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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 456
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Nitropropane

Synonyms:
Dimethylnitromethane
Isonitropropane
Nitroisopropane
2-NP
Nitropropane (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Nitro-2 propane
Chemical Name Spanish: 2-Nitropropano

Trade Name(s):
NiPar S-20

CAS Registry Number: 79-46-9
UN/NA Number(s): 2608
RTECS Number(s): TZ5250000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-209-1
Chemical Family: Aliphatic nitro compound / nitroalkane / mononitroalkane / nitropropane
Molecular Formula: C3-H7-N-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH(NO2)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless, oily liquid with a pleasant, mild odour described as fruity.(2,8)

Odour Threshold:
5 ppm (detection) (9); not recognized at 83 ppm (9); approximately 160 ppm (recognition).(6)

Warning Properties:
POOR - Odour is not reliable - it may be recognized only at levels greatly exceeding the TLV. Irritation is not reliable - mild irritant.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used mainly as a solvent in inks, paints, varnishes, polymers and other synthetic materials; chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, dyes, insecticides and textile chemicals; some use as a rocket propellant and gasoline and diesel fuel additive.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless, oily liquid with a pleasant, mild, fruity odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Can decompose violently at high temperatures and form toxic gases such as nitrogen oxides. Closed containers may rupture and explode if heated. Highly reactive. Reaction with bases, amines, mercury and silver oxides and nitric acid may form shock sensitive compounds or mixtures. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled or swallowed. May be irritating to respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effect may be delayed. Causes cyanosis (blue-gray skin and lips due to lack of oxygen). POSSIBLE CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer, based on animal information. POSSIBLE MUTAGEN - May cause genetic damage, based on animal information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
The most probable route of exposure to 2-nitropropane in the workplace is through inhalation of vapours.(17,18) Symptoms include irritation, loss of appetite (anorexia), nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe headaches, and cyanosis (a bluish discolouration of the skin and mucous membranes). Large doses may also cause damage to the respiratory tract and other internal organs (chiefly the liver) as well as central nervous system effects.(1,2,3,4,6,8,10,18) Acute inhalation exposure of workers has caused pulmonary edema and gastrointestinal bleeding.(23)
2-Nitropropane can cause a condition called methemoglobinemia (the oxygen-carrying component of the blood (hemoglobin) is converted to an inactive form (methemoglobin). This reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and may lead to dangerously low levels of oxygen in tissues such as the heart and brain. The earliest symptom of poisoning is a bluish coloration of the lips and skin (cyanosis). Other symptoms include headache, shortness of breath, dryness of throat, dizziness, light-headedness, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting and irregular heartbeat.(24) Onset of symptoms may be delayed 2 to 4 hours or longer. Symptoms usually disappear within 24 hours if exposure stops.

Skin Contact:
Mild skin irritation following frequent contact with nitroparaffins has been reported by workers. This effect may be a result of drying of the skin.(17) 2-Nitropropane is not absorbed through the skin.(5)

Eye Contact:
It is reported that nitroparaffins and 2-nitropropane in particular can cause local eye irritation. No details are given.(15) There is no animal information.

Ingestion:
Although no human ingestion information is available, animal ingestion and human inhalation data suggest that 2-nitropropane may cause anorexia (loss of appetite), nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, faintness, cyanosis and liver and stomach problems. It can probably also cause methemoglobinemia (symptoms described in inhalation). Ingestion of 2-nitropropane is unlikely in an occupational setting.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is limited data available on the chronic effects of 2-nitropropane.
In a study of workers and former workers of a 2-nitropropane production facility, there was no increased mortality from liver disease. Exposure data is not available.(2) No adverse effects were noted in two men who worked for a year (not more than 4 hr/d, 3 d/wk) in an area where the concentration of 2-nitropropane ranged from 10-30 ppm.(1,18)

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged exposures may cause dermatitis (dry, thickened, red, cracked skin).

Carcinogenicity:

Very little human information is available. There was no increase in liver cancer in a limited study of workers in a 2-nitropropane production facility.(1,2,18) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2-nitropropane to humans. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals.(14,28)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information is available. 2-Nitropropane caused fetal toxicity when injected in rats at doses which were not maternally toxic.(2) This route of exposure is not relevant to occupational exposures.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information is available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. 2-nitropropane has produced positive results in tests using live animals (somatic cells). It is, therefore, considered to be mutagenic.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information is available

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. 2-Nitropropane is absorbed through the lungs and from the gastrointestinal tract.(8,10) Animal studies indicate that a good proportion of the absorbed 2-nitropropane is rapidly metabolized and that it has a low potential to accumulate during prolonged or repeated exposures. However, the metabolites have a greater potential to accumulate. The major route of excretion is the expired air (as CO2), with part excreted in the urine as metabolites.(8,10)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms of cyanosis develop, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a trained person, preferably on a doctor's advice. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. If symptoms of cyanosis develop, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a trained person, preferably on a doctor's advice. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Effects of contact or inhalation may be delayed (development of methemoglobinemia). Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except under minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
24 deg C (75 deg F) (closed cup) (23); 28 deg C (82 deg F) (closed cup) (commercial grade).(4,5)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
2.6% (4); 2.5% at 27 deg C (commercial grade).(5)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
11% (4)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
428 deg C (802 deg F) (4,5)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Normally not sensitive. Under conditions of extreme shock and heavy confinement at elevated temperatures, 2-nitropropane undergoes explosive decomposition. However, in unconfined conditions, nitropropanes have not been detonated by heat or shock applied under extreme test conditions.(5)

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
2-Nitropropane vapour in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen oxides.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 24 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. During a fire, irritating/toxic nitrogen oxide gases may be generated. Exposure to heat may promote violent decomposition. Sensitive to thermal and mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressure. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog. Water may be ineffective because it may not cool 2-nitropropane below its flashpoint.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Use extreme caution since heat may rupture containers. Isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Fight fire from a protected, explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. If a fire occurs in the vicinity of 2-nitropropane, use unmanned monitors and hoseholders to keep cooling streams of water on fire-exposed tanks or containers until well after the fire is out. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated; use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow the fire to burn. Do not attempt to fight the fire. Because of its relatively low flashpoint, water may be ineffective for fighting fires involving 2-nitropropane, unless used under favorable conditions by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. However, water can be used on low flashpoint liquids when applied as a spray to absorb heat and to protect exposed material of structures.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to cool and disperse the vapours. If it is necessary to stop a leak, use water spray to protect personnel attempting to do so. Water spray may also be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire or heated by exposure, until they have completely cooled down. Clean-up or salvage operations should not be attempted until the 2-nitropropane is cooled.(25)
2-Nitropropane and its decomposition products, nitrogen oxides, are hazardous to health. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 89.10

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.6 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.275 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -93 deg C (-135.4 deg F) (1,19); -91.3 C (-132.3 deg F) (4,5)
Boiling Point: 120.25 deg C (248.45 deg F) (2,5)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.988 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (1,5)
Solubility in Water: Slightly soluble (1.7 g/100 mL at 20-25 deg C) (4,5)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in most aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, ketones, ethers and lower carboxylic acids.(2,5) Soluble in chloroform.(1)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: 6.2 (0.01 M aqueous solution at 25 deg C) (4,5)
Acidity: Weak acid (25)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.770 centipoises (0.770 mPa.s) at 20 deg C (4,5)
Surface Tension: 29.87 dynes/cm at 20 deg C (5)
Vapour Density: 3.06 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 1.72 - 1.73 kPa (12.90 - 12.98 mm Hg) at 20 deg C.(5,8)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 17000 ppm (1.7 percent) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 1.1 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (4,5); 10 (diethyl ether = 1) (4)
Critical Temperature: 344 deg C (651.2 deg F) (5)
Critical Pressure: 4.49 MPa (4490 kPa) (calculated) (4)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Stable at room temperature. A rise in temperature increases the decomposition of 2-nitropropane, particularly under confinement, and is dependent on the rate and degree to which heat is applied.(25)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZERS (e.g. ammonium nitrate) - Reacts violently and may cause fire and explosion.(15,23)

ACIDS (e.g. chlorosulfonic acid, oleum, nitric acid) - React violently. Form unstable compounds which are sensitive to mechanical shock.(3,15,23)

AMINES - Form unstable salts which are sensitive to mechanical shock.

INORGANIC BASES - Form compounds which when dry are very sensitive to mechanical shock.(4,12,15,23)

ACTIVATED CARBON - The heat of adsorption of 2-nitropropane is very high. Therefore, high concentrations of 2-nitropropane exposed to activated carbon is a potential fire hazard.(12)

HYDROCARBONS - Form highly flammable mixtures.(23)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Static discharge, sparks, open flames, high temperatures and pressures.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Corrodes mild steel in the presence of moisture unless inhibited. Corrodes copper or copper alloys in the presence of a small amount of acid. Avoid long-term exposure to lead or lead alloys.(5)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
2-Nitropropane is a mild oxidizing agent under ordinary conditions, but precautions should be taken when it is subjected to high temperatures and pressures, since violent reactions may occur.(12) 2-Nitropropane will attack some forms of plastics, coatings and rubber.(23)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (male rat): 490 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 400 ppm (6-hour exposure) (1)
LC50 (mouse): 1980 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 10 g/m3 (2800 ppm) (2-hour exposure) (13)
LC50 (rat): 1856 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 3712 ppm (1-hour exposure) (17)

LD50 (oral, mouse): 400 mg/kg (18)
LD50 (oral, rat): 720 mg/kg (2)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 2-nitropropane (dose not specified) caused neither skin irritation nor illness in rabbits.(20)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Central nervous system depression and liver damage are the primary effects of exposure to nitroparaffins like 2-nitropropane.(18) It also causes methemoglobinemia (a condition which reduces the ability of the blood to carry oxygen) in some animal species (cats (280 ppm and above), rabbits (1400 ppm and above) and rats (250 ppm and above)) and Heinz body formation (granules in red blood cells) depending on the concentration and duration of exposure.(10,18,19)

Inhalation:
Exposure to 2-nitropropane vapour has consistently caused respiratory tract and eye irritation and pulmonary edema (accumulation of fluid in the lungs).(18) The lowest dose causing no signs of toxicity appears to be 83 ppm.(19) In several species, lethal vapour concentrations produced lethargy, weakness, muscle incoordination, difficult or laboured breathing (dyspnea), cyanosis (a bluish discolouration of the skin and mucous membranes), coma and death.(19)

Ingestion:
Ingestion of 500-750 mg/kg caused progressive weakness and collapse, unsteadiness, incoordination, and changes in respiration (first slow breathing and later increasingly rapid breathing) in rabbits. There were no changes in blood chemistry and no methemoglobin formation. Severe congestion of the small intestine and liver damage were seen in animals that died.(20)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Severe liver and slight to moderate heart and kidney damage were found in cats following exposure to 328 ppm for several days (7 hr/day). Varying degrees of pulmonary edema were noted. No changes were seen in cells or tissues of monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs or rats exposed to 328 ppm for 130 exposures (7 hr/day). Except for one cat, no changes were observed in cells or tissues of animals exposed to 83 ppm for 130 exposures.(19) No deaths occurred in rats and rabbits exposed to 27 or 207 ppm for 6 months. Weight gain and blood data were normal. A mild accumulation of fluid in the lungs (edema) was seen in rats exposed to 207 ppm after 1, 3 and 6 months. A slight increase in liver weights was observed in rats exposed to 25 ppm for 22 months. No other effects were noted.(18)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of 2-nitropropane to experimental animals.(28)
Liver neoplasms, described as heptocellular carcinoma or hepatic adenoma, were observed in all ten male rats after exposure to 207 ppm (750 mg/m3) 2-nitropropane for 6-months (7 hrs/d, 5 d/wk). No tumours were observed in control or low dose (27 ppm) male rats or any of the male rabbits exposed to the same concentrations.(2,8) In another study, liver tumours developed in male and female rats exposed to 2-nitropropane (200 and 100 ppm) by inhalation for 12-18 months. No tumours or other effects were found at 25 ppm for 22 months.(2,8) Oral administration of 90 mg/kg (cited as 1 mMol/kg) to rats for 16 weeks has produced benign and malignant liver tumours.(28)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Fetal toxicity (retarded heart development) in the absence of maternal toxicity was observed in rat pups from 9 or 10 litters of mothers injected with 170 mg/kg 2-nitropropane on days 1-15 of pregnancy.(2) This route of exposure (injection) is not applicable to human exposures and the significance of these results for humans is not known.

Mutagenicity:
2-Nitropropane is considered mutagenic, based on animal information. Mutagenicity (unscheduled DNA synthesis, micronucleated liver cells, DNA fragmentation of liver cells) has been observed in male rats exposed to 2-nitropropane orally.
Single oral doses of 2-nitropropane produced a dose-dependant increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis in male rats exposed to 50-100 mg/kg, but not 25 mg/kg. Statistically significant increases in micronucleated liver cells were observed at 25 and 50 mg/kg, but not 75 mg/kg, even though the group mean was approximately 3-fold higher than the control value. The authors suggest the lack of statistical significance at 75 mg/kg was due to greater variability in the high dose group.(22) Single oral doses of 45, 180 or 715 mg/kg (cited as 0.5, 2 or 8 mMol/kg) caused a dose-dependant, statistically significant increase in DNA fragmentation in the liver cells of male rats.(30) Male rats were orally administered 10 daily doses of 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg/day 2-nitropropane in 10% Emulphor EL-620 over a 14-day period. Significant changes in clinical chemistry parameters indicative of decreased hepatocellular function, cholestasis and necrosis and/or leakage were noted in animals exposed to 40 or 80 mg/kg/day. A dose-related increase in DNA synthesis (as measured by BrDU incorporation), with statistical significance at 40 and 80 mg/kg/day, was also observed. Histological examination showed no significant lesions in the livers of treated animals, except those exposed to 80 mg/kg/day.(29) Negative results have been produced in other studies using live animals.(28)
Positive and negative results have been obtained in tests using bacteria and cultured mammalian cells.(1,10,13,21,22,28)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 29. IARC, 1982. p. 331-343
(2) Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Vol. II. ACGIH, 1991. p. 1124-1127
(3) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491
(4) Ullman's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th rev. ed. Vol. A17. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1991. p. 401-409
(5) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 15. 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1981. p. 969-987
(6) Hine, C.H., et al. Fatalities following exposure to 2-nitropropane. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 20, no. 5 (May 1978). p. 333-337
(7) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(8) Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Vol. II, part A: Toxicology. John Wiley & Sons, 1993. p. 599-612, 618-620, 657-662
(9) Crawford, G.N., et al. Odor threshold determination for 2-nitropropane. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 45, no. 2 (Feb. 1984). p. B7-B8
(10) HSDB record for 2-nitropropane. Last updated 92/11/05
(11) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 230-231
(12) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th ed. Butterworths, 1990. p. 387-388, 1693-1694
(13) RTECS record for propane, 2-nitro-. Last updated: 9301
(14) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans. Suppl. 7. IARC, 1987. p. 67
(15) Chemical safety sheets : working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 651
(16) Personal communication with Guy Colonna, NFPA. July 14, 1993
(17) A review of toxicological studies on the nitroparaffins with particular emphasis on 2-nitropropane. IMC Chemical Group, Inc, 1977. p. 1-10 (NIOSH Control No: 00136155)
(18) Information profiles on potential occupational hazards : nitroparaffins. 2nd draft. NIOSH. Nov. 1981. p. 1-2, 42-62, 75-79 (NIOSH Control No: 00188273)
(19) Treon, J.F., et al. Physiological response of experimental animals to the vapor of 2-nitropropane. American Medical Association, 1952. p. 1-10
(20) Machle, W., et al. The physiological response of animals to some simple mononitroparaffins and to certain derivatives of these compounds. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 22 (1940). p. 316-332
(21) Haworth, S., et al. Salmonella mutagenicity test results for 250 chemicals. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol. 5, supplement 1 (1983). p. 3-142
(22) George, E., et al. Genotoxicity of 1- and 2-nitropropane in the rat. Carcinogenesis. Vol. 10, no. 12 (1989). p. 2329-2334
(23) Occupational safety and heath guideline for 2-nitropropane. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (1988). p. 1-5
(24) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams & Wilkins, 1984. p. III-31 to III-36
(25) Nitroparaffins and their hazards. Research Report no. 12. The National Board of Fire Underwriters, 1959
(26) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program
(27) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(28) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999
(29) Cunningham, M.L., et al. Relationship of hepatocarcinogenicity and hepatocellular proliferation induced by mutagenic noncarcinogens vs carcinogens. II. 1- vs 2-nitropropane. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 110, no. 3 (1991). p. 505-513
(30) Robbiano, L. et al. DNA fragmentation by 2-nitropropane in rat tissues, and effects of the modulation of biotransformation process. Cancer Letters. Vol. 57 (1991). p. 61-66

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1994-02-07

Revision Indicators:
Acute exposure (inhalation) 1994-04-01
Fire fighting instructions 1994-04-01
Materials to avoid 1994-04-01
TDG 1995-06-01
Conditions to avoid 1995-06-01
HANDLING AND STORAGE 1995-06-01
Sampling 1996-02-01
EU class 1996-02-01
EU risk 1996-02-01
EU safety 1996-02-01
EU comments 1996-02-01
Respiratory guidelines 1996-02-01
TLV-TWA 1996-09-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 1997-07-01
WHMIS (detailed class) 1998-02-01
Emergency overview 1998-02-01
US transport 1998-02-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Carcinogenicity 1999-12-01
Mutagenicity 1999-12-01
NFPA (health) 2003-04-14
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-06
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-06
TLV basis 2004-01-01
Toxicological info 2004-02-09
WHMIS classification comments 2004-02-09
Important New Information 2004-02-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28
Bibliography 2005-02-02



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