2890 mg/kg/day) of 1-propanol as their sole drinking source for 4 months.(11)

Skin Sensitization:
No sensitization was noted in the mouse ear swelling test.(23)

Carcinogenicity:
There is one poorly conducted study from which no conclusions can be drawn.(13) Limitations include the use of a small number of animals (18) and lack of statistical analysis of the data.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Teratogenicity, embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity have not been observed at non-maternally toxic doses, but have been observed at slightly maternally toxic doses.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3500, 7000 or 10000 ppm 1-propanol on days 1-19 of pregnancy. At 7000 and 10000 ppm, mild maternal toxicity was evidenced by reduced food intake and/or body weight gain. No significant effects were noticed in mothers exposed to 3500 ppm. Severe embryotoxicity and teratogenicity (external, skeletal and visceral malformations) were observed at 10000 ppm, teratogenicity (skeletal malformations) was observed at 7000 ppm and fetotoxicity (reduced body weight) was observed at 7000 and 10000 ppm. No significant effects were observed in the offspring at 3500 ppm.(18) Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3500 or 7000 ppm of 1-propanol on days 1-20 or pregnancy. At 7000 ppm, maternal toxicity was evidenced by reduced weight gain. Fetotoxicity (reduced weight gain) and slight teratogenicity were also observed at this dose. There were no significant effects at 3500 ppm.(20) No significant behavioural or neurochemical effects were observed in the offspring of female rats exposed to 3500 or 7000 ppm by inhalation throughout pregnancy and male rats similarly exposed for 6 weeks prior to mating.(19)

Reproductive Toxicity:
It is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the potential reproductive toxicity of 1-propanol. Significant reproductive toxicity (reduced fertility) was demonstrated in male rats in one study with design limitations.
Male rats (18/group) were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3500 or 7000 ppm of 1-propanol for 6 weeks prior to mating (7 hrs/d). At 7000 ppm, male fertility was significantly reduced with only 2/17 females producing litters despite the presence of sperm plugs. Except for reductions in maternal weight gain after exposure to 7000 ppm 1-propanol, no other adverse effects were noted in maternal or paternal animals exposed to 1-propanol.(20) This study is limited because only two exposure concentrations were used, and detailed autopsy results are not reported for the males. In addition, the exposure concentration is relatively high and despite the fact the authors do not report male toxicity, it is possible that significant other toxicity may have occurred in the males exposed to 7000 ppm. A subsequent report on this same research indicates that 2/16 paternally exposed males produced litters; 1 litter with 2 pups and the other with 12 pups. During follow-up matings, fertility gradually returned to normal within 13 weeks.(19) Male rats (5/group) exposed by inhalation to 200 ppm 1-propanol for up to 1 week showed a significant depression in the concentration of circulating testosterone following the first 6-hour exposure, with full recovery after 18 hours.(21)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list V. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 10 (1954). p. 61-68
(2) Munch, J.C., et al. Narcotic and toxic potency of aliphatic alcohols upon rabbits. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. Vol. 10 (1925). p. 985-996
(3) Purchase I.F.H., et al. Studies in kaffircorn malting and brewing. XXII: the acute toxicity of some fusel oils found in Bantu beer. South African Medical Journal. Vol. 43 (June 21, 1969). p. 795-798
(4) Lington, A.W., et al. Alcohols. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th edition. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 2585-2760
(5) RTECS database record for propyl alcohol. Date of last update: 9601.
(6) Agner, T., et al. Contact thermography for assessment of skin damage due to experimental irritants. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 68, no. 3 (1988). p. 192-195
(7) Taylor, J.M., et al. A comparison of the toxicity of some allyl, propenyl, and propyl compounds in the rat. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 6, no. 4 (July 1964). p. 378-387
(8) Gerade, H.W. The aspiration hazard and toxicity of a homologous series of alcohols. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 13 (Oct. 1966). p. 457-461
(9) Carlson, G.P. Formation of fatty acid propyl esters in liver, lung, and pancreas of rats administered 1-propanol. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 81, no. 1 (July 1993). p. 121- 123
(10) Grant, K.A., et al. n-Propanol induced microcephaly in the neonatal rat. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 6 (1984). p. 165-169
(11) Hillbom, M.E., et al. Effects of chronic ingestion of some lower aliphatic alcohols in rats. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 9, no. 1 (Sept. 1974). p. 177-179
(12) Weese, H. Comparative studies of the efficacy and toxicity of the vapors of lower aliphatic alcohols. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie. Vol. 135 (1928). p. 118-130. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control No. 00134332)
(13) Gibel, W., et al. Experimental investigations of the cancerous activities of solvents using propanol-1, 2-methylpropanol-1 and 3- methylbutanol-1. Archiv fuer Geschwulstforschung. Vol. 45, no. 1 (1975). p. 19-24 (English translation)
(14) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Environmental health criteria 102: 1-propanol. World Health Organization, 1990
(15) Lasne, C., et al. The in vitro micronucleus assay for detection of cytogenetic effects induced by mutagen-carcinogens: comparison with the in vitro sister-chromatid exchange assay. Mutation Research. Vol. 130, no. 4 (Aug. 1984). p. 273-282
(16) von der Hude, W., et al. Genotoxicity of three-carbon compounds evaluated in the SCE test in vitro. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol. 9, no. 4 (1987). p. 401-410
(17) Obe, G., et al. Acetaldehyde, but not ethanol, induces sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster cell in vitro. Mutation Research. Vol. 56 (1977). p. 211-213
(18) Nelson, B.K., et al. Teratogenicity of n-propanol and isopropanol administered at high inhalation concentrations to rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 3 (1988). p. 247-254
(19) Nelson, B.K., et al. Behavioral teratology investigation of 1-propanol administered by inhalation to rats. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. Vol. 11, no. 2 (1989). p. 153-159
(20) Nelson, B.K., et al. Comparison of behavioral teratogenic effects of ethanol and n-propanol administered by inhalation to rats. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 7, no. 6 (Nov.-Dec. 1985). p. 779-783
(21) Cameron, A.M., et al. Circulating steroids in male rats following inhalation of n-alcohols. Archives of Toxicology. Suppl. 8 (1985). p. 422-424
(22) Ludwig, E., et al. Sensitivity to isopropyl alcohol. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3, no. 5 (1977). p. 240-244
(23) Gad, S.C., et al. Development and validation of an alternative dermal sensitization test: the mouse ear swelling test (MEST). Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 84, no. 1 (June 15, 1986). p. 93-114
(24) Kane, L.E., et al. Evaluation of sensory irritation from some common industrial solvents. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 41, no. 6 (June, 1980). p. 451-455
(25) Wallgren, H. Relative intoxicating effects on rats of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 16 (1960). p. 217-22
(26) HSDB record for n-propanol. Last revision date: 95/01/24
(27) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491 (alcohols)
(28) Emergency action guide for n-propanol. Association of American Railroads, Sept. 1992
(29) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 747
(30) Unruh, J.D., et al. Propyl alcohols: n-propyl alcohol. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd Edition. Vol. 19. John Wiley and Sons, 1982. p. 221-227
(31) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 2. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 2951D
(32) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 28, 74
(33) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 458
(34) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 104-10 to 105-10
(35) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(36) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June, 1994. p. 268-269
(37) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(38) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organic Vapors. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(39) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Alcohols II. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-09-05

Revision Indicators:
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
EU Comments 2000-04-01
TDG 2002-05-29
US transport 2002-12-10
Reproductive toxicity 2003-05-29
WHMIS proposed classification 2003-05-29
WHMIS disclosure list 2003-05-29
Handling 2003-05-30
Clean-up 2003-05-30
Spill precautions 2003-05-30
Personal hygiene 2003-05-30
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-04
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-04
PEL-STEL final 2003-12-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-04
TLV basis 2004-06-08
Bibliography 2005-03-07
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-07
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-14
Toxicological info 2005-06-08
Short-term skin contact 2005-06-08
WHMIS health effects 2005-06-08
Emergency overview 2005-06-08
First aid skin 2005-06-08
Handling 2005-07-01
TLV-TWA 2006-02-16
TLV-STEL 2006-02-16
TLV definitions 2006-02-16
TLV proposed changes 2006-02-16
Carcinogenicity 2006-02-17
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-02-17



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6