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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 803
CCOHS Chemical Name: Solvent-refined heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (mildly solvent-refined)

Synonyms:
Heavy paraffinic oil (non-specific name)
Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (non-specific name)
Lubricant oil (non-specific name)
Mineral oil (non-specific name)
Mineral oil, petroleum distillates, solvent-refined (mildly solvent- refined)
Petroleum distillate, solvent-refined heavy paraffinic (mildly solvent- refined)
Solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic distillate (non-specific name)
Solvent-extracted, heavy paraffinic distillate (non-specific name)
Solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic distillate (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Distillats paraffiniques lourds (pétrole), raffinés au solvant
Chemical Name Spanish: Destilados (petróleo), fracción parafínica pesada refinada con disolvente
CAS Registry Number: 64741-88-4
RTECS Number(s): PY8040500
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 265-090-8
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Water-white or amber-coloured, oily liquid with a petroleum odour.

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Petroleum distillates are complex mixtures that contain many different chemicals. The exact composition of the mixture is highly variable and is dependent on the source of crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps. The hazards of these materials are evaluated in general terms using test samples, which are representative of the group as a whole. Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are broadly considered to be mineral oils and are primarily used as lubricating oils.(7,15) This review provides specific information for solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates if possible. Most lubricant oils are also solvent-.dewaxed to improve performance characteristics. Since solvent dewaxing is not known to significantly alter the hazards of a material, heavy paraffinics that have been solvent-refined and solvent-dewaxed are also considered. This information is supplemented with general information for mineral or lubricating oils, as appropriate. Heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are produced from crude petroleum oils through a series of highly complex, carefully controlled processes. Once the heavy paraffinic oil has been distilled from crude oil, the primary objective of further processing is to remove materials that are undesirable for product performance. Processing steps for lubricants may include: deasphalting, solvent-refining (the degree can range from mild to severe), solvent dewaxing, catalytic dewaxing, hydrotreating (mild to severe), acid-treating, and finishing (clay-treatment or mild hydrotreatment). The resultant lubricant base oils are formulated and blended with additives to produce a wide range of lubricating products. Each refinery stream is identified by a CAS Registry Number This number identifies the last refinery process, the refinery process stream based on the crude oil type, the viscosity and carbon-number range, and distillation range. The number of carbon atoms ranges from approximately 20-50 and the viscosity is greater than or equal to 18.5 mm2/s (18.5 centistokes) at 40 deg C. Because this system does not define process severity or history, the same CAS Registry Number can describe materials treated to different extent with different properties and hazards.(15,23) In some cases, manufacturers will identify their product by more than one CAS Registry Number - one for each step of processing the product has undergone. Solvent refining can significantly alter the potential hazards of a heavy paraffinic oil by reducing or eliminating the potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content, depending on the severity of the refining process. In the US and Canada, the majority of all finished lubricant oil products include some degree of solvent refining as a processing step.(7) This review is specifically for mildly solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates, which may be carcinogenic. For information on severely solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates, which are not carcinogenic, refer to the CHEMINFO review of "solvent-refined heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate (severely solvent-refined)". Chemical additives are frequently added to lubricant oils, usually in small amounts, to improve performance characteristics of the lubricant. Additives may include viscosity-index improvers, emulsifiers, wetting agents, antioxidants, dispersants, antiwear additives, extreme pressure additives, rust inhibitors, antifoam agents, pour point depressants and germicides.(1,3) The presence of additives can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of a lubricant oil. Contact your manufacturer/supplier or Material Safety Data Sheet for additional information.

Uses and Occurrences:
In general, solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are primarily used as lubricating oils, specifically in engine oils; industrial lubricating oils; lubricants for internal combustion engines of various types; crankcase, compressor, gear, transmission, power-steering and turbine oils; spindle oil; lubricating greases; hydraulic, transformer, insulating and heat-transmission oils; cooling, quenching, anti-corrosion and mould oils; metal-working oils, penetrant oils and oil additives. They may also be used in sealants, caulk, antifoulants, finishing compounds, polishing materials, coating solutions, compounding materials, electrical insulation and anti-foam emulsions.(3)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Water-white or amber-coloured, oily liquid with a petroleum odour. May contain hazardous additives. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic substances, such as sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be generated depending on fire conditions and the presence of additives or impurities. CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer in humans.

Important New Information:
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has proposed that the Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) for mineral oil mists be lowered, based on evidence of respiratory health effects in machinists and cable plant workers exposed to metalworking, mineral oil and/or kerosene mists. This change has not yet been adopted. See "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" "Lungs/Respiratory System" for more information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Heavy paraffinic oils do not readily evaporate at room temperature. Therefore, inhalation exposures are unlikely to occur unless the oil is heated or misted. High concentrations of oil mists, generated mechanically from fast moving machinery or by condensation of the vapour, may cause lung irritation. Decomposition of lubricants at high temperatures may result in fumes which could irritate the respiratory tract.(1)

Products containing heavy paraffinic oils may contain additives which significantly influence the overall hazards of the product. Consult your MSDS for advice.

Skin Contact:
Heavy paraffinic oils are very mild irritants, based on animal information. In general, lubricant or mineral oils are not considered irritating to the skin following short-term contact.(1,2) When formulated lubricating oils are used in high pressure systems, it is possible for the oil to become injected under the skin if there is a leak in the high pressure system. If this occurs, there can be considerable damage to the underlying tissues.(1)
No harmful effects are expected to result from skin absorption, based on an animal toxicity value.

Eye Contact:
Heavy paraffinic oils are probably not irritating or only very mildly irritating based on animal information. In general, lubricant or mineral oils are not considered irritating to the eyes.(1)

Ingestion:
Heavy paraffinic oils are not expected to be very harmful following ingestion, based on animal toxicity information and comparison to other lubricant or mineral oils. Some lubricant oils have a laxative effect.(3) In general, ingestion of large quantities of lubricant or mineral oils may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Based on their physical properties, heavy paraffinic oils are not expected to produce an aspiration hazard following ingestion or vomiting. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is very little information in the literature that can be directly linked to long-term exposure to heavy paraffinic oils. There are however, general conclusions that can be made based on information for exposures to mineral or lubricant oils.

Lungs/Respiratory System:
The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has proposed that the Threshold Limit Value (TLV(R)) for mineral oil mists be lowered, based on evidence of respiratory health effects in machinists and cable plant workers exposed to metalworking, mineral oil and/or kerosene mists. This change has not yet been adopted.
A recent literature review indicates that machinists may have slightly more respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm production, chest tightness, nose/eye irritation and shortness of breath) and mild, reversible changes in some measures of pulmonary function. However, this review concludes that limitations in the studies (e.g. inconsistent results, potential for recall bias, confounding exposures, etc.) argue against drawing definitive conclusions. The review also suggests that the most likely causal agents for respiratory effects in these workers are microbial contaminants in water-based metalworking fluids and not straight mineral oils.(41)

Prolonged or repeated exposure to very high concentrations of oil mists may lead to lung disease (a benign form of pulmonary fibrosis).(1) Symptoms such as cough, mucous formation and difficulty breathing may be observed.(3)
The potential for very severe exposure to oil mists is characteristic of the available case reports. For example, in one case, the oil became airborne under 150 pounds of pressure. In another case, the oil was heated and an aerosol generated by compressed air jets, in a poorly ventilated workplace.(4)
Long-term animal toxicity studies with mineral oils indicate that inhalation of high concentrations (100 mg/m3 and above) of aerosols can result in inflammatory lung reactions and fatty deposits (lipoid granulomas).(6,38)

Respiratory Sensitization:
Occupational asthma has been associated with exposure to metalworking fluids, which may contain lubricant or mineral oils. However, the evidence indicates that asthma associated with metalworking fluids is more likely related to exposure to water-based formulations.(38,41) In addition, mineral oils are only one of the components within metalworking fluids and other components of the metalworking fluids may cause or contribute to any asthmatic reactions observed following exposure to these formulations.(38)
One study has examined the occurrence of asthma in people exposed to oil mists at work.(5) Only one employee was exposed to mineral oil alone. The type of mineral oil was not specified. Previous history of allergies was not described. In addition, it is possible that an additive may have been responsible for the observed effects. This study does not provide evidence that mineral oils cause occupational asthma.

Skin:
General observations of people occupationally exposed to lubricant or mineral oils, or products based on these oils, indicate that higher viscosity point oils, like heavy paraffinic oils, can block the skin pores causing an acne-like disorder. In addition, the oils or certain additives or impurities, as well as mechanical irritation from contaminants in oil-bases products, in the oils may cause dry, cracked irritated skin (dermatitis).(1,2,3)
Long-term exposure to oils with a high polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content may cause dermatitis, produce an abnormal sensitivity to sunlight (photosensitivity) and/or darkening of the skin.(3)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results have been obtained in animal tests. However, the range of additives used in lubricant does make sensitization a possibility. There have been case reports of people developing allergic skin reactions to specific additives used in lubricating oil products.(2) Consult your material safety data sheet for information on the specific additives used in the product you are using in your workplace.

Carcinogenicity:

Mildly solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are considered carcinogenic. However, most modern solvent-refining processes produce a severely refined product. Severely solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are reviewed in the CHEMINFO review of "solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic distillate (severely solvent-refined)".
The components responsible for the potential carcinogenicity of these oils are principally the 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)).(3,7,8) In general, PAHs and certain lubricant oils which contain PAHs have been associated with skin cancer. There is also some evidence that long-term inhalation of high concentrations of oil mists may also be associated with lung cancers, but only with exposure conditions where skin cancer has also occurred.(3)
The European oil industry has adopted a test which selectively extracts PAHs from base oils streams using dimethyl sulfoxide (method IP 346). If the PAH content of a specific lubricant oils exceeds 3%, it is considered potentially carcinogenic.(35)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).

This IARC evaluation is for untreated or mildly-treated mineral oils (including lubricant oils).(9)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

ACGIH does not currently evaluate the carcinogenicity of solvent refined heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates, specifically, or mineral oil mists, in general. However, in its Notice of Intended Changes, ACGIH has proposed an A2 carcinogenicity evaluation (suspected human carcinogen) for poorly and mildly refined mineral oils that have been used as metalworking fluids.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as a known human carcinogen.

(Mineral oils (untreated or mildly treated))

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No specific animal or human information was located. An unpublished study showed no developmental effects in the offspring of rats dermally exposed to 3 lubricating oil basestocks during pregnancy.(1)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No animal or human information was located.

Mutagenicity:
Mildly solvent-refined heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates may be mutagenic, but there is insufficient information available to draw firm conclusions. In general, the mutagenicity of these oils in bacteria increases with the content of 3-7 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).(12,40) Mildly solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates have a higher PAH content and may be mutagenic.
Mineral oils that were previously not mutagenic to bacteria can become mutagenic if exposed to high temperatures during use. In one study, the PAH content of a used oil doubled.(12)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
No specific information was located on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of solvent-refined, heavy-paraffinic petroleum distillates. It has been shown that almost all (95-99%) of ingested food-grade mineral oil leaves the body unchanged in the feces. 1-5% is absorbed through the intestinal mucosa and is transported throughout the body. Storage takes place in adipose (fat) tissue or in the fat in organs. After excessive exposure, mineral oil droplets have been identified in the lymph nodes and also in liver, spleen and adipose tissue in humans.(3)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical may be carcinogenic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical attention.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. Obtain medical attention. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard. NOTE: If a high-pressure injection injury occurs, quickly transport the victim to an emergency care facility.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical resistant gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush with contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical advice.

First Aid Comments:
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.

NOTE: Products containing heavy paraffinic oils may contain hazardous additives. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet and ensure first aid procedures are appropriate for all potential hazards of the product.

Note to Physicians:
Serious injury can arise if oil-based products under high pressure, such as discharges from high-pressure lines or grease guns, are accidentally discharged or injected into the flesh beneath the skin. Serious tissue destruction can result, requiring immediate medical attention.(1)



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
149-232 deg C (300-450 deg F) (closed cup) (lubricating oil, mineral) (26); FIRE POINT: 190-299 deg C (374-570 deg F) (representative lubricating oils) (27)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
260-371 deg C (500-700 deg F) (lubricating oil, mineral) (26)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
The electrical conductivity of well refined, dry mineral oil is very small. Therefore, the pure oil (no additives present) can accumulate static charge by agitation or pouring.

Electrical Conductivity:
Approximately 1 pS/m (10(-14) mho/cm2) (well refined, dry mineral oil) (28)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions and the type of additives and impurities present. A complex mixture of airborne material will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (29,30), as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
This material can burn if strongly heated. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic substances, such as sulfur, nitrogen and phosphorus oxides, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be generated depending on fire conditions and the presence of additives or impurities. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time. The presence of certain additives can significantly influence the fire hazards of products containing lubricating oils. Consult your Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for advice.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, polymer foam, alcohol foam, water spray or fog. Water or foam may cause frothing.(26)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the burning material, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
In addition, water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep fire-exposed containers cool and protect exposed material. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow the fire to burn. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
This material and some of its decomposition products are potentially carcinogenic. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury. (Lubricating oil, mineral)
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur. (Lubricating oil, mineral)
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water. (Lubricating oil, mineral)

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight variable)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: 150-600 deg C (302-1112 deg F) (lubricating oils) (45)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.84-0.94 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (lubricating oils) (45)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble
Solubility in Other Liquids: Benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, carbon disulfide, petroleum ether and other petroleum solvents. Soluble with most fixed oils.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct): 3.9-6 (calculated) (45)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Kinematic: Greater than or equal to 18.5 mm2/s (18.5 centistokes) at 40 deg C (heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates) (27,31); 18.5-95 mm2/s (18.5-95 centistokes) at 40 deg C (specific samples) (1,45)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: Greater than or equal to 91.6 Saybolt Universal Seconds (SUS) at 37.8 deg C (heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates) (calculated); 91.6-440.4 SUS at 37.8 deg C (specific samples) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 30-35 mN/m (30-35 dynes/cm) (mineral oils) (28)
Vapour Density: Not available
Vapour Pressure: Not available. Probably very low at normal temperatures.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available. Probably very low at normal temperatures.
Evaporation Rate: Not available. Probably very slow.

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY INDEX: 70-160 (representative petroleum lubricating oils) (27,31)
POUR POINT: -45 to -4 deg C (-49 to 24.8 deg F) (representative petroleum lubricating oils) (27,31)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine, fluorine, calcium hypochlorite, nitric acid, nitrates, peroxides and perchlorates) - risk of fire and explosion.(32,33)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 149 deg C, open flames.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Refined petroleum and lubricating oils are not corrosive to the common metals, such as stainless steels (e.g. types 304, 310, 316, 347, 400 series, 17-4 PH and Carpenter 20Cb-3), aluminum (e.g. types 3003, 5052 and Cast B-356), types 1010 and 1020 carbon steel, cast iron (gray and ductile), high nickel cast iron, high silicon cast iron, nickel, the nickel-base alloys, Monel, Hastelloy (B, C and D), Inconel and Incoloy, copper, copper-nickel alloy, silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, naval, bronze, brass, naval brass, admiralty brass, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(34,46)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Refined petroleum and lubricating oils attacks some plastics, like high-density polyethylene (HDPE), ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), polyphenylene oxide (Noryl), polypropylene and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (34,47); and elastomers, such as ethylene-propylene-diene, ethylene-propylene terpolymer, styrene butadiene (SBR), polyurethane, butyl rubber (isobutylene isoprene), isoprene, natural rubber and silicon rubbers (34,48). Refined petroleum and lubricating oils do not attack plastics, such as Teflon and other fluorocarbons, like ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (Halar) and polyvinylidene fluoride (Kynar), polyvinylidene chloride (Saran), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polyurethane (rigid), polystyrene, polyethylene and polybutylene terephthalate, thermoset polyesters and thermoset epoxy (34,47); and elastomers, such as nitrile Buna-N (NBR), Viton A and other fluorocarbons, like Chemraz, Kalrez and Teflon, fluorosilicone and flexible polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (34,48).


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 5000 mg/kg (no deaths) (13,14) (solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinics) (15,16)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 5000 mg/kg (no deaths) (13,14) (solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinics) (15,16)

Eye Irritation:

Solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are not irritating to the eyes.

Application of 0.1 mL of 4 undiluted, solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates produced no to practically no irritation in rabbits (scored 0.0-0.7/110 at 24 hours, 0.0/110 at 48 hours and 0.0/110 at 72 hours).(13,14,15)

Skin Irritation:

Solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are minimally irritating to the skin

Application of 0.5 mL of 4 undiluted, solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates produced minimal irritation in rabbits, when tested on intact or abraded skin (scored 0.3-0.4/8).(13,14,15)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

The information located suggests that heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are not very harmful following short-term exposure.

Inhalation:
Inhalation of 50, 220 or 1000 mg/m3 of aerosols formed from two related heavy paraffinic oils (a solvent-refined, catalytically dewaxed heavy paraffinic oil, and a severely hydrotreated heavy paraffinic oil) for 4 weeks produced no treatment-related clinical signs in rats. Autopsy showed no significant effects, except a concentration-related increase in lung weight caused by the accumulation of foamy macrophages in the lungs. Increased numbers of macrophages are part of the normal mechanism for removing particles from the lungs.(17) This study suggests a low degree of inhalation toxicity for heavy paraffinic oils.

Skin Contact:
Dermal exposure to 5000 mg/kg of 4 different solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates did not cause deaths or signs of toxicity in rabbits during a 14-day observation period.(13,14) Rats were dermally exposed for 3 weeks to 2 mL/kg of a solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed lubricant base oil. Skin irritation consisting of slight swelling, scaling and scabbing was observed.(18,19) Changes noted in liver weight and the testes noted, but were not confirmed in a repeat study.(18,19,20) No significant systemic effects were observed in rabbits dermally exposed to 5000 mg/kg of 4 different solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates on 30% of their bodies for 3 days/week for 3 consecutive weeks. Loss of hair, hardening and redness were observed at the test site for 2 of the materials.(14)

Ingestion:
Rats were exposed to 50, 150 or 400-500 mg/m3 of aerosols from two closely related lubricants (containing severely solvent-refined, catalytically dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum oil, or severely refined, solvent dewaxed heavy petroleum distillates) for 13 weeks, 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. Results were similar for both lubricants. There was a concentration-dependent increase in lung weight, which was significant at 150 mg/m3, accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in foamy macrophages in the lungs. Cells indicating inflammation (neutrophils, lymphocytes) were seen in the lungs at the highest concentrations.(39) Overall, these results indicate a low degree of toxicity for these mineral oils.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats were exposed to 50, 150 or 400-500 mg/m3 of aerosols from two closely related lubricants (containing severely solvent-refined, catalytically dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum oil, or severely refined, solvent dewaxed heavy petroleum distillates) for 13 weeks, 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. Results were similar for both lubricants. There was a concentration-dependent increase in lung weight, which was significant at 150 mg/m3, accompanied by a concentration-dependent increase in foamy macrophages in the lungs. Cells indicating inflammation (neutrophils, lymphocytes) were seen in the lungs at the highest concentrations.(39) Overall, these results indicate a low degree of toxicity for these mineral oils.

Skin Contact:
Long-term skin application has not produced any significant harmful effects in rats or mice. Male mice were exposed to approximately 425 mg/kg/day (cited as 50 microlitres) of a solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate by skin painting twice weekly for their lifetimes. Skin thickening and tissue death were observed at the treatment site in a few animals (1-2/47). These results were similar to the control group.(21) A 90-day study with two solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates applied dermally at 2000 mg/kg reported no treatment-related effects in rats.(22)

Ingestion:
Rats were exposed to "white oils" of different viscosities, crude type and refining history at concentrations in the diet ranging from 20-20000 ppm. Effects were noted in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes including increased organ weight, microscopic inflammatory changes and evidence of the accumulation of saturated mineral hydrocarbons in the tissues. Females were more sensitive than males. Low viscosity oils (13-15 mm2/s at 40 deg C) produced the greatest effects with lesser effects noted with the intermediate viscosity oils (approximately 70 mm2/s at 40 deg C) and no effects noted with the high viscosity oils (approximately 100 mm2/s at 40 deg C). The biological effects seemed to be related to the molecular size of the hydrocarbon rather than the petroleum crude type or method of refining.(1) A recent review concludes that the lesions experimentally induced by mineral hydrocarbon feeding, particularly in the liver of F344 rats, are exaggerated toxicological responses peculiar to rats.(42)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results have been obtained in guinea pigs tested with solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates.(13,14,15)

Carcinogenicity:
Numerous skin carcinogenicity tests have been conducted with lubricant oils with different refining histories. Heavy paraffinic lubricant oils contain potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that can be removed through certain refining processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is sufficient evidence that mildly solvent-refined oils are carcinogenic to experimental animals.(3,7,8,23)

Mutagenicity:
The available evidence is not adequate to conclude that mildly solvent-refined, heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates are mutagenic. A marginally positive result was obtained in a test using live rats exposed to a solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic oil for which the degree of refinement was not specified. In general, oils that have not undergone mild solvent-refining are expected to be mutagenic due to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content.
In one test, rats were exposed orally to a solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillate in corn oil (level of refinement not reported) at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg for five days. A marginally significant increase in chromosomal aberrations was observed at the high dose only.(16,24) Negative results were obtained in similar tests using rats exposed orally to 3 other solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates.(16) The single positive result at the high dose for one sample of this material is not considered to be conclusive evidence of in vivo mutagenicity.
In a test using cultured mammalian cells, weak non-dose-related positive results (gene mutation) were obtained, with and without metabolic activation, for a series of solvent-refined, solvent-dewaxed heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates (level of refinement not reported), in the presence of metabolic activation.(16) Negative results (gene mutation) have been obtained in tests for these distillates in tests using bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.(16,25,43) A positive result (gene mutation) was obtained in a test using bacteria, with metabolic activation, for extracts of solvent-refined heavy paraffinic petroleum distillates (level of refining not reported).(44)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) CONCAWE Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Lubricating oil basestocks. Product dossier no. 97/108. CONCAWE, June 1997
(2) Rycroft, R.J.G. Petroleum and petroleum derivatives. In: Occupational skin diseases. 2nd ed. Edited by R.M. Adams. W.B. Saunders Company, 1990. p. 486-502
(3) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Selected petroleum products. Environmental Health Criteria; 20. World Health Organization, 1982
(4) Blanc, P.D., et al. Unusual occupationally related disorders of the lung: case reports and a literature review. In: Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Vol. 7, no. 3. Unusual occupational diseases. Edited by D.J. Shusterman, et al. Hanley and Belfus, Inc., July-Sept. 1992. p. 403-422
(5) Robertson, A.S., et al. Occupational asthma due to oil mists. Thorax. Vol. 43, no. 3 (Mar. 1988). p. 200-205
(6) Oil mist, mineral. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 1145-1148
(7) Mineral oils: lubricant base oils and derived products. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 33. Polynuclear aromatic compounds. Part 2. Carbon blacks, mineral oils, and some nitroarenes. World Health Organization, Apr. 1984. p. 87-168
(8) Halder, C.A., et al. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing and blending. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 5 (1984). p. 265-274
(9) Mineral oils: untreated and mildly-treated oils (Group 1); Highly refined oils (Group 3). In: International Agency for Research on Cancer. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Suppl. 7. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. World Health Organization, Mar. 1987. p. 66, 252-254
(10) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). PAHs. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct., 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(11) CONCAWE. The Oil Companies European Organisation for Environment, Health and Safety. The use of the dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) extract by the IP 346 method as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils and distillate aromatic extracts. Report 94/51. CONCAWE, Feb. 1994
(12) Granella, M., et al. The mutagenic activity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of mineral oils. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 63, no. 2 (June 1991). p. 149-153
(13) Vernot, E.H., et al. Acute toxicological evaluation of heavy paraffinic base lube stock. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B. Acute Toxicity Data. Vol. 1, no. 2 (1990). p. 141-144
(14) Beck, L.S., et al. The acute toxicology of selected petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N. MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Press, 1984. p. 1-16
(15) Kane, M.L., et al. Toxicological characteristics of refinery streams used to manufacture lubrication oils. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 5 (1984). p. 183-200
(16) Conaway, C.C., et al. Mutagenicity evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N. MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Press, 1984. p. 89-107
(17) Dalbey, W., et al. Four-week inhalation exposures of rats to aerosols of three lubricant base oils. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 11, no. 4 (Aug. 1991). p. 297-302
(18) Standard Oil Company. Summary of 3 week dermal study in rats. Standard Oil Company, 1984. EPA/OTS 88-8400592. NTIS/OTS0509701.
(19) IIT Research Institute. Three-week dermal toxicity study of NMP-extracted SX-5 base oil in rats. Final Report. Standard Oil Company, July 13, 1984
(20) Standard Oil Company. Summary of histopathological observations on rat testes with attached raw data. Standard Oil Company, 1984. EPA/OTS 88-8400638. NTIS/OTS0509701.
(21) Gerhart, J.M., et al. Tumor initiation and promotion effects of petroleum streams in mouse skin. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 11, no. 1 (1988). p. 76-90
(22) Mobil Oil Corporation. Summary of Mobil oil 90. Dermal toxicity study in rats with attached protocol and cover letter. Mobil Oil Corporation, 1984. EPA/OTS 88- 8400620. NTIS/OTS0509701.
(23) Chasey, K.L, et al. Evaluation of the dermal carcinogenicity of lubricant base oils by the mouse skin painting bioassay and other proposed methods. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 1 (1993). p. 57-65
(24) Hazelton Laboratories America, Inc. In vivo and in vitro mutagenicity studies with paraffinic oil 79-3 350 SUS/100 deg F. Final report. American Petroleum Institute, June, 1981. EPA/OTS 1081-0139.
(25) American Petroleum Institute. Salmonella/mammalian-microsome plate incorporation mutagenicity assay (Ames test). Final report with cover letter dated 030786. American Petroleum Institute, Mar. 1986. FYI-AX-0386-0281. NTIS/OTS0000281-3.
(26) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(27) Baker, A.E., et al. Lubricant properties and test methods. In: Handbook of lubrication: theory and applications of tribology. Vol. I. Theory and design. Edited by E.R. Booser. CRC Press, Inc., 1984. p. 481-515
(28) Klaus, E.E., et al. Liquid lubricants. In: Handbook of lubrication: theory and applications of tribology. Vol. II. Theory and design. Edited by E.R. Booser. CRC Press, Inc., 1984. p. 229-254
(29) Peterson, J.E. Toxic pyrolysis products of solvents, paints, and polymer films. In: Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews. Vol. 8, no. 3. De novo toxicants: combustion toxicology, mixing incompatibilities and environmental activation of toxic agents. Edited by D.J. Shusterman, et al. Hanley and Belfus, Inc., July-Sept. 1993. p. 533-547
(30) Feunekes, F.D.J.R., et al. Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among trainers in a fire-fighting training facility. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 58, no. 1 (Jan. 1997). p. 23-28
(31) Booser, E.R. Lubrication and lubricants. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 15. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. p. 463-517
(32) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Oils, miscellaneous: lubricating. In: Hazardous materials handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. p. 1259-1260
(33) Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Edited by P.G. Urben. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(34) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Parts B, E-O, and C, P-Z. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1479- 1752, 2161-2164
(35) European Communities. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994
(36) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Mineral oil mist. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAN(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(37) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program
(38) Dalbey, W.E., et al. Respiratory toxicology of mineral oils in laboratory animals. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 18 (2003). p. 921-929
(39) Dalbey, W.E. Subchronic inhalation exposures to aerosols of three petroleum lubricants. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 62, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2001). p. 49-56
(40) Roy, T.A., et al. Correlation of mutagenic and dermal carcinogenic activities of mineral oils with polycyclic aromatic compound content. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10 (1988). p. 466-476
(41) Bukowski, J.A. Review of respiratory morbidity from occupational exposure to oil mists. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 18 (2003). p. 828-837
(42) Carlton, W.W., et al. Assessment of the morphology and significance of the lymph nodal and hepatic lesions produced in rats by the feeding of certain mineral oils and waxes. Experimental Toxicology and Pathology. Vol. 53 (2001). p. 247-255
(43) Blackburn, G.R., et al. Estimation of the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum fractions using a modified Ames assay. Cell Biology and Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1984). p. 67-80
(44) Hazleton Washington Inc. Support document: mutagenicity test on experimental raffinates in the modified Salmonella/microsome mutation assay for petroleum samples (final report) with cover sheets and letter. Date produced Sept. 1992. Sun Refining and Marketing Co. EPA/OTS 39-980000354. NTIS/OTS0539074-1.
(45) Distillates (petroleum), solvent-refined heavy paraffinic. In: IUCLID dataset. European Chemicals Bureau, Eurocommission, 2000. Available at: <ecb.jrc.it/IUCLID-Data-Sheet/64741884.pdf>
(46) Pruett, K.M. Lubricating oil, lubricants general. In: Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 194-205
(47) Pruett, K.M. Lubricating oils, (petroleum). In: Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 290-301
(48) Pruett, K.M. Lubricating oils, (petroleum). In: Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C-218 to C-223

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-04-08

Revision Indicators:
Synonyms 2006-09-21



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