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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 804
CCOHS Chemical Name: Hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (severely hydrotreated)

Synonyms:
Heavy paraffinic oil (non-specific name)
Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (non-specific name)
Hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (non-specific name)
Lubricant oil (non-specific name)
Mineral oil (non-specific name)
Mineral oil, petroleum distillates, hydrotreated (severely hydrotreated)
Petroleum distillate, hydrotreated heavy paraffinic (severely hydrotreated)

Chemical Name French: Distillats paraffiniques lourds (pétrole), hydrotraités
Chemical Name Spanish: Destilados (petróleo), fracción parafínica pesada tratada con hidrógeno
CAS Registry Number: 64742-54-7
RTECS Number(s): PY8035501
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 265-157-1
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate / paraffinic petroleum distillate / lubricating base oil
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Water-white or amber-coloured, oily liquid with a petroleum odour.

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Petroleum distillates are complex mixtures that contain many different chemicals. The exact composition of the mixture is highly variable and is dependent on the source of crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps. The hazards of these materials are evaluated in general terms using test samples, which are representative of the group as a whole. Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are broadly considered to be mineral oils and are primarily used as lubricating oils.(7,15) This review provides specific information for hydrotreated heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates if possible. This information is supplemented with general information for heavy paraffinic oils, and mineral or lubricating oils, as appropriate. Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are produced from crude petroleum oils through a series of highly complex, carefully controlled processes. Once the heavy paraffinic oil has been distilled from crude oil, the primary objective of further processing is to remove materials that are undesirable for product performance. Processing steps for lubricants may include: deasphalting, solvent-refining (the degree can range from mild to severe), solvent dewaxing, catalytic dewaxing, hydrotreating (mild to severe), acid-treating, and finishing (clay-treatment or mild hydrotreatment). The resultant lubricant base oils are formulated and blended with additives to produce a wide range of lubricating products. Each refinery stream is identified by a CAS Registry Number. This number identifies the last refinery process, the refinery process stream based on the crude oil type, the viscosity and carbon-number range, and distillation range. The number of carbon atoms ranges from approximately 20-50 and the viscosity is greater than or equal to 18.5 mm2/s (18.5 centistokes SUS) at 40 deg C. Because this system does not define process severity or history, the same CAS Registry Number can describe materials treated to different extent with different properties and hazards.(15,16) In some cases, manufacturers will identify their product by more than one CAS Registry Number - one for each step of processing the product has undergone. Hydrotreating can significantly alter the potential hazards of a heavy paraffinic oil by reducing or eliminating the potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, depending on the severity of the refining process. This review is specifically for hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates that have undergone severe hydrotreatment, thus significantly reducing or eliminating their carcinogenic potential. For information on mildly hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates, refer to the CHEMINFO review of "hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates (mildly hydrotreated)". Chemical additives are frequently added to lubricant oils, usually in small amounts, to improve performance characteristics of the lubricant. Additives may include viscosity-index improvers, emulsifiers, wetting agents, antioxidants, dispersants, antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, rust inhibitors, antifoam agents, pour point depressants and germicides.(1,3) The presence of additives can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of a lubricant oil. Contact your manufacturer/supplier or Material Safety Data Sheet for additional information.

Uses and Occurrences:
In general, hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are primarily used as lubricating oils, specifically in engine oils; industrial lubricating oils; lubricants for internal combustion engines of various types; crankcase, compressor, gear, transmission, power-steering and turbine oils; spindle oil; lubricating greases; hydraulic, transformer, insulating and heat-transmission oils, and shock-absorber fluid; cooling, quenching, anticorrosion and mould oils; metal-working oils, penetrant oils, and fuel and oil additives. They may also be used in fuel system cleaners, sealants, caulk, antifoulants, finishing compounds, polishing materials, coating solutions, compounding materials, rust preventatives, electrical insulation, defoamers and antifoam emulsions.(3,15)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Water-white or amber-coloured, oily liquid with a petroleum odour. Essentially non-toxic, but may contain hazardous additives. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic substances, such as sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be generated depending on fire conditions and the presence of additives or impurities. Used oils may contain carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Important New Information:
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has proposed that the Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) for mineral oil mists be lowered, based on evidence of respiratory health effects in machinists and cable plant workers exposed to metalworking, mineral oil and/or kerosene mists. This change has not yet been adopted. See "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" "Lungs/Respiratory System" for more information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Heavy paraffinic oils do not readily evaporate at room temperature. Therefore, inhalation exposures are unlikely to occur unless the oil is heated or misted. High concentrations of oil mists, generated mechanically from fast moving machinery or by condensation of the vapour, may cause lung irritation. Decomposition of lubricants at high temperatures may result in fumes which could irritate the respiratory tract.(1)
Products containing heavy paraffinic oils may contain additives which significantly influence the overall hazards of the product. Consult your MSDS for advice.

Skin Contact:
Heavy paraffinic oils are very mild irritants, based on animal information for related materials. In general, lubricant or mineral oils are not considered irritating to the skin following short- term contact.(1,2) When formulated lubricating oils are used in high pressure systems, it is possible for the oil to become injected under the skin if there is a leak in the high pressure system. If this occurs, there can be considerable damage to the underlying tissues.(1)
No harmful effects are expected to result from skin absorption, based on an unconfirmed animal toxicity value and comparison to other lubricant or mineral oils.

Eye Contact:
Heavy paraffinic oils are not irritating or only very mildly irritating, based on animal information for related materials. In general, lubricant or mineral oils are not considered irritating to the eyes.(1)

Ingestion:
Heavy paraffinic oils are not expected to be very harmful following ingestion, based on animal toxicity information and comparison to other lubricant or mineral oils. Some lubricant oils have a laxative effect.(3) In general, ingestion of large quantities of lubricant or mineral oils may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Based on their physical properties, heavy paraffinic oils are not expected to produce an aspiration hazard following ingestion or vomiting. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is very little information in the literature that can be directly linked to long-term exposure to heavy paraffinic oils. There are however, general conclusions that can be made based on information for exposures to mineral or lubricant oils.

Lungs/Respiratory System:
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has proposed that the Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) for mineral oil mists be lowered, based on evidence of respiratory health effects in machinists and cable plant workers exposed to metalworking, mineral oil and/or kerosene mists. This change has not yet been adopted.

A recent literature review indicates that machinists may have slightly more respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm production, chest tightness, nose/eye irritation and shortness of breath) and mild, reversible changes in some measures of pulmonary function. However, this review concludes that limitations in the studies (e.g. inconsistent results, potential for recall bias, confounding exposures, etc.) argue against drawing definitive conclusions. The review also suggests that the most likely causal agents for respiratory effects in these workers are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids and not straight mineral oils.(29)

Prolonged or repeated exposure to very high concentrations of oil mists may lead to lung disease (a benign form of pulmonary fibrosis).(1) Symptoms such as cough, mucous formation and difficulty breathing may be observed.(3)
The potential for very severe exposure to oil mists is characteristic of the available case reports. For example, in one case, the oil became airborne under 150 pounds of pressure. In another case, the oil was heated and an aerosol generated by compressed air jets, in a poorly ventilated workplace.(4)
Long-term animal toxicity studies with mineral oils indicate that inhalation of high concentrations (200 mg/m3 and above for severely refined mineral oils) of aerosols can result in inflammatory lung reactions and fatty deposits (lipoid granulomas). These reactions primarily appear to be non-specific responses to a low toxicity aerosol.(6,30)

Respiratory Sensitization:
Occupational asthma has been associated with exposure to metalworking fluids, which may contain lubricant or mineral oils. However, the evidence indicates that asthma associated with metalworking fluids is more likely related to exposure to water-based formulations.(29,30) In addition, mineral oils are only one of the components within metalworking fluids and other components of the metalworking fluids may cause or contribute to any asthmatic reactions observed following exposure to these formulations.(30)
One study has examined the occurrence of asthma in people exposed to oil mists at work.(5) Only one employee was exposed to mineral oil alone. The type of mineral oil was not specified. Previous history of allergies was not described. In addition, it is possible that an additive may have been responsible for the observed effects. This study does not provide evidence that mineral oils cause occupational asthma.

Skin:
General observations of people occupationally exposed to lubricant or mineral oils, or products based on these oils, indicate that higher viscosity oils, like heavy paraffinic oils, can block the skin pores causing an acne-like disorder. In addition, the oils or certain additives or impurities in oil-based products may cause dry, cracked irritated skin (dermatitis).(1,2,3)

Skin Sensitization:
No specific information was located for hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates. Animal information for related materials suggests that these oils are not skin sensitizers. However, the range of additives used in lubricant does make sensitization a possibility. There have been case reports of people developing allergic skin reactions to specific additives used in lubricating oil products.(2) Consult your material safety data sheet for information on the specific additives used in the product you are using in your workplace.

Carcinogenicity:

Severely hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic oils have undergone processing which has significantly reduced or removed potentially carcinogenic 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).(3,7,8) Highly-refined mineral oils (including lubricant oils) are not considered carcinogenic.
However, it is possible for non-carcinogenic lubricant or mineral oils to become carcinogenic during use.(3,7) Used lubricant oils have been associated with skin cancer. Long-term inhalation of high concentrations of oil mists may also be associated with lung cancer, but only with exposure conditions where skin cancer has also occurred.(3) For information on potentially carcinogenic hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic oils, refer to the CHEMINFO review of "hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (mildly hydrotreated)".
The European oil industry has adopted a test which selectively extracts PAHs from base oils streams using dimethyl sulfoxide (method IP 346). If the PAH content of a specific lubricant oils exceeds 3%, it is considered potentially carcinogenic.(28)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

This IARC evaluation is for highly-refined mineral oils (including lubricant oils).(9) IARC has concluded that mineral oils (containing various additives and impurities) that have been used in occupations such as mulespinning, metal machining and jute processing are carcinogenic to humans.(7)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

In its Notice of Intended Changes, ACGIH has proposed designation of highly and severely refined mineral oils (both the pure mineral oil and mineral oils that have been used as metalworking fluids) as A4 carcinogen (not classifiable as human carcinogen).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No specific animal or human information was located. An unpublished study showed no developmental effects in the offspring of rats dermally exposed to 3 lubricating oil basestocks during pregnancy.(1)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No animal or human information was located.

Mutagenicity:
No human or animal information was located for severely hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates. Negative results were reported for one test using bacteria, however, the degree of hydrotreatment was not specified. In general, the mutagenicity of these oils in bacteria increases with the content of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).(12,33) Severely hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic oils have undergone processing that significantly reduces or removes the 3-7 ring PAH content.
Mineral oils that were previously not mutagenic to bacteria can become mutagenic, if exposed to high temperatures during use. In one study, the PAH content of a used oil doubled.(12)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
No specific information was located on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates. It has been shown that almost all (95-99%) of ingested food-grade mineral oil leaves the body unchanged in the feces. 1-5% is absorbed through the intestinal mucosa and is transported throughout the body. Storage takes place in adipose (fat) tissue or in the fat in organs. After excessive exposure, mineral oil droplets have been identified in the lymph nodes and also in liver, spleen and adipose tissue in humans.(3)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice. NOTE: Used lubricant oils may be carcinogenic. If exposure is to used oils, take precautions to prevent exposure.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard. NOTE: Used lubricant oils may be carcinogenic. If exposure is to used oils, prevent direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. NOTE: If a high-pressure injection injury occurs, quickly transport the victim to an emergency care facility.

Eye Contact:
No effects expected. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush with contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.
NOTE: Products containing heavy paraffinic oils may contain hazardous additives. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet and ensure first aid procedures are appropriate for all potential hazards of the product.

Note to Physicians:
Serious injury can arise if oil-based products under high pressure, such as discharges from high-pressure lines or grease guns, are accidentally discharged or injected into the flesh beneath the skin. Serious tissue destruction can result, requiring immediate medical attention.(1)



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
232 deg C (450 deg F) (closed cup) (1); FIRE POINT: 190-299 deg C (374-570 deg F) (representative lubricating oils) (19)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
260-371 deg C (500-700 deg F) (lubricating oil, mineral) (18)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
The electrical conductivity of well refined, dry mineral oil is very small. Therefore, the pure oil (no additives present) can accumulate static charge by agitation or pouring.

Electrical Conductivity:
Approximately 1 pS/m (reported as 10(-14) mho/cm2) (20)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions and the type of additives and impurities present. A complex mixture of airborne material will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (21,22), as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material can burn if strongly heated. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic substances, such as sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be generated depending on fire conditions and the presence of additives or impurities. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time. The presence of certain additives can significantly influence the fire hazards of products containing lubricating oils. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for advice.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, polymer foam, alcohol foam, water spray or fog. Water or foam may cause frothing.(18)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the burning material, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
In addition, water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep fire-exposed containers cool and protect exposed material. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow the fire to burn. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
This material is essentially non-toxic although toxic combustion and thermal decomposition products should be expected. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury. (Lubricating oil, mineral)
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur. (Lubricating oil, mineral)
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water. (Lubricating oil, mineral)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture; average molecular weight: 500 (1)

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight variable)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: 150-600 deg C (302-1112 deg F) (lubricating oils) (36)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.84-0.94 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (lubricating oils) (36); 0.88 (water = 1) at 15 deg C (water = 1) (selected lubricating oil basestock) (1)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble
Solubility in Other Liquids: Benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide, petroleum ether and other petroleum solvents. Soluble with most fixed oils.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P (oct) = 3.9-6 (calculated) (36)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Kinematic: Greater than or equal to 18.5 mm2/s (18.5 centistokes) at 40 deg C (heavy paraffin petroleum distillates) (23,36); 73.9 mm2/s (73.9 centistokes) at 40 deg C (selected lubricating oil base stock) (1)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: Greater than or equal to 91.6 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 37.8 deg C (heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates) (calculated); 342.8 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (specific lubricating oil basestock) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 30-35 mN/m (30-35 dynes/cm) (mineral oils) (20)
Vapour Density: Not available
Vapour Pressure: Not available. Probably very low at normal temperatures.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available. Probably very low at normal temperatures.
Evaporation Rate: Not available. Probably very slow.

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY INDEX: 85-89 (hydroprocessed base oil) (8); 70-160 (representative petroleum lubricating oils) (19,23)
POUR POINT: -9 deg C (15.8 deg F) (1)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite or nitric acid) - may react violently or explosively, with increased risk of fire and explosion. risk of fire and explosion.(25,26)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 149 deg C, open flames.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Refined petroleum and lubricating oils are not corrosive to the common metals, such as stainless steels (e.g. types, 302, 310, 316, 347, 400 series, 17-4 PH and Carpenter 20Cb-3), aluminum (e.g. types 3003, 5052 and Cast B-356), types 1010 and 1020 carbon steel, cast iron (gray and ductile), high nickel cast iron, high silicon cast iron, nickel, the nickel-base alloys, Monel, Hastelloy (B, C and D), Inconel and Incoloy, copper, copper-nickel, silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, naval, bronze, brass, naval brass, admiralty brass, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(27,37)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Refined petroleum and lubricating oils attacks some plastics, like high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), polyphenylene oxide (Noryl), polypropylene and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (27,38); and elastomers, such as ethylene-propylene-diene, ethylene-propylene terpolymer, styrene butadiene (SBR), polyurethane, butyl rubber (isobutylene isoprene), isoprene, natural rubber and silicon rubbers (27,39). Refined petroleum and lubricating oils do not attack plastics, such as Teflon and other fluorocarbons, like ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (Tefzel) and polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar), polyvinylidene chloride (Saran), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polyurethane (rigid), polystyrene, polyethylene and polybutylene terephthalate, thermoset polyesters and thermoset epoxy (27,38); and elastomers, such as nitrile Buna-N (NBR), Viton A and other fluorocarbons, like Chemraz, Kalrez and Teflon, fluorosilicone and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (27,39).


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 15000 mg/kg (13, unconfirmed)
Other heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are also low in oral toxicity.

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 5000 mg/kg (no deaths) (13, unconfirmed)
Other heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are also low in dermal toxicity.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
The available information suggests that heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates and not very harmful following short-term inhalation. Inhalation of 50, 220 or 1000 mg/m3 of aerosols formed from a severely hydrotreated heavy paraffinic oil for 4 weeks produced no treatment-related clinical signs in rats. Autopsy showed no significant effects in animals exposed to the lowest concentration. At the two higher concentrations, a concentration-related increase in lung weight caused by the accumulation of foamy macrophages in the lungs was observed. Increased numbers of macrophages are part of the normal mechanism for removing particles from the lungs.(14) This study suggests a low degree of inhalation toxicity for severely hydrotreated, heavy paraffinic oils.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats were exposed to 50, 150 or 520 mg/m3 of aerosols a severely hydrotreated heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate for 13 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). There was a concentration-dependent increase in lung weight, which was significant at 150 mg/m3, accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in foamy macrophages in the lungs. Cells indicating inflammation (neutrophils, lymphocytes) were seen in the lungs at the highest concentrations.(31) Overall, these results indicate a low degree of toxicity for these mineral oils.

Ingestion:
Rats were exposed to "white oils" of different viscosities, crude type and refining history at concentrations in the diet ranging from 20-20000 ppm. Effects were noted in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes including increased organ weight, microscopic inflammatory changes and evidence of the accumulation of saturated mineral hydrocarbons in the tissues. Females were more sensitive than males. Low viscosity oils (13-15 mm2/s at 40 deg C) produced the greatest effects with lesser effects noted with the intermediate viscosity oils (approximately 70 mm2/s at 40 deg C) and no effects noted with the high viscosity oils (approximately 100 mm2/s at 40 deg C). The biological effects seemed to be related to the molecular size of the hydrocarbon rather than the petroleum crude type or method of refining.(1) A recent review concludes that the lesions experimentally induced by mineral hydrocarbon feeding, particularly in the liver of F344 rats, are exaggerated toxicological responses peculiar to rats.(32)

Carcinogenicity:
Numerous skin carcinogenicity tests have been conducted with lubricant oils with different refining histories. Heavy paraffinic lubricant oils contain potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can be removed through certain refining processes. Severe hydrotreating reduces or eliminates the potential carcinogenicity potential of heavy paraffinic oils. Overall, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence to evaluate the carcinogenicity of severely hydrotreated oils to experimental animals.(3,7,8,15,16)

Mutagenicity:
In general, the mutagenicity of these oils to bacteria increases with the content of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Severely hydrotreated heavy paraffinic oils have undergone processing that significantly reduces or removed the 3-7 ring PAHs and are not expected to be mutagenic.
One study, which is only available as an abstract, reports negative results for highly refined lubricating oil base stocks in tests using cultured mammalian cells.(35) Negative results (gene mutation) were obtained for solvent refined/hydrotreated heavy paraffinic distillates in tests using bacteria, with metabolic activation.(34) The degree of solvent refining/hydrotreatment was not specified.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) CONCAWE Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Lubricating oil basestocks. Product dossier no. 97/108. CONCAWE, June 1997
(2) Rycroft, R.J.G. Petroleum and petroleum derivatives. In: Occupational skin diseases. 2nd ed. Edited by R.M. Adams. W.B. Saunders Company, 1990. p. 486-502
(3) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Selected petroleum products. Environmental Health Criteria; 20. World Health Organization, 1982
(4) Blanc, P.D., et al. Unusual occupationally related disorders of the lung: case reports and a literature review. In: Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Vol. 7, no. 3. Unusual occupational diseases. Edited by D.J. Shusterman, et al. Hanley and Belfus, Inc., July-Sept. 1992. p. 403-422
(5) Robertson, A.S., et al. Occupational asthma due to oil mists. Thorax. Vol. 43, no. 3 (Mar. 1988). p. 200-205
(6) Oil mist, mineral. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 1145-1148
(7) Mineral oils: lubricant base oils and derived products. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 33. Polynuclear aromatic compounds. Part 2. Carbon blacks, mineral oils, and some nitroarenes. World Health Organization, Apr. 1984. p. 87-168
(8) Halder, C.A., et al. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing and blending. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 5 (1984). p. 265-274
(9) Mineral oils: untreated and mildly-treated oils (Group 1); Highly refined oils (Group 3). In: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Suppl. 7. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. World Health Organization, Mar. 1987. p. 66, 252-254
(10) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Mineral oil mist. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(11) CONCAWE. The Oil Companies European Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety. The use of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extract by the IP 346 method as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils and distillate aromatic extracts. Report 94/51. CONCAWE, Feb. 1994
(12) Granella, M., et al. The mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of mineral oils. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 63, no. 2 (June 1991). p. 149-153
(13) 1991 Farm chemicals handbook. Meister Publications, 1991. p. C 262
(14) Dalbey, W., et al. Four-week inhalation exposures of rats to aerosols of three lubricant base oils. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 11, no. 4 (Aug. 1991). p. 297-302
(15) Kane, M.L., et al. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubrication oils. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 5 (1984). p. 183-200
(16) Chasey, K.L, et al. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils by the mouse skin painting bioassay and other proposed methods. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 1 (1993). p. 57-65
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-04-08

Revision Indicators:
Chemical family 2007-04-17



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