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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 291
CCOHS Chemical Name: Picric acid, dry or wetted with less than 30% water

Synonyms:
Carbazotic acid
2-Hydroxy-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene
Nitroxanthic acid
Phenol trinitrate
Picronitric acid
Picric acid (non-specific name)
2,4,6-Trinitrophenol
Trinitrophenol (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Acide picrique, sec ou mouillé avec moins de 30 % d'eau
CAS Registry Number: 88-89-1
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 29665-11-4
UN/NA Number(s): 0154
RTECS Number(s): TJ7875000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-865-9
Chemical Family: Aromatic nitro alcohol / nitrophenol / hydroxynitrobenzene / trinitrophenol
Molecular Formula: C6-H3-N3-O7
Structural Formula: C6H2(OH)(NO2)3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Odourless, wet slurry of yellow crystals, or dry or moist, yellow, crystalline solid or powder.(19,20,21)

Odour Threshold:
Not applicable; odourless.

Warning Properties:
POOR. Odourless.

Composition/Purity:
Picric acid is generally available as a solid, wetted with 10%, 30% or more water or as a saturated water solution (approximately 1.4%). It is less commonly available as a dry solid. The solid material may contain very small amounts of toluene as an impurity. This CHEMINFO review presents information on picric acid, dry or wetted with less than 30% water. For information on picric acid, wetted with not less than 30% water, see the CHEMINFO review with this name.

Uses and Occurrences:
Picric acid is used in the manufacture of explosives, matches, electric batteries, rocket fuels, coloured glass; as a fast dye for silk and wool; as a booster in projectiles; in copper and steel etching; in photographic emulsions; in forensic chemistry; as a histological fixative agent; as a clinical chemistry reagent; in the pharmaceutical and leather industries; as a chemical intermediate for metal picrates; as a laboratory reagent; and as a pH indicator.(4,21)
Historically, it was used in medical formulations for the treatment of malaria, trichinosis, herpes, and smallpox, and as an antiseptic.(4)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Odourless, wet slurry of yellow crystals or dry or moist yellow, crystalline solid or powder. DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE. Dangerous explosion hazard when dry. Dry, solid picric acid is highly sensitive to shock, friction or heat, and may decompose explosively. Highly unstable in crystalline form. Forms very shock-sensitive, explosive metallic salts. The wetted material with 10% or more water is less hazardous. Can decompose at high temperatures forming irritating/toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides. TOXIC. Harmful if swallowed. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. May cause permanent eye injury and may cause scarring. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause allergic skin reaction.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
In normal use, picric acid is a wetted solid or solution that does not readily form a vapour. Since dry picric acid is explosive, stringent handling procedures are followed. It is therefore unlikely that it would pose an inhalation hazard.

The only descriptions of potential health effects following inhalation that were located are based on historical reports that cannot be evaluated. In these reports, inhalation of unspecified concentrations of picric dust caused considerable irritation of the respiratory tract with sneezing, and irritation of the nose and bronchi. In one case, inhalation of a high, unspecified concentration of dust for an unspecified exposure duration caused an employee to become rapidly unconscious. After regaining consciousness, weakness and muscle pain were experienced, as well as the inability to urinate, followed in two days by excessive urination.(1, unconfirmed)

Skin Contact:
Picric acid is a strong acid and is corrosive based on pH (1.3 for a saturated solution). Corrosive materials can cause burns, blisters and permanent scarring if they contact the skin. Unconfirmed historical reports describe severe irritation of the skin following occupational exposure.(1)
Picric acid can cause an allergic skin reaction in some individuals. Refer to "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" below for additional information.
The available information does not prove that picric acid can be absorbed through the skin, but it can dye the skin yellow.(1,2) Historical reports suggest that even dilute concentrations of picric acid (0.2-1%) can be absorbed through broken skin causing symptoms such as headache, shivering, and fever. The duration of contact is not known and there may have been other contributing factors.

Eye Contact:
Picric acid is expected to be corrosive, based on pH (1.3 for a saturated solution). Corrosive materials can cause severe eye injury, including blindness. There is one unconfirmed report of corneal injury resulting from accidental squirt of a picric acid solution.(3) Unconfirmed historical reports describe eye irritation and ulceration of the cornea following exposure to unspecified concentrations of picric acid dust.(1) Limited animal information also suggests that eye injury may result following contact.

Ingestion:
Picric acid is toxic following ingestion, based on animal toxicity values and case reports of suicidal ingestion. If ingested, picric acid can cause a bitter taste in the mouth, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and kidney injury (with the inability to urinate or painful, difficult urination). Yellow discolouration of the skin and eyes may occur. Experimental ingestion of 300 mg is reported to cause a temporary (lasting not more than 2 hours) change in colour perception, with objects appearing yellowish. The urine may become darkened or port wine-coloured. High doses may damage the red blood cells.(1,2,3,4,5,6) Picric acid is corrosive and may cause severe irritation and burns to the mouth and stomach. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Skin Sensitization:
Picric acid is considered an occupational skin sensitizer, based on animal information and very limited human information. Once a person is sensitized to a material, contact with even a small amount can cause an allergic reaction with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This reaction can spread from the hands or arms to other parts of the body.
Historical reports describe blistering and flaking of the skin, especially around the mouth and sides of the nose, in employees exposed to picric acid.(7,8) Another report describes a small percentage of positive reactions in 306 men who were tested for sensitivity to picric acid prior to employment.(9) The test described appeared to measure irritation rather than sensitization. Two case reports of non-occupational sensitization were also located.(10,11)

Kidneys/Urinary System:
Historical case reports suggest that picric acid exposure may affect kidney function.(1, unconfirmed) However, there are insufficient details available for evaluation.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Picric acid was not mutagenic in one unconfirmed study using live animals. Positive and negative results have been obtained in tests using cultured mammalian cells, bacteria and insects.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
In an oral rat study using radioactive picric acid, approximately 60% picric acid was eliminated in the urine unchanged, with smaller amounts eliminated as metabolites, which mainly included picramic acid (18.5%), N- acetylisopicramic acid (14.8%) and N-acetylpicramic acid (4.7%). After 24 hours, radioactivity was found mainly in the blood, spleen, kidney, liver, lung and testes. There was little retention of the compound by specific tissues, except for blood at low concentrations. The plasma half-life was 13.4 hours.(12)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms develop, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Store contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods under water until they can be safely discarded. Do not reuse. Keep contaminated clothing under water in a closed container until it can be safely discarded.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if the victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 ozs) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If milk is available it may be administered after the water has been given. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
150 deg C (302 deg F) (closed cup) (19)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
300 deg C (572 deg F) (19)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Dry, solid picric acid is sensitive to shock and may decompose explosively.(19,23)

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Dry, solid picric acid can form an electrostatic charge if stirred, transported pneumatically or poured.(23)

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not applicable

Potential for Dust Explosions:
Several dust explosions involving the dry material have been reported.(24)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other toxic, irritating chemicals.(20,23)

Fire Hazard Summary:
DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE MATERIAL. Highly explosive solid, depending on the water content. Dangerous explosion hazard when dry. Wetted picric acid becomes increasingly shock, friction and heat sensitive as it loses its moisture. Explosive decomposition is likely if material is involved in a fire. Wetted picric acid will lose water in a fire and become dry. Picric acid explodes above 300 deg C (572 deg F) with the release of irritating/toxic nitrogen oxides. Dry picric acid can form an electrostatic charge if stirred, transported pneumatically, agitated or poured. Under certain conditions, a dust cloud of dry picric acid could explode when ignited by a spark, flame or other ignition source, and is particularly dangerous in confined spaces. The wet material with 10% or more water is considered much less hazardous. Closed containers may rupture violently due to rapid decomposition, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Flooding quantities of water as a spray.(19) Dry chemical or appropriate foam may also be used.(20) Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
DO NOT use carbon dioxide or halogenated extinguishing agents.(19)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Use extreme caution since explosive decomposition may occur under fire conditions and heat may rupture containers. Evacuate area and fight fire from a protected, explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products, such as nitrogen oxides.
If fire occurs in the vicinity of containers of picric acid, use unmanned monitors and hoseholders to keep cooling streams of water on fire-exposed tanks or containers until well after the fire is out. Use flooding quantities of water. Always stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated; use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles. If this is is not possible, withdraw from fire area and do not attempt to fight the fire.
Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion. If a leak or spill of solid picric acid has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the dust and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may also be used to flush spills of solid material or solutions away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Tanks or drums should not be approached after they have been involved in a fire or heated by exposure, until they have completely cooled down. After the fire has been extinguished, the explosion hazard remains. Clean-up or salvage operations should be conducted by personnel fully trained in the precautions necessary to handle picric acid. Clean-up should not be attempted until the picric acid is cooled and the material has been rewetted.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Picric acid and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. (picric acid, wet, with not less than 10% water)
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily. (picric acid, wet, with not less than 10% water)
NFPA - Instability: 4 - Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. (picric acid, wet, with not less than 10% water)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 229.11

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: The dry solid melts at 122-123 deg C (251.6-253.4 deg F) (2,4,25)
Boiling Point: Not applicable; explodes above 300 deg C (572 deg F) with the release of nitrogen oxides.(19,25,26)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Solid: 1.763 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (2,25)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (1.27 g/100 mL at 25 deg C) (21,35)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in acetone; soluble in ethanol, methanol and benzene; moderately soluble in chloroform and diethyl ether.(21,25)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.33 (experimental) (27)
pH Value: 1.3 (saturated solution) (calculated)
Acidity: Strong acid
Dissociation Constant: pKa = 0.419 at 18 deg C (25); pKa = 0.38 (Ka = 4.2 X 10(-1)) at 25 deg C (28)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable.
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low.(21,35)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Negligible.
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: 1.72 X 10(-6) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.7 X 10(-11) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (35); log H = -9.16 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Physical Properties Comments:
Physical properties of solutions are generally not available. Therefore, properties of the solid material are given, if available.


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Highly unstable. Dry picric acid is a dangerous explosion hazard.(19) An explosive mixture results when the wetted solution crystallizes.(22)

Oxidizing Properties:
It is not possible to conclude that picric acid is an oxidizing agent. Two sources describe picric acid as an oxidizing agent.(23,29) However, these statements cannot be confirmed in more reliable sources.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


METALS (e.g. lead, iron, mercury, copper, nickel or zinc) or SALTS - can readily form explosive metallic salts. These salts are more explosion-sensitive than picric acid itself and can detonate the acid.(20,22,23,24)
CONCRETE - reacts to form calcium picrate, a friction-sensitive explosive.(19,24)
AMMONIA or BASES (e.g. amines) - can react to form highly explosive picrate salts.(19,24)
ALUMINUM POWDER and WATER - dry mixtures of picric acid and aluminum powder are inert, but addition of water causes ignition after a delay dependent up the quantity added.(24)
STRONG BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) - react violently with picric acid solutions, which are strong acids.(23)
URONIUM PERCHLORATE (urea perchlorate) - liquid mixtures with picric acid are extremely powerful explosives.(24)
REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, or nickel and hydrogen) - risk of fire and explosion.(20,21)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Information not available.

Conditions to Avoid:
DO NOT allow picric acid to dry. Picric acid should be kept moist with not less than its own weight of water for safety. DO NOT freeze. Avoid shock, friction, heat, flames and other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Dry picric acid is corrosive to carbon steel (types 1010 and 1020), gray cast iron, nickel-base alloys, Monel and Inconel, copper, brass, bronze, silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, cartridge brass, naval brass, copper-nickel, and lead.(30,39) Picric acid, wetted with water is corrosive to carbon steel (types 1010 and 1020), copper, silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, cartridge brass, naval brass, brass (unspecified) and gray cast iron (all water concentrations), nickel cast iron (10%) and nickel (10%).(30,31,39) One source indicates that 10% picric acid does not corrode aluminum (30), while another states that it does.(31) Dry picric acid is not corrosive to stainless steel (type 300 series, Carpenter 20 Cb 3, 17-4 PH), aluminum (type 3003), high silicon iron, nickel-base alloys, Hastelloy, and Incoloy, tantalum and titanium.(30,39) Picric acid wetted with 10% water is not corrosive to high silicon iron, nickel base alloys, Hastelloy and Inconel, stainless steels types 301, 302, 304, 316, 317), tantalum and titanium.(30,39)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Solid picric acid attacks plastics, such as acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), nylon, isophthalic and terephthalic polyesters, high molecular weight polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride; and elastomers, such as isoprene, nitrile BUNA-N, natural rubber and silicone rubbers.(30,40) Solid picric acid does not attack plastics, such as Teflon and other fluorocarbons, acrylics, polypropylene, and elastomers, such as Viton and other fluorocarbons, and neoprene.(30,40) Picric acid solutions (concentrations unspecified) attack elastomers, such as such as polysulfide, chlorinated polyethylene, ethylene vinyl acetate and low density polyethylene.(40) Picric acid wetted with 10% water does not attack most plastics, including Teflon and other fluorocarbons, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene and polypropylene; and elastomers, such as nitrile Buna-N, Viton, and other fluorocarbons (all water concentrations), ethylene-propylene diene, polyurethane, butyl rubber, styrene-butadiene, chloroprene and isoprene.(30,40)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Pure, dry picric acid is of the same order of stability as TNT.(32)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, female rat): 200 mg/kg (12)
LD50 (oral, male rat): 290 mg/kg (12)

Eye Irritation:

Results from standardized tests are not available.

0.1 mL of a picric acid solution (pH 7-9) injected into the eyes of rabbits was found to be injurious.(13) The severity of the reaction was not described.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
A recent study indicates that lethal oral doses cause severe acidosis in rats.(12) There are insufficient details available to evaluate a series of unconfirmed historical reports. Ingestion of 500 mg caused nausea, vomiting, fatigue, pain and, after 45 minutes, a marked increase in excitability, convulsions with a tendency to recur after temporary recovery, and ascending paralysis resulting in death from respiratory failure in cats. Repeated doses (number not specified) of 50-100 mg/kg had no distinct effect.(1, unconfirmed) Daily feeding of 60 mg to rabbits (number not specified) caused jaundice, diarrhea and loss of weight. Doses of 180 mg caused severe weight loss and death in the course of 2 weeks. A single large dose of 240 mg was fatal in 23 hours, with lowering of the body temperature, weakness, diarrhea and collapse, sometimes with convulsions.(1, unconfirmed) Oral doses of 700-1000 mg given to rabbits (numbers not specified) caused severe kidney injury. Another researcher reported similar effects with half this dose.(1, unconfirmed)

Skin Sensitization:
Picric acid has produced sensitization in guinea pigs.
Positive results were obtained in a series of split-adjuvant tests. In most cases, the number of test animals were not specified. However, in one test using Freund's Complete Adjuvant, 9/16 (56%) of the animals became sensitized.(14) Positive results have also been reported in other studies.(15,16)

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that picric acid is mutagenic based on the available information. Negative results were obtained in one test using live mice.
Negative results were obtained in a mouse bone marrow micronucleus test following the exposure of live animals. Doses as high as 91.6 mg/kg (route not specified) were given twice at 0 and 24 hours, with sacrifice at 30 hours.(2,38-unconfirmed)
Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells, and bacteria.(2,17,18,38)
Negative results were obtained in 3/3 laboratories using Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies) exposed by adult feeding. Sex-linked recessive lethal mutations were observed in 1/3 laboratories that exposed Drosophila melanogaster by injection.(37)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Von Oettingen. The aromatic amino and nitro compounds, their toxicity and potential dangers. A review of the literature. Public Health Bulletin. No. 271 (1941). p. 149-154
(2) Picric acid. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 1996. p. 1271-1273
(3) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 1161
(4) Weisburger, E.K., et al. Aromatic nitro and amino compounds: picric acid. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 4. Hydrocarbons; organic nitro compounds. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 856-857
(5) Harris, A.H., et al. Hematuria due to picric acid poisoning at a naval anchorage in Japan. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 36 (July 1946). p. 727-733
(6) Boolaky, M. Picric acid poisoning. Nursing Times. Vol. 77, no. 24 (June 11, 1981). p. 1050-1051
(7) Schwartz, L. Dermatitis from explosives. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 125 (May 20, 1944). p. 186-190
(8) Schwartz, L., et al. Dermatoses caused by inorganic acids and organic acids. In: A textbook of occupational diseases of the skin. 3rd ed. Lea and Febiger, 1948. p. 234-244
(9) Martorano, G., et al. Criteria for preventive selection in the chemical industry by means of patch tests. Medicina Lavoro. Vol. 57, no. 2 (1966). p. 118-123. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00104076)
(10) Serra-Baldrich, E., et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from picric acid. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 25, no. 2 (1991). p. 127
(11) Aguirre, A., et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from picric acid. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 28, no. 5 (1993). p. 291
(12) Wyman, J.F., et al. Acute toxicity, distribution, and metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid) in Fischer 344 rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 37 (1992). p. 313-327
(13) Hughes, W.F., Jr. The physiology, biochemistry and cytopathology of the cornea in relation to injury by mustard gas and allied toxic agents. Appendix I. The tolerance of rabbit cornea for various chemical substances. Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Vol. 82 (1948). p. 338-349
(14) Maguire, H.C., Jr. et al. Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds. XIII. Sensitization of guinea pigs with picric acid. The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Vol. 135 (1972). p. 357-375
(15) Landsteiner, K., et al. Studies on the sensitization of animals with simple chemical compounds. VIII. Sensitization to picric acid; subsidiary agents and mode of sensitization. Journal of Experimental Medicine. Vol. 72 (1940). p. 361-366
(16) Chase, M.W., et al. Picric acid hypersensitivity: cross-reactivity and cellular transfer. Abstract. Clinical Research. Vol. 29 (1972). p. 638
(17) Dean, B.J. Genetic toxicology of benzene, toluene, xylenes and phenols. Mutation Research. Vol. 47 (1978). p. 75-97
(18) Demerec, M., et al. A survey of chemicals for mutagenic action on E. coli. The American Naturalist. Vol. 85, no. 821 (Mar.-Apr. 1951). p. 119-136
(19) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(20) Picric acid, A.C.S. Reagent. In: Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals: technical library [online]. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Date updated: 2002-09-06. Available at: <www.sigma-aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Technical+Library?OpenFrameset> (Password required)
(21) US National Library of Medicine. Picric acid. Last revision date: 2003-02-14. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(22) Picric acid. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997. p. 258
(23) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 718
(24) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(25) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.300, 8.65
(26) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 1816-1817
(27) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo [online]. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/kowdemo.htm>
(28) Lide, D.R., ed. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBase, 1999
(29) Armour, M-A. Picric acid. In: Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide. 2nd ed. Lewis Publishers, 1996. p. 397-399
(30) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part C, P-Z. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 2249-2256
(31) Corrosion data survey. Metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE), 1985. p. 98-3 to 99-3
(32) Garey, H.E. More about picric acid. (Letter). Chemical and Engineering News. Vol. 57, no. 41 (Oct. 8, 1979). p. 51
(33) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(34) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(35) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/physdemo.htm>
(36) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Picric Acid. Chemical Sampling Information. Revision date: 08/24/92. Available at: <www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_263300.html>
(37) Woodruff, R.C., et al. Chemical mutagenesis testing in Drosophila. V. Results of 53 coded compounds tested for the National Toxicology Program. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol. 7, no. 5 (1985). p. 677-702
(38) Gocke, E., et al. Mutagenicity of cosmetics ingredients licensed by the European Communities. Mutation Research. Vol. 90, no. 2 (Oct. 1981). p. 91-109
(39) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 266-277
(40) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C-290 to C-295
(41) Urbanski, T. Chemistry and technology of explosives. Vol. I, Chpt. XIII. A Pergamon Press Book. The Macmillan Company, 1964. p. 472-496

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2003-12-30

Revision Indicators:
PEL transitional comments 2004-02-03
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-09
Bibliography 2006-03-20



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