The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 59
CCOHS Chemical Name: Propane

Synonyms:
Dimethylmethane
Propyl hydride
Liquefied propane

Chemical Name French: Propane
Chemical Name Spanish: Propano
CAS Registry Number: 74-98-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1978
RTECS Number(s): TX2275000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-827-9
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon / paraffin / alkane / n-alkane / propane
Molecular Formula: C3-H8
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless, odourless gas.(9) Commercial grade may have an odourant added (consult supplier MSDS).

Odour Threshold:
1800-36000 mg/m3 (method unspecified; unspecified composition; odour may be due to impurities) (25); odourant may be added by supplier.

Warning Properties:
POOR - odourless; odourant may be added by supplier.

Composition/Purity:
Technical and higher grades of propane are at least 98% pure and are not odourized. These grades contain trace impurities such as nitrogen, oxygen, water, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ethane, ethylene, propylene, and butane isomers.(26)

Uses and Occurrences:
Commercial propane is used as a fuel (source of energy) in the residential and commercial markets. It is also used as a refrigerant, aerosol propellant, solvent for removing asphaltic components from crude oils; and in the production of ethylene and other petrochemicals. The main sources of propane are oil and natural gas fields. Propane is also generated as a by-product when crude oil is refined.(27,29)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, odourless gas. Commercial grade may have odourant added (see supplier MSDS). EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS. COMPRESSED GAS or LIQUEFIED GAS. Gas is heavier than air and may spread long distances and will accumulate at low points (e.g. open or closed drain). Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a fire and toxicity hazard. Essentially non-toxic at low concentrations. Asphyxiant. At high concentrations, gas may reduce oxygen available for breathing. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination, and unconsciousness. Rapid evaporation of liquefied gas from cylinder may cause cold burns or frostbite.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
At low concentrations, propane is essentially non-toxic. At high concentrations, propane can cause depression of the central nervous system (CNS) with symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion, based on animal information. It is expected to cause unconsciousness (narcosis) due to CNS depression at approximately 47000 ppm (4.7%).(22) (It is important to note that propane is extremely flammable (lower explosive limit: 2.1%)). No health effects were observed in 8 volunteers who inhaled 250, 500 or 1000 ppm propane for 1 minute to 8 hours. Exposure to 1000 ppm for 2 weeks (8 hr/d; 4-5 d/wk) also produced no harmful effects.(21) In a historical report, exposure of volunteers to 1% (10000 ppm) for 10 minutes produced no symptoms. Exposure to 10% (100000 ppm) for 2 minutes produced slight dizziness (vertigo).(3)
Propane gas concentrations can become so high that oxygen is displaced, especially in confined spaces. Life-threatening asphyxiation (suffocation) may result. The available oxygen should be a minimum of 18% or harmful effects will result.(7,23) Propane displaces oxygen to 18% in air when present at 14% (140000 ppm). Effects of oxygen deficiency are: 12-16% - breathing and pulse rate are increased, with slight muscular incoordination; 10-14% - emotional upsets, abnormal fatigue from exertion, disturbed respiration; 6-10% - nausea and vomiting, inability to move freely, collapse, possible lack of consciousness; below 6% - convulsive movements, gasping, possible respiratory collapse and death. Since exercise increases the body's need for oxygen, symptoms will occur more quickly during exertion in an oxygen-deficient environment.(7,23) Survivors of oxygen deprivation may show damage to some or all organs including the central nervous system and the brain. These effects may or may not be reversible with time, depending on the degree and duration of the low oxygen and the amount of tissue injury.(7)
Propane and some other closely related aliphatic hydrocarbons (isobutane and butane) are weak cardiac sensitizers in humans following inhalation exposures to high concentrations. Cardiac sensitizers may cause the sudden onset of an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) and, in some cases, sudden death. Sudden deaths have been reported in cases of substance abuse involving isobutane, butane and propane. Under stressful conditions and with exposure to high concentrations, the effects of cardiac sensitization may be important for some these hydrocarbon gases. The asphyxiant effects of propane may enhance cardiac sensitization.(14)

Skin Contact:
Propane gas is not a skin irritant.
Contact with compressed or liquefied gas can cause cold burns or frostbite. Symptoms of mild frostbite include numbness, prickling and itching in the affected area. Symptoms of more severe frostbite include a burning sensation and stiffness of the affected area. The skin may become waxy white or yellow. Blistering, tissue death and gangrene may also develop in severe cases.

Eye Contact:
Propane gas is not an eye irritant.
Contact with compressed or liquefied gas may cause freezing of the eye. Permanent eye damage or blindness could result.

Ingestion:
Not applicable to gases.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Propane is not expected to cause health effects following long-term exposure. No conclusions can be drawn from two single case reports describing harmful effects on the liver. One case report lacks important details (11), and in the other case there was concurrent exposure to other potentially harmful chemicals (12).

Liver:
No conclusions can be drawn from two single case reports. In neither case is it possible to directly attribute the observed effects to propane exposure.
A 28-year-old man developed liver injury (hepatitis) of an unexplained origin. Since he had been working in an enclosed space fixing gas cylinders, his doctor speculated that occupational exposure to n-butane and propane might have been the cause. No exposure analysis was conducted, to confirm this man's exposure history.(11)
A 63-year-old man developed signs of liver injury (abnormal liver function test results). He had been exposed to an adhesive 3 hours/time, 2-3 times/week for approximately 2 years in a poorly ventilated garage. During this time, he experienced symptoms of drowsiness and nausea. The adhesive contained a propane/butane/isobutane propellant (30-35%), petroleum distillates (25-35%), pentane (10-15%) and acetone (1-5%). He stopped using the adhesive and liver tests returned to normal within 4 weeks.(12)

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information was located. Propane is not expected to cause cancer.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human or animal information was located. Propane is not expected to cause developmental effects.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located. Propane is not expected to cause reproductive effects.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal information was located. Negative results were obtained in a short-term test using bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This is chemical is extremely flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). In general, this gas has very low toxicity, but it can act as a central nervous system depressant and an asphyxiant at high concentrations. If the victim has been knocked down, wear appropriate protective equipment, and use the buddy system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or automated external defibrillation (AED) immediately. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
COMPRESSED OR LIQUEFIED GAS: Quickly remove victim from source of contamination and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm the affected area on site. DO NOT rub area or apply dry heat. Gently remove clothing or jewelry that may restrict circulation. Carefully cut around clothing that sticks to the skin and remove the rest of the garment. Loosely cover the affected area with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. GAS: Not applicable. No effects expected.

Eye Contact:
COMPRESSED OR LIQUEFIED GAS: Quickly remove victim from source of contamination. Immediately and briefly flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water until the chemical is removed. DO NOT attempt to rewarm. Cover both eyes with a sterile dressing. DO NOT allow victim to drink alcohol or smoke. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. GAS: Not applicable. No effects expected.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. Some first aid measures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and must be routinely reviewed.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its condition of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Flammable gas

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.1% (5)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
9.5% (5)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
450 deg C (842 deg F) (5)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Liquefied propane can accumulate electrostatic charge by flow, friction in pipes, splashing or agitation. Propane gas in the flammable range can be easily ignited by an electrostatic discharge of sufficient energy (e.g. brush discharge).

Electrical Conductivity:
Not applicable for gas. Not available for liquefied gas. Based on propane's chemical properties and dielectric constant, the electric conductivity for liquefied propane is expected to be less then 50 pS/m.

Minimum Ignition Energy:
0.25 mJ for 5.2% by volume (5)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water and toxic and irritating fumes.

Fire Hazard Summary:
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE COMPRESSED OR LIQUEFIED GAS. Can readily form explosive mixtures with air, which are easily ignited by a static charge. Liquefied gas accumulates static charge. Liquefied gas vapourizes under normal conditions and produces 275 volumes vapour for every one volume of liquid. Ignition of a large volume of propane vapour intermixed with air causes sudden expansion and turbulence resulting in an explosion known as vapour cloud explosion. Large spills of liquefied propane rapidly form dense flammable vapours, which will travel over long distances and will create a flash back hazard. The gas can accumulate in confined spaces and low areas, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Direct addition of water (or any other room temperature liquid) to the liquefied gas will cause flash vapourization resulting in an explosion (either immediately or delayed) known as a "boiling liquid, expanding vapour explosion (BLEVE)". During a fire, toxic gases may be generated. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside cylinders or tanks, which may cause explosive rupture and a sudden release of large amounts of extremely flammable gas.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical powder and high-expansion foam. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.(33,34)

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
Carbon dioxide, low expansion foams, and direct application of water on liquefied propane gas. Under certain conditions, discharge of carbon dioxide produces electrostatic charges that could create a spark and ignite propane.(34,35)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
For fires involving flammable gases, the best procedure is to stop the flow of gas before attempting to extinguish the fire. It is extremely dangerous to extinguish the fire, while allowing continued flow of the gas. The gas could form an explosive mixture with air and re-ignite resulting in a sudden violent flash fire, which may cause far more damage than if the original fire had been allowed to burn. In some cases, extinguishing the fire with dry chemical powder may be necessary to permit immediate access to valves to shut off the flow of gas. However, this must be done carefully. If it is not possible to stop the flow of gas and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, allow the fire to continue burning while protecting exposed materials with water spray, to prevent ignition of other combustible materials.
DO NOT direct water at the source of leak or at safety devices; icing may occur which can result in blockage of pressure release valves. Liquefied propane fires may be controlled with high-expansion foam blankets. The resulting foam solutions may be flammable. Dike for appropriate disposal.
Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside cylinders or tanks, which may cause explosive rupture. If tanks are directly exposed to flames an explosive rupture may occur below the relief valve set, sending tank fragments in any direction and far away (e.g. 2200 meters). Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Cool fire-exposed cylinders, tanks, equipment or pipelines by applying hose streams, to minimize the risk of rupture. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. DO NOT direct water at open or leaking cylinders and take precautions not to get water inside a container or cylinder. Reverse flow into cylinder may cause rupture. No part of a cylinder should be subjected to a temperature higher than 52 deg C (approximately 125 deg F). Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out.
Isolate cylinders and other containers exposed to heat but not yet directly involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move cylinders from fire area only if this can be done without risk. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks or cylinders may travel in any direction.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting foam solutions of propane may be flammable. Explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area, especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device. Cylinders or tanks that have been involved in a fire should not be approached until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Propane is only slightly hazardous to health. However, it can also displace oxygen, reducing the amount available for breathing. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 44.10

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.80 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.56 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Gas
Melting Point: -188 deg C (-306.4 deg F) (30)
Boiling Point: -42.1 deg C (-43.7 deg F) (30)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not applicable (gas)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (62 mg/L) at 25 deg C (30)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Moderately soluble in ethanol, ether, chloroform.(32) Slightly soluble in acetone.(31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.36 (30)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 1.45 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 855 kPa (8.42 atm) at 21.1 deg C (9)
Vapour Pressure at 50 deg C: 1722 kPa (12915 mm Hg) (estimated)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable (gas)
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable for gas. Liquefied propane will evaporate rapidly at room temperature.
Henry's Law Constant: 7.16 X 10(4) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 7.07 X 10(-1) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (30); log H = 1.46 (dimensionless constant; calculated)
Critical Temperature: 96.8 deg C (206.3 deg F) (32)
Critical Pressure: 4245 kPa (41.9 atm) (32)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 1.6 at deg 0 deg C (dimensionless) (32)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


The risk of a hazardous incident occurring due to accidental mixing of propane with other substances is low because propane only reacts with a very small number of chemical classes that are commonly used in the workplace. If an accidental mixing does occur, these few reactions may be severe.

STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, perchlorates) - Increases the risk of fire and explosion. Reaction may be delayed.(36)
HALOGEN COMPOUNDS (e.g. chlorine and bromine) - Risk of fire and explosion. Fluorine gas reacts explosively.(37) ) Mixtures with around 20% or more of chlorine are explosive. However, if any mixture of propane and chlorine gas is exposed to direct sunlight there is almost always an explosion.(38) The presence of some metallic salts or oxides (e.g. ferric chloride, copper oxide) or metals (e.g. mercury, zinc) increases the reactivity with the halogen compounds.(36,38,39) Reaction with iodine is not vigorous.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None

Conditions to Avoid:
Static charge, sparks, open flames and other ignition sources

Corrosivity to Metals:
Pure propane gas or liquefied gas is not corrosive to aluminum or carbon steel.(40)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Pure propane gas is corrosive to high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene, and polyurethane; and is slightly corrosive to acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). Propane gas is not corrosive to fluorinated plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene, most polyamides, ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, and polyacetals.(41)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 80% (800000 ppm) (15-minute exposure)* (15)
*LC50 values obtained with 15-minute exposure durations cannot be reliably converted to 4-hour exposure durations.

Skin Irritation:

No specific information was located.

Several formulations containing an isobutane-propane mixture were tested for skin irritation effects in rabbits. All formulations contained less than 13% propane. All of the formulations containing propane caused only mild irritation.(4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
In a limited historical study, guinea pigs (3/group) were exposed to 2.4-2.9% (24000-29000 ppm) or 4.7-5.5% (47000-55000 ppm) for 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour or 2 hours. The animals appeared normal with exposure to 2.4-2.8% for 5 minutes. Somewhat irregular breathing was noted with exposure to 2.2-2.8% for 30 minutes or 1 hour. No marked symptoms were noted in animals exposed for 2 hours. With exposure to 4.7-5.5%, tremors were seen in the first 5 minutes, and retching, irregular breathing, reduced activity and incoordination were observed during longer periods of exposure. All animals recovered quickly and appeared normal during a 10-day observation period. Autopsy of one animal exposed to 4.7-5.5% for 2 hours showed no effects.(24) Exposure to 28% (280000 ppm) for 10 minutes produced central nervous system (CNS) effects (incoordination and loss of righting reflex) in 50% of the exposed rats (6/group).(15) Propane is a weak cardiac sensitizer (high concentrations can cause abnormal heartbeat in animals under stress). Dogs were injected with epinephrine, exposed to propane for 5 minutes and then injected with epinephrine again. Exposure to 5% (50000 ppm) propane caused no marked responses in the hearts of 6 dogs. At 10.0% (100000 ppm), propane caused marked responses in 2/12 dogs and at 20% (200000 ppm), marked cardiac responses were observed in 7/12 dogs.(16) Cardiac sensitization to adrenaline was observed in 50% of dogs (number not specified) exposed to 18% (180000 ppm) for 5 minutes.(15) Intravenous injection with epinephrine following 10 minutes of inhalation exposure to 15-90% (150000-900000 ppm) propane mixed with oxygen caused cardiac sensitization in 3/3 anesthetized dogs.(17) These studies are limited by the small number of animals used and/or incomplete reporting. Anesthetized mice inhaling 10 or 20% (100000 or 200000 ppm) propane developed cardiac sensitization to injected epinephrine. Inhalation of 10 or 20% propane alone failed to elicit cardiac sensitization.(18) When monkeys (3/group) inhaled 10 or 20% (100000 or 200000 ppm) propane for 5-minute periods alternating with 10-minute exposures to room air, no cardiac abnormalities could be detected.(19)

Skin Contact:
Rats (8/group) directly exposed to liquefied propane gas for 6, 12, 30 or 60 seconds developed superficial and deep tissue death (necrosis) that was related to the duration of exposure. A 6-second exposure caused temporary swelling, but by 5 days tissue death of skin was observed. A 12-second exposure resulted in extremely swollen, dark and red skin within 3 hours. By 24 hours, tissue death had occurred, but the underlying muscle was healthy. A 30-second exposure resulted in marked swelling and redness within 6 hours. By 24 hours the injured skin tissue was necrotic and by day 5 muscle tissue death was noted. A 60-second exposure produced necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous fat and muscle.(20)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
No toxicity was observed when 21 monkeys were exposed to approximately 750 ppm of an anti-perspirant containing more than 50% propane for 90 days.(4, unconfirmed) Similar results were obtained in another study in which 18 monkeys were exposed to an aerosol spray deodorant containing 64.5% propane and isobutane for 90 days.(4, unconfirmed)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results were obtained in a short-term test using bacteria.
In a modified Ames Test, propane (99.9% pure) was not mutagenic to 5 strains of bacteria, with and without metabolic activation. Concentrations of 5-50% were tested.(13,14)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Carreon, T. Aliphatic hydrocarbons. In: Patty's Toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by: E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 4. John Wiley and Sons, 2001
(2) Propane. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(3) Patty, F.A., et al. Odour intensity and symptoms produced by commercial propane, butane, pentane, hexane and heptane vapor. R.I. 2979. US Bureau of Mines, Dec. 1929. p. 1-10
(4) Final report of the safety assessment of isobutane, isopentane, n-butane and propane. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 4 (1982). p. 127-142
(5) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 77, NFPA 325
(6) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994
(7) Wilkenfeld, M. Simple asphyxiants. In: Environmental and Occupational Medicine. 3rd ed. Edited by W.N. Rom. Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1998. p. 651-655
(8) Matook, G.M., et al. Propane thermal injuries: case report and review of the literature. Journal of Trauma. Vol. 37, no. 2 (1994). p. 318-321
(9) Compressed Gas Association. Handbook of compressed gases. 4th ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. p. 476-487
(10) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(11) Aydin, Y., et al. Occupational hepatitis due to chronic inhalation of propane and butane gases. International Journal of Clinical Practice. Vol. 57, no. 6 (July 2003). p. 546
(12) Pyatt, J.R., et al. Abnormal liver function tests following inadvertent inhalation of volatile hydrocarbons. Postgraduate Medical Journal. Vol. 74, no. 878 (1998). p. 747-748
(13) Kirwin, C.J., et al. In vitro microbiological mutagenicity studies of hydrocarbon propellants. Journal of the Society of Cosmetics Chemistry. Vol. 31 (Dec. 1980). p. 367-370
(14) Aliphatic hydrocarbon gases: alkanes (C1-C4). In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 7th ed. (Suppl.). American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 2004
(15) Clark, D.G., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of some halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons. Human Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 3 (1982). p. 239-247
(16) Reinhardt, C.F., et al. Cardiac arrhythmias and aerosol sniffing. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 22 (1971). p. 265-279
(17) Krantz, Jr., J.C., et al. Anesthesia. XXXI. A study of cyclic and noncyclic hydrocarbons on cardiac automaticity. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Vol. 94 (1948). p. 315-318
(18) Aviado, D.M., et al. Toxicity of aerosol propellants on the respiratory and circulatory systems. I. Cardiac arrhythmia in the mouse. Toxicology. Vol. 2 (1974). p. 31-42
(19) Belej, M.A., et al. Toxicity of aerosol propellants in the respiratory and circulatory systems. IV. Cardiotoxicity in the monkey. Toxicology. Vol. 2 (1974). p. 381-395
(20) Hicks, L.M., et al. Liquid propane cold injury: a clinicopathological and experimental study. Journal of Trauma. Vol. 19 (1979). p. 701-3
(21) Stewart, R.D., et al. Physiological response to aerosol propellants. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 26 (1978). p. 275-285
(22) Drummond, I. Light hydrocarbon gases: a narcotic, asphyxiant, or flammable hazard? Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 8 (1993). p. 120-125
(23) Leikauf, G.D., et al. Inorganic compounds of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. In: Patty's Toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 3. John Wiley & Sons, 2001
(24) Nuckolls, A.H. Underwriters' Laboratories' report on the comparative life, fire and explosion hazard of common refrigerants. Miscellaneous Hazard No. 2375. For: Kinetic Chemicals, Inc. Underwriters' Laboratories, Nov. 13, 1933
(25) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (1986). p. A-142-A151
(26) Propane. Matheson Tri*Gas Website. Matheson Tri*Gas. Specification sheet. Available at: <www.matheson-trigas.com/mathportal/catalog/index.cfm>
(27) Yaws, C.L. Matheson gas data book. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001. p. 715-719
(28) Mears, D.E. et al., Hydrocarbons. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/articles/survmear.a01/sect3-fs.html> [Subscription required]
(29) Thompson, S.M. et al., Liquefied petroleum gas. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/articles/a15_347/sect1.html> [Subscription required]
(30) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.html>
(31) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 3-269
(32) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.286, 5.119, 6.144
(33) Lees, F. P. Loss prevention in the process industry: hazard identification, assessment control. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996. p. 16/289
(34) Recommended practice for responding to hazardous materials incidents. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 471
(35) Standard on carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. National Fire Protection Association, 2000. NFPA 12, Section 1-5.2.2
(36) Steacie, E.W.R. The kinetics of elementary reactions of the simple hydrocarbons. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 22, no. 2. (1938). p. 311-402
(37) Hauge, R.H. et al. Studies of the reaction of molecular fluorine with methane, acetylene, ethylene, allene, and other small hydrocarbons in matrices at low temperatures. Journal of the American Chemical Society. Vol. 101, no. 23 (1979). p. 6950
(38) Egloff, G. The halogenation of the paraffin hydrocarbons. Chemical Reviews. Vol. VIII, No. 1 (1930). p. 1-80
(39) Thomas, C.L. et al. Reactions of hydrocarbons in electrical discharges. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 28, no. 1 (1941). p. 1-70
(40) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 290-301
(41) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 434-445
(42) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Propane. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(43) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Propane. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 2nd ed. Taylor DG, ed. DHEW (NIOSH) Publication 77-157-B (1977)

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-03-14

Revision Indicators:
Relative density 2006-09-28



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6