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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 806
CCOHS Chemical Name: Light aromatic solvent naphtha

Synonyms:
HFAN
High flash aromatic naphtha, type I
High flash aromatic naphtha
Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aromatic
Aromatic naphtha, type 1
Petroleum naphtha

Trade Name(s):
Cyclosol
Solvesso
Aromasol
Aromatol

CAS Registry Number: 64742-95-6
RTECS Number(s): WF340000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 265-199-0
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild, aromatic hydrocarbon odour.(2,13)

Odour Threshold:
0.07 ppm (0.0004 mg/L (0.4 mg/m3)) (detection) (closely related high aromatic solvent) (1)

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Light aromatic solvent naphtha is a complex mixture of 70-80% C9 aromatic hydrocarbons (primarily ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzene isomers), with the remainder being primarily C8 and C10 aromatic molecules (mainly xylenes, n-propylbenzene and cumene (isopropylbenzene).(8,9,13) It has a boiling point range of 135-210 deg C (275-410 deg F).(15,16) According to compositional specifications established by ASTM Method D-3734, light aromatic solvent naphtha is at least 22% ethyltoluene isomers, at least 15% trimethylbenzene isomers, and at least 75% total ethyltoluene and trimethylbenzenes.(8,10,17) Based on the high boiling range and the ASTM specifications, no to very low concentrations of benzene (less than 0.01% (2)) could be present. Xylene (unspecified isomers (principally o-xylene)) may be present at a concentration up to 3%.(9,13) This review is based on specific information for light aromatic solvent naphtha, whenever possible. This information is supplemented by general information for comparable aromatic naphthas, as appropriate.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as a solvent and diluent in paints, coatings and stains; printing inks; sealers; cleaners and degreasers; paint and varnish removers; paint brush and roller cleaners; gasoline and diesel additives; pesticide formulations; weed killers; alkyd resins; in formulating and as a curing agent for epoxy resins; as a chemical feedstock; demulsifier; defoamer; and in solvent extraction processes.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild aromatic hydrocarbon odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Liquid can probably accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous substances may be generated. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, and incoordination. SKIN IRRITANT. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Light aromatic solvent naphtha readily forms high vapour concentrations at normal temperatures. Mists or high vapour concentrations can probably cause headache, nausea, dizziness, reduced concentration, incoordination and other symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression. No specific human or animal information was located for light aromatic solvent naphtha, but these effects have been observed in animals and humans exposed to comparable materials.

Six volunteers could detect 0.07 ppm (0.4 mg/m3; 0.0004 mg/L) of a closely related material, high aromatic solvent, in the air. Irritation and discomfort were reported at 72 ppm for 15 minutes with 5 people reporting eye irritation, 3 reporting nose irritation and 2 reporting throat irritation. In one volunteer, throat irritation persisted for 45 minutes following exposure. There were also single incidences of nausea and headache.(1)

Skin Contact:
Light aromatic solvent naphtha is a mild to moderate skin irritant based on animal information. No human information was located.

Eye Contact:
Light aromatic solvent naphtha is a no to mild eye irritant based on animal information.
The vapour may be irritating based on information for a closely related material. Eye irritation (a burning or stinging sensation) was reported for 5/6 volunteers exposed to 72 ppm of a closely related material (high aromatic C10 content) for 15 minutes.(1)

Ingestion:
Light aromatic solvent naphtha is not harmful if ingested based on animal toxicity values. Ingestion of large amounts could cause symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression, as described in "Inhalation" above. However, like other petroleum distillates, light aromatic solvent naphtha may pose an aspiration hazard. If this material is drawn into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting, it could cause a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid (pulmonary edema). Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No specific human information was located for light aromatic solvent naphtha. Animal toxicity studies suggest low long-term toxicity.

Nervous System:
Long-term, high level exposure to organic solvents has been associated with a condition called "organic solvent syndrome". Symptoms such as excessive fatigue, reduced memory, pain and numbness in the legs, arms, hands and feet and behavioural changes have been observed in some people with long-term, high-level occupational exposure to organic solvents. Factors such as the small number of employees studied and complex exposure histories limit many of the studies evaluating the relationship between organic solvent exposure and nervous system effect. It is not known if the components of light aromatic solvent naphtha can cause organic solvent syndrome.

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact may cause red, dry, itchy, scaling skin (dermatitis).

Skin Sensitization:
In an unpublished study with a commercial product composed of light aromatic solvent naphtha (Solvesso 100), exposure to 30% Solvesso 100 in petroleum jelly did not cause sensitization.(22, unconfirmed)

Carcinogenicity:

No human or animal information for light aromatic solvent naphtha was located. No to very low concentrations of carcinogenic benzene (less than 0.01%) could be present.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information was located. Harmful effects have been observed in the offspring of rats exposed by ingestion and rats and mice exposed by inhalation, but only in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human information was located. A 3-generation study showed no consistent effects on reproductive parameters in rats, despite significant toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
The available evidence does not indicate that light aromatic solvent naphtha is mutagenic. No human information was located. Negative results were obtained in 2 studies using live rats. Positive and negative results were obtained in cultured mammalian cells and in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No information was located.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate. In general, alkyl benzenes are metabolized in the liver and converted to substituted benzoic acids and phenols. Phenolic compounds are subsequently metabolized and excreted in the urine.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 15-20 minutes. Obtain medical attention if irritation persists. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush chemical off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Minimum: 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (according to specifications) (closed cup) (17); 35-50 deg C (95-122 deg F) (closed cup) (14)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1% (2)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
6% (2)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Approximately 500 deg C (932 deg F) (Aromasol) (14)

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available; probably low.

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on fire conditions. A complex mixture of airborne material will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, reactive hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Do not use water to fight the fire, except as a fog.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of a fire. Therefore, fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Avoid getting water into containers because of the danger of boilover. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in the fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop the leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow the fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank.
Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight variable)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Less than -50 deg C (-58 deg F) (14)
Boiling Point: 148.9 deg C minimum (300 deg F) (Initial boiling point); 168.3 deg C minimum (335 deg F) (dry point; according to specifications) (13,17); 135-210 deg C (275-410 deg F) (according to substance definition) (15,16)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.864-0.884 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (according to specifications) (13,17)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble.(14)
Solubility in Other Liquids: No specific information available. Trimethylbenzene isomers, major components of high flash aromatic naphtha, are soluble in all proportions with ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and petroleum ether.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 2.1-6 (calculated) (14)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not available
Vapour Density: Greater than 4 at 15-32 deg C (2) (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.19-0.8 kPa (1.43-6 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (14)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 1880-7900 ppm (0.19-0.79%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.05-0.37 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (2)
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine, fluorine, calcium hypochlorite, nitric acid, nitrates, peroxides and perchlorates) - risk of fire and explosion.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat, elevated temperatures, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Probably not corrosive. Specific information is not available. Trimethylbenzene isomers, the main components of light aromatic solvent naphtha, and minor components, xylene and cumene, are not corrosive to the common metals, such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, cast iron, copper, brass, bronze, nickel and its alloys, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(18,21)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Specific information is not available for light aromatic solvent naphtha or for its main components, trimethylbenzene isomers and ethyltoluene.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 14.4 mg/L (6-hour exposure) (Solvesso 100; CAS No. 64742-95-6) (14, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 8400 mg/kg (3)
LD50 (oral, rat): Greater than 5000 mg/kg (3/10 animals died) (4)
LD50 (oral, rat): 2900-3200 mg/kg (2, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit); greater than 3160 mg/kg (Solvesso 100) (14, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Light aromatic solvent naphtha cases no to mild eye irritation.

Slight redness was observed in rabbits following application of 0.1 mL of a commercial product similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha (Marasol 3045; C9 aromatic hydrocarbons; CAS No. 64742-95-6).(5) In unpublished studies with few details, commercial products composed of or similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha caused no to mild irritation in rabbits.(14, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

Light aromatic solvent naphtha is a mild to moderate skin irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of light aromatic solvent naphtha, to intact skin for 4 hours under a patch, caused moderate irritation and swelling in rabbits (average scores over 14 days were redness: 2/4 and edema: 1.4/4). Cracking and flaking of the skin was noted in all animals.(23) Essentially no irritation was observed in rabbits following the application of 0.5 mL of a commercial product similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha (Marasol 3045). On day 4, no signs of irritation were visible.(6) In unpublished studies with few details, commercial products composed of or similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha caused mild or moderate irritation in rabbits.(14, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation or ingestion of high doses of commercial products comparable to light aromatic solvent naphtha has produced signs and symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression such as decreased activity, loss of coordination, unconsciousness and, in some cases, death.

Inhalation:
Female rats were exposed to 8.7 mg/L (8700 mg/m3) of a high aromatic solvent aerosol (diameter: 1 micrometer or less) for 8 hours. This material is similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha, but has a higher C10 component. This high aromatic solvent is expected to be less volatile than light aromatic solvent naphtha, but to have similar toxicity. Observed effects included eye and nose irritation and salivation within 20 minutes, progressive tremors, incoordination, unconsciousness, convulsions and death in 2/10 animals within 24 hours following exposure. In survivors, recovery was noted after 4 days. Four male cats exposed to 8.2 mg/L (8200 mg/m3) high aromatic solvent aerosol for 6 hours showed muscle incoordination, tremors, salivation and a decrease in constriction of the pupils when exposed to light. No deaths were reported. Recovery occurred within 1 day.(1)

Ingestion:
Rats exposed to lethal oral doses showed CNS effects, such as decreased activity, abnormal gait, body tremors and laboured breathing, as well as diarrhea.(3,4) Rats were administered 3000 or 5000 mg/kg of a commercial product similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha (Marasol 3045). Observations included salivation, tearing of the eyes, decreased activity, prostration, laboured breathing, and diarrhea. No rats died at 3000 mg/kg and 3/10 died at 5000 mg/kg.(4) Rats were administered 1250, 1500, 3500, 4500, 5000, 6000, or 8000 mg/kg of another commercial product (Enerade EB-6202; CAS No. 64742-95-6). Symptoms of CNS depression, such as abnormal gait and body tremors were observed at 3500 mg/kg and above. Mortality (1/10 deaths) was noted, even at the lowest dose.(3)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Reduced body weight was observed in male rats following a 13-week exposure to very high concentrations.(8) Increased liver and kidney weights were observed in male rats exposed to high concentrations for up to 12 months. Females had reduced blood cell (eosinophil) counts that persisted throughout a 4-month recovery period.(9) Rats were exposed to 0, 450, 900 or 1800 mg/m3 of a light aromatic solvent naphtha vapour (75% C9 isomers; 50/50 blend of SHELLSOL A and SOLVESSO 100) generated by heating the material to high temperatures. The animals were exposed for up to 12 months. There was an initial reduction in weight gain for the higher dose groups up to 12 weeks, but no difference thereafter. Several statistically significant blood cell changes were seen, particularly in males. However, these observations were not considered biologically significant since they fell within the normal range of values and there was no evidence of organ damage. There was a significant reduction in female eosinophil counts at all three exposure levels (decrease 30-55%) that persisted at the end of a 4-month recovery period in the medium and high dose groups. Liver and kidney weights were increased for high-exposure males, but there were no cellular changes.(9) Male rats were exposed to 0, 101, 432 or 1320 ppm (584, 2499 or 7636 mg/m3) light aromatic solvent naphtha vapour for 13 weeks. At 1320 ppm, body weight was significantly reduced from week 1 onwards. No signs of neurotoxicity or harmful changes were observed.(8) Female rats exposed to 1800, 3700 or 7400 mg/m3 light aromatic solvent naphtha for 13 weeks, showed a low-grade anemia at all exposure levels and an increase in liver and kidney weights at the higher levels.(9 citing unpublished information) The observation of anemia was not confirmed in a follow-up 12-month inhalation study.(9)

Ingestion:
Rats were given 0, 500, 750 or 1250 mg/kg/day light aromatic solvent naphtha for 3 months. Clinical signs were increased salivation and yellow perineal staining. There was a dose-related decrease in body weight gain in males, which was significant at all doses. Effects were less in females with a significant decrease in body weight observed intermittently at 750 and 1250 mg/kg/day. There were significant increases in enzymes indicating effects on liver function at 1250 mg/kg/day and a dose-related increase in relative liver weight, which was significant at all concentrations. Slight swelling of hepatocytes in the central lobe of the liver was seen in females at all doses. Relative kidney weights were significantly greater at all doses in males and at 750 mg/kg/day and higher in females. Kidney changes characteristic of "hydrocarbon nephropathy" (hyaline droplets, tubular degeneration and regeneration, accumulation of granular casts) was seen in male rats at all doses. This is a kidney condition unique to male rats and has no relevance for human health.(24) In a similar study, rats were given 0, 30, 125, 500 or 1250 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. There were no effects at 125 mg/kg/day and lower. Effects at 500 and 1250 mg/kg/day were similar to those described for the previous study.(25) Dogs were given 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day for at least 90 days. At 500 mg/kg/day there was non-significant decrease in body weight (20% less than controls), and significant decreases in red blood cell counts, hematocrits and hemoglobin values. At 500 mg/kg/day, there was also a trend towards increased kidney and liver weights, which were significant in females for relative kidney weight and in males for relative liver weights. Accompanying changes in the tissues were not seen.(26)

Skin Sensitization:
In unpublished studies with few details, negative or inconclusive results were obtained in guinea pig maximization tests for products composed of or similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha.(14, unconfirmed)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Harmful effects have been observed in the offspring of rats and mice exposed by inhalation, and in rats exposed by ingestion, but only in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 100, 500 or 1500 ppm light aromatic solvent naphtha on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Exposure to 100 ppm produced a significant decrease in the number of live fetuses/litter. However, this effect was not dose-related, as it did not occur at the 500 ppm exposure. No significant maternal toxicity was noted at 100 ppm. At 500 ppm, a significant reduction in fetal body weight was observed in the presence of maternal toxicity (reduced weight gain). At 1500 ppm, teratogenicity, embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity were observed in the presence of severe maternal toxicity (44% mortality and clinical observations).(10) Rats were continuously exposed to approximately 120, 200 or 400 ppm (cited as 600, 1000 or 2000 mg/m3) Aromatol on days 7-15 of pregnancy. A significant increase in fetal skeletal retardation was observed at all exposures. Fetal weight was retarded at 200 or 400 ppm and overall malformations were increased at 400 ppm. Toxic effects in the mothers were described as slight and dose-dependent.(11) The authors of this paper and authors of a subsequent review indicate that no significant effects were observed in rat offspring at the low dose.(10,11) Rats were exposed to 0, 120, 200 or 400 ppm (cited as 600, 1000 or 2000 mg/m3) Aromatol during days 7-15 of pregnancy with subsequent behavioural evaluation of the pups. No effects were observed in the behavioural parameters evaluated, birth weight, postnatal weight gain or survival or nervous system development.(12) Mice exposed continuously to approximately 100 ppm (500 mg/m3) on days 6-15 of pregnancy showed embryotoxicity (post-implantation loss) and an increase in overall malformations. There was no evaluation of maternal toxicity.(11) Continuous exposure to 100 or 200 ppm (cited as 500 or 1000 mg/m3) on days 7-20 of pregnancy caused abortions in rabbits at the high dose only. This result does not appear to have been statistically significant. Maternal toxicity (as evidenced by decreased weight gain) was noted at this dose. Fetotoxicity (weight retardation) that was observed at the low dose was also not determined to be statistically significant.(11) Rats were given oral doses of 0, 125, 625 or 1250 mg/kg/day light aromatic solvent naphtha in corn oil on days 0, 6-15 and 20 of pregnancy. At 625 mg/kg/day, there was a significant decrease in maternal body weight gain and at 1250 mg/kg/day, 1/24 mothers died. The only developmental effects noted were a significant decrease in fetal weight, and a significant increase in skeletal variations at 1250 mg/kg/day.(27)

Reproductive Toxicity:
A 3-generation study showed no consistent effects on reproductive parameters in rats, despite significant toxicity.
Rats were exposed to 0, 100, 500 or 1500 ppm in a three-generation study. The first generation (F0) was exposed for 10 weeks with exposure continuing during a 2-week mating period. Females were then exposed on days 0-20 of pregnancy and allowed to deliver their litters with exposure beginning again on post-natal day 5 until weaning. One week after weaning, rats in the second generation (F1) were exposed for 10 weeks and then were mated. Immediately after weaning the third generation (F2) began exposure. The majority of F2 pups in the high dose group died during the first week of exposure. Most fertility indices were not affected for any generation despite significant parental toxicity at 500 ppm and above. Those indices that were affected (e.g. reduced male fertility and reduced litter size in F1 at 1500 ppm) occurred at toxic doses, did not show a dose-response relationship and did not appear in other generations.(10)

Mutagenicity:
The available evidence does not indicate that light aromatic solvent naphtha is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in two studies using live rats. Positive and negative results were obtained in cultured mammalian cells and in bacteria.
Negative results were observed in the bone marrow cytogenicity test following inhalation exposure of rats to 150, 500 or 1500 ppm for 5 days, despite evidence of toxicity (reduced body weight gain) in the animals.(13) A negative result (bone marrow micronucleus) was also obtained in mice given a single oral dose of 0, 120, 600 or 3000 mg/kg.(28)
Negative results (gene mutation, sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations) were obtained in cultured mammalian cells, with or without metabolic activation.(13) A positive result ( chromosome aberrations) was obtained in cultured human cells, with and without metabolic activation.(29) Negative results (gene mutation) were obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(13,22) A positive result (DNA damage) was obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(30)

NOTE: Studies using 70 Solvent (7), another petroleum distillate, are sometimes cited as being similar to light aromatic solvent naphtha. However, Solvent 70 is defined as 32% aliphatic, 33% aromatic C9 and 20% aromatic C10. Therefore, it has not been considered the same as light aromatic solvent naphtha for the purposes of this review, because of the high aliphatic content and the comparatively low C9 aromatic content.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies. XIV. Animal and human response to vapours of "high aromatic solvent". Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 41 (1977). p. 235-249
(2) Fetsko, J.M. Data sheet 3-32. NPIRI raw materials data handbook: physical and chemical properties, fire hazard and health hazard data. Vol. 3. Proprietary solvents. 2nd ed. National Printing Ink Research Institute, 1994
(3) Product Safety Labs. Initial submission: Acute oral toxicity: defined LD50 (final report) with cover letter dated 112691. NTIS/OTS0534799. EPA/OTS 88-920000348. Rhone- Poulenc Inc., Nov. 1991
(4) Pharmakon Laboratories. Acute oral toxicity study in rats (14 day). PH 402-MA-001-81. Marasol 3045. With cover letter. NTIS/OTS0206495. EPA/OTS 87-8214199. Marathon Oil Company, Apr. 1984
(5) Pharmakon Labs. Acute eye irritation test in rabbits. NTIS/OTS0206495. EPA/OTS 87-214200. Marathon Oil Co. Date produced: June 1981
(6) Pharmakon Labs. Acute dermal irritation study in rabbits. Marathon Oil Co. NTIS/OT0206495. EPA/OTS 87-214200. Date produced: June 1981
(7) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Petroleum hydrocarbon toxicity studies. VII. Animal and human response to vapors of "70 Solvent." Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 34 (1975). p. 395-412
(8) Douglas, J.F., et al. A neurotoxicity assessment of high flash aromatic naphtha. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 9, no. 6 (1993). p. 1047-1058
(9) Clark, D.G., et al. Inhalation toxicity of high flash aromatic naphtha. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 5, no. 3 (1989). p. 415-428
(10) McKee, R.H., et al. The reproductive and developmental toxicity of high flash aromatic naphtha. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 6, nos. 3/4 (1990). p. 441-460
(11) Ungvary, G., et al. On the embryotoxic effects of benzene and its alkyl derivatives in mice, rats and rabbits. Archives of Toxicology. Suppl. 8 (1985). p. 425-430
(12) Lehotzky, K., et al. Behavioural effects of prenatal exposure to carbon disulphide and to Aromatol in rats. Archives of Toxicology. Suppl. 8 (1985). p. 442-446
(13) Schreiner, C.A., et al. The mutagenic potential of high flash aromatic naphtha. Cell Biology and Toxicology. Vol. 5 (1989). p. 169-188
(14) Solvent naphtha (petroleum), light arom. In: IUCLID dataset. European Chemicals Bureau, European Commission, 2000. Available at: <ecb.jrc.it>
(15) Environment Canada. Domestic/non-domestic substances list (DSL) database record for solvent naphtha (petroleum), light aromatic. Date of issue: Feb. 1999
(16) European Communities. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994. Amended by Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(17) American Society for Testing and Materials. ASTM D-3734-96. Standard specification for high flash aromatic naphthas.
(18) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 42-12 to 43-12, 130-9 to 131-9, 134-5 to 135-5
(19) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Naphthas. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(20) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Petroleum Distillate Fractions. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(21) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. p. 913-916 (cumene), Part C, P-Z. p. 3133-3136 (xylene). Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995
(22) Pharmakon Labs. Ames salmonella/microsome plate test. NTIS/OTS0206495. EPA/OTS 87-8214200. Marathon Oil Co. Date produced: June 1981
(23) Acute dermal irritation/corrosion of light aromatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) with cover letter dated 02/24/94 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0556731. EPA/OTS 86-940000136S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Nov. 1993
(24) Bio/Dynamics Inc. A subchronic (3-month) oral toxicity study in the rat with LX-1106-01 via gavage (final report) with attachments and cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529439. EPA/OTS 86-910000807S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Apr. 1990
(25) Thirteen week oral (gavage) administration of a light aromatic solvent naphtha (petroleum) to rats with cover letter dated 02/24/94 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0556721. EPA/OTS 86-940000126S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Jan. 1993
(26) Bio/Dynamics Inc. A subchronic (3-month) oral toxicity study in the dog with LX1106-01 via capsule administration (final report) with attachments and cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529440. EPA/OTS 86-910000808S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Apr. 1990
(27) Bio/Dynamics Inc. A teratology study in rats with LX1106-01 (final report) with attachments and cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529441. EPA/OTS 86-910000809S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Jan. 1990
(28) Life Science Research Ltd. LX-1106-01: Assessment of clastogenic action on bone marrow erythrocytes in the micronucleus test (final report) with cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529434. EPA/OTS 86-910000802S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Apr. 1990
(29) Life Science Research Ltd. In vitro assessment of the clastogenic activity of LX-1106-01 in cultured human lymphocytes (final report) with cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529433. EPA/OTS 86-910000800S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: Apr. 1990
(30) Life Science Research Ltd. LX-1106-01: Assessment of its ability to cause lethal DNA damage in strains of Escherichia coli (amended report) with cover letter dated 04/24/91 (sanitized). NTIS/OTS0529433. EPA/OTS 86-910000801S. Mobil Oil Corp. Date produced: July 1990

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2007-07-11



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