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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 733
CCOHS Chemical Name: Methylamine solutions

Synonyms:
Methylamine (non-specific name)
Monomethylamine
Aminomethane
Carbinamine
Methanamine

Chemical Name French: Méthylamine en solution aqueuse
Chemical Name Spanish: Metilamina en solución acuosa
CAS Registry Number: 74-89-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1235
RTECS Number(s): PF6300000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-820-0
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic amine / primary alkyl amine / primary amino alkane / aliphatic monoamine / methylamine
Molecular Formula: C-H5-N
Structural Formula: CH3-NH2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid; characteristic fishy odour at concentrations up to 100 ppm and an ammonia-like or suffocating odour at high concentrations (100-500 ppm).(8,9)

Odour Threshold:
4.7 ppm (6.1 mg/m3) (detection).(17) Wide range of values reported: 0.0009-4.68 ppm.(17)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - Wide range of odour thresholds reported, ranging up to the same value as the TLV. Olfactory fatigue (reduced perception of odour) may occur.(13)

Composition/Purity:
Commercially available as solutions of methylamine gas in water (30-50% by weight). The most common concentration supplied is 40%. Depending on the manufacturing process some of the impurities that may be present are dimethylamine and trimethylamine, methyl halides, methanol, and ammonia.(5) This CHEMINFO review is for methylamine solutions. For hazard assessment and control information for methylamine gas, see the methylamine anhydrous CHEMINFO review.

Uses and Occurrences:
Methylamine is mainly used as an intermediate in organic synthesis and water gel explosives, accelerators, pharmaceuticals, insecticides, herbicides, plasticizers, N-methylpyrrolidine, methylalkanolamines, surface active agents, and fungicides; in tanning; as a component of photographic developers and paint removers; as a fuel additive; in the production of dyes; as a polymerization inhibitor; and as a rocket propellant.(5,9)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid. Fishy odour at concentrations up to 100 ppm and an ammonia-like odour at high concentrations (100-500 ppm). EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as nitrogen oxides. VERY TOXIC. Rapidly gives off methylamine gas. May be fatal if inhaled and harmful if swallowed. CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. May cause permanent eye injury or scarring. Low concentrations may cause a temporary visual disturbance known as "blue haze" or "halo vision".



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Methylamine solutions rapidly give off high concentrations of methylamine gas, which is severely irritating to the nose, throat and lungs. Methylamine is very toxic if inhaled and poses a very serious inhalation hazard.
Symptoms of exposure include sore throat, coughing, shortness of breath and difficultly breathing. Brief exposures to 20-100 ppm have been reported to cause irritation and a burning sensation in the nose and throat.(3, unconfirmed citing a personal communication). Another report describes irritation at 25 ppm.(1, unconfirmed) Brief exposure (15-minutes) to 140 ppm is expected to produce intolerable nose and throat irritation, based on animal information. Short-lived effects of headache, nausea, faintness and feelings of anxiety have been described (3), but cannot be verified.
In severe cases, death may result from inflammation of the bronchi and lungs, and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema (tightness in the chest and shortness of breath) can develop up to 48 hours after exposure and are aggravated by physical exertion. No human case reports of pulmonary edema were located, but these effects have been observed in animal studies.

Skin Contact:
Methylamine solutions are corrosive, based on animal information. Corrosive materials can cause redness, pain, inflammation, blistering, ulceration and permanent scarring.
Methylamine solutions are expected to be toxic following skin contact, based on comparison to ethylamine. Any skin contact would also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Eye Contact:
Methylamine solutions are corrosive. Direct contact can cause corrosive damage to the eyes. Permanent injury, including blindness may result.
Brief exposures to 20-100 ppm airborne methylamine released from solutions can cause temporary irritation resulting in redness and tearing.(3, unconfirmed citing a personal communication) Brief exposure (15-minutes) to 140 ppm is expected to produce intolerable eye irritation, based on animal information. At higher concentrations, inflammation of the eyes and blurred vision can occur. Permanent injury, including blindness could result, based on comparison to ethylamine.
Low airborne concentrations of many amines (e.g. diethylamine, dimethylamine and triethylamine) can cause a visual disturbance commonly known as "blue haze" or "halo vision". This effect results from temporary swelling of the surface of the eye caused by the amine (12), or by direct deposition of tertiary amines onto the surface of the eye (32). In general, after about 1-3 hours of exposure, vision becomes foggy or blurred, objects might appear bluish and there may be halos around lights. Affected persons may not experience eye discomfort or pain. The effect normally clears up within a day and causes no permanent injury.(12,32,33) This visual disturbance could contribute to accidents. It is not known whether methylamine can cause this effect.

Ingestion:
There is no specific information available. Ingestion of concentrated solutions can result in burns to the mouth, throat and esophagus due to the corrosive nature of methylamine. Severe permanent injury or death could result. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Long-term exposure to relatively low concentrations may be irritating to the respiratory system (nose, throat and bronchi), due to the corrosive nature of methylamine.

Respiratory Sensitization:
It is not possible to conclude that methylamine is an occupational respiratory sensitizer, based on the available information.
One case of respiratory sensitization or chemical bronchitis has been reported. Exposure concentrations ranged from 2-60 ppm, but the duration of exposure is unknown.(1, unconfirmed) There are no further details available to evaluate this report.

Skin:
Prolonged or repeated contact with methylamine solutions may cause dermatitis (dry, cracked, inflammed skin).

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available for methylamine alone. In an animal study, an interaction between methylamine and sodium nitrite, to form carcinogenic nitrosamines, was observed.(29) The extent of this conversion and its relevance to human cancer has not yet been determined. The authors of this study consider the risk to be negligible.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to draw conclusions about the potential mutagenicity of methylamine, based on the available information. There is no information available from studies with humans or live animals. Positive results were obtained in one study using cultured animal cells, which used relatively high concentrations of methylamine. Negative results were obtained in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines was observed in animals following ingestion of methylamine and sodium nitrite solutions.(29) The authors of this study consider the risk to be negligible.

Potential for Accumulation:
Methylamine is not expected to accumulate in the body. Methylamine is broken down (metabolized) to carbon dioxide and ammonia. The carbon dioxide is eventually expired into the air and the ammonia is released in the urine as urea. Some methylamine is also excreted unchanged in the urine.(14) Methylamine is a normal constituent of the body and occurs in food, particularly fish.(3)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is extremely flammable, very toxic and corrosive. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. remove any sources of ignition, wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, and it can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 60 to 240 mL (2 to 8 oz) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.

All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
-11 deg C (12 deg F) (closed cup) (40% solution) (38); 45 deg C (113 deg F) (method unspecified) (1% solution) (4)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
4.9% (gas)(5,6)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
20.7% (gas)(5,6)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
430 deg C (806 deg F) (5,6)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Methylamine solutions are not expected to accumulate static charge. Mixtures of methylamine and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Nitrogen oxides, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, nitriles, isocyanates, nitrosamines, amines, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and other irritating and toxic fumes may be formed in a fire.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Concentrated water solutions are EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE, and very CORROSIVE. Water solutions will burn unless diluted extensively. Dilute solutions (less than 1% methylamine) are COMBUSTIBLE. Can release gas that readily forms explosive mixtures with air. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical, alcohol resistant foam. Use water spray to keep fire exposed containers cool and to control methylamine gas. Water may be ineffective because of the low flash point of methylamine.(6) Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
Carbon dioxide reacts with amines to form thermally unstable carbamate salts.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous gas and toxic decomposition products. Wear full protective gear if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, the gas could form explosive mixtures with air and re-ignite.
Water may be ineffective for fighting fires because methylamine has a very low flash point. However, water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and is can be used to extinguish the fire when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the gas, and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to raise the flash point and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Always stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire. If possible isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate area.
For an advanced or a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, the resulting water solutions of methylamine are corrosive and may be flammable. Corrosive and explosive atmospheres may be present. Before entering such an area especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective gear.
Containers or tanks should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Methylamine and its decomposition products are extremely hazardous to health. Do not enter any fire area without specialized protective equipment suitable for the occasion. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 31.07

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.27 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.789 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -38 deg C (-36 deg F) (40% solution) (4,5)
Boiling Point: 49 deg C (120 deg F) (40% solution) (4,5)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.904 at 20 deg C (40% solution) (water = 1) (4)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions (40% solution).
Solubility in Other Liquids: Completely soluble in diethyl ether. Soluble in ethyl alcohol, acetone, and benzene.(7)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.57 (13)
pH Value: 11.8 (0.1 M solution, 0.3%) (calculated); 13 (40% solution) (calculated)
Basicity: Strong organic base.
Dissociation Constant: pKb = 3.35 at 25 deg C (10)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 1.5 mPa.s (1.5 centipoises) at 20 deg C (4)
Surface Tension: Not available
Vapour Density: 1.08 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 32 kPa (240 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (40% solution) (4); 34 kPa (255 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (40% solution) (5)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 340000 ppm (34%) at 20 deg C (40% solution) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available; rapid since methylamine solutions quickly release methylamine gas at room temperature.
Henry's Law Constant: 1.12 Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.11 x 10-5 atm.m3/mol at 25 deg C (13); log H = -3.34 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZERS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide; nitric acid, perchlorates, hypochlorites) - React violently with risk of fire or explosion. Reaction with hypochlorites forms unstable chloroamines, which may explode at room temperature.( 36) Reaction with nitric acid is exothermic and may produce nitrogen gas rapidly, resulting in spattering of the corrosive mixture.(34,37) Reaction with nitrating agents (mixture of concentrated nitric and sulfuric acid) forms unstable N-nitro compounds that pose an explosion risk if subjected to shock or if heated rapidly and uncontrollably.(36)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrogen halides, sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid) - Reaction with concentrated acids is vigorous or violent.(36,37)
DIAZOTIZATION AGENTS (e.g. mixture of sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid) - Forms unstable diazonium salts, which are explosive and sensitive to friction, shock, heat and radiation.(36)
MERCURY or NITROPHENOLS - Form shock-sensitive compounds.(8,36)
NITROMETHANE - Reaction product may detonate; organic amines and nitromethane form sensitive explosive mixtures.(36)
HALOGENATING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine gas, thionyl chloride) or LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trichloride, aluminum chloride) - React violently. Toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas is released.(36,37)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium, potassium), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium, magnesium) or METAL HYDRIDES (e.g. lithium aluminum hydride or sodium hydride) - Reaction poses a high risk of fire or explosion.
ACYLATING AGENTS (e.g. acetyl chloride, phosgene) or ALKYLHALIDES (e.g. benzylchloride or t-butylchloride) - Reaction at room temperature can form toxic and corrosive gases (e.g. hydrogen chloride). May evolve heat. Reaction with phosgene forms thermally unstable isocyanate compounds.(5,34)
EPOXIDES (e.g. ethylene oxide) or CARBON DISULFIDE, ISOCYANATES and ISOTHIOCYANATES - Reaction may be rapid and may evolve heat.(5,34)
CARBON DIOXIDE - Forms thermally unstable amine carbamate salts.(34)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Air oxidizes methylamine slowly. Transient, thermally unstable N-oxides are formed which decompose to form an unstable compound, azomethine.

Conditions to Avoid:
Static discharge sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Corrosive to aluminum and steel.(21) In general, water solutions of alkylamines are corrosive to copper, copper-containing alloys (brass), some aluminum alloys, zinc, zinc alloys, and galvanized surfaces.(34)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Methylamine solutions are expected to attack polyvinylidene fluoride, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), polyimide, polyurethane, high density polyethylene, polyacetal homopolymer, and thermoset polyester plastics. Solutions are basic and therefore will etch glass. Methylamine solutions are not expected to attack Teflon, most other fluorinated plastics, and most polyamide plastics.(35)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 360 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 0.448 mL/L (2.5-hour exposure) (24-hour observation period) (22)
LC50 (mouse): 1322 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1890 ppm (2-hour exposure) (11,20-unconfirmed)
LC50 (rat): approximately 2500 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 5000 ppm (estimated 1-hour LC50) (11, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 100-200 mg/kg (10% or 40% solution) (3, unconfirmed)
The above LD50 value is cited in a secondary source, but cannot be located in the original document. Therefore, it should not be considered valid.

Eye Irritation:

Methylamine solutions are expected to be corrosive to the eyes, based on their corrosivity to skin and limited animal information.

A drop of a 5% water solution caused severe damage (bleeding, superficial corneal opacities and fluid accumulation) to animal eyes (species not specified).(12, unconfirmed) A secondary source reports that a 40% solution caused corneal damage in rabbit eyes.(3, unconfirmed) However, this information cannot be located in the original document.

Skin Irritation:

Methylamine solutions are corrosive to the skin.

Methylamine gas was liquefied by immersing steel tubing connected to a cylinder of methylamine in a cooling bath of acetone and dry ice. Liquefied methylamine was obtained from the end of the tubing and 2-3 drops were allowed to fall on the skin of 3 guinea pigs. Two control animals were exposed to a similar volume of the acetone-dry bath. On contact with the skin, the methylamine rapidly vapourized leaving no surface residue. Within a few minutes, the skin turned purple and became swollen. At 48 hours, the test skin showed necrosis (tissue death). At 12 days, healing had occurred, but the tissue lacked hair follicles. Control animals only showed slight redness for a few minutes and at 48 hours the skin was normal.(23) Tissue death has also been observed in rats exposed to airborne methylamine.(22) Application of 0.1 mL of a 40% solution caused destruction of rabbit skin (necrosis).(3, unconfirmed) This information is cited in a secondary source, but cannot be confirmed in the original document.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Methylamine is very toxic and severely irritating to the respiratory tract, if inhaled. Pulmonary edema and deaths have been observed.

Inhalation:
Male mice exposed to 85-192 ppm methylamine for 15 minutes experienced a 50% reduction in respiratory rate (RD50) at 141 ppm. Changes in respiratory rate were noted within 30 seconds to 1 minute, and recovery took about 1 minute.(16) Exposure to the RD50 is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat (sensory irritation) in humans. Female rats were exposed for 2.5 hours to 450 ppm (cited as 0.448 mL/L) methylamine released from a 40% solution. Symptoms included laboured breathing, shortness of breath, tearing and excitement. Tissue death (necrosis) was observed on the facial skin. Autopsy showed bleeding lungs. (22) Male rats were exposed to 465 ppm (cited as 19 micromoles/L) of methylamine for 30 minutes. While there were no resulting deaths and the rats appeared to be normal, internal examination revealed evidence of interstitial pneumonia (the chest cavity was filled with a blood clot and fluid comprising blood and serum).(27) Male rats were exposed (nose-only) to 75, 250 and 750 ppm methylamine gas for 2 weeks (6 hrs/d; 5 d/wk). At 750 ppm, signs of severe irritation including lung noise, laboured breathing, gasping, dry red discharges from the nose and eyes, and facial hair loss were observed. In this group, 4/10 rats died on the 8th or 10th day of exposure. During the 14-day recovery period, one additional rat in the 750 ppm group died. This group also showed signs of liver damage and changes in the blood forming (hematopoietic) system. Red nasal discharge was seen in all groups. At 75 ppm, mild irritation of the lining of the nose and at 250 ppm, more severe irritant effects, including ulceration in the nasal passages, was observed. (24) Exposure to 1500, 3000, 6000, 12000 and 24000 ppm for 1 hour caused death in 0/10, 2/10, 6/10, 10/10 and 10/10 rats, respectively. Examination of the dying rats showed congestion of the lungs, liver and mucous membranes of the upper respiratory system (11, unconfirmed)

Ingestion:
Five female rats were fed 3 daily doses of 200 mg/kg of methylamine for 4 days. All 5 rats died within 5 days. Autopsy showed that 1/5 had developed an ulcer of the upper small intestine (duodenal ulcer).(30) This study is limited by the fact that only one dose of methylamine was used.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
In a limited study, rats were exposed to 465 ppm (cited as 19 micromoles/L) of methylamine for 0.5 hrs/d for 1, 4 and 10 weeks. After one week of exposure, the lungs were pale in colour and were filled with clear fluid. Fluid accumulation was not observed at any other time (single 4-hr exposure, 4 weeks or 10 weeks). After 4 weeks, a moderate to severe irritation of the lung (interstitial pneumonitis), without fluid accumulation was observed. Severe interstitial pneumonitis that extended into the areas around the bronchus and surrounding blood vessels was observed after 10 weeks of exposure.(28) This study is limited by the small number of animals (4/group) and the fact that the animals were only exposed to one concentration of methylamine.

Carcinogenicity:
No studies with exposure to methylamine alone were located. Due to the known carcinogenic potential of nitrosamines, the in vivo conversion of amines, like methylamine, to nitrosamines is of interest. In one study, rats were force-fed solutions of radioactive methylamine hydrochloride and sodium nitrite. Chemical analysis of the rats' stomachs and small intestines showed that an interaction between methylamine and nitrite had occurred, resulting in DNA damage.(29) However, the extent of this conversion and its relevance to human cancer has not been determined. The authors of this study believe the risk to be negligible.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to draw conclusions on the potential mutagenicity of methylamine. No in vivo studies were located. Positive results were obtained in a test using cultured mammalian cells. Negative results were obtained in bacteria.
Positive results (forward mutations) were observed in cultured mouse lymphoma cells, without metabolic activation. Responses were seen at high concentrations (3-4 mM), in the absence of cytotoxicity.(26) Negative results were obtained in 4 strains of Salmonella typhimurium, in the presence and absence of metabolic activation.(25)

Toxicological Synergisms:
In the absence of metabolic activation, methylamine combined with nitrite was mutagenic in E. Coli.(31) Statistical analysis of the results was not presented. DNA damage was observed in rats orally exposed to methylamine and sodium nitrite.(29)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Methylamine. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 7th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), 2001
(2) Methylamine. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npg.html>
(3) Cavender, F.L. Aliphatic and Alicyclic Amines. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 4. John Wiley & Sons, 2001. p. 683-709, 805-815
(4) CEFIC Guidelines for the distribution of methylamines. CEFIC. European Chemical Industry Council. Methylamines and Derivatives Sector Group. June 1999. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cefic.be/sector/methylguid.pdf>
(5) August, B., et al. Methylamines. In: Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co, 2002. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html>
(6) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; 491 (Amines)
(7) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 82nd ed. CRC Press, 2001. p. 3-205 (methanamine)
(8) Handbook of compressed gases. Compressed Gas Association. 4th ed. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999. p. 498-508
(9) Yaws, C.L. Matheson gas data book. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill, 2001. p. 572-577, 879 (Appendix 5)
(10) Methylamine. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 1076
(11) Monomethylamine. Emergency Response Planning Guideline. American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA), 1989
(12) Grant, M.W., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 103-104, 963
(13) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(14) Health-based recommended occupational exposure limits for ethylamine. Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards, 1990
(15) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(16) Gagnaire, F., et al. Nasal irritation and pulmonary toxicity of aliphatic amines in mice. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 5 (1989). p. 301-304
(17) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 22, 66
(19) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(20) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Methylamine. Last updated: 2002-10. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available from World Wide Web: <http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html>
(21) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 206-217
(22) Sarkar, S.N., et al. Studies on the acute inhalation toxicity of methylamine vapours in rats. Journal of Environmental Biology. Vol. 13, no. 4 (1992). p. 273-276
(23) Goffman, T., et al. Cutaneous toxicity of liquified methylamine gas. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 6 (Jan. 1980). p. 140-141
(24) Kinney, L.A., et al. Inhalation toxicology of methylamine. Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 2 (1990). p. 29-39
(25) Mortelmans, K. et al. Salmonella mutagenicity tests: II. Results from the testing of 270 chemicals. Environmental Mutagenesis. Vol. 8, suppl. 7 (1986). p. 1-119
(26) Caspary, W.J. et al. Mutagenicity of methylisocyanate and its reaction products to cultured mammalian cells. Mutation Research. Vol. 174, no. 4 (Aug. 1986). p. 285-293
(27) Jeevaratnam, K. et al. Comparative toxicity of methyl isocyanate and its hydrolytic derivatives in rats. I. Pulmonary histopathology in the acute phase. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 69, no. 1 (1994). p. 39-44
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-11-03

Revision Indicators:
Appearance/odour 2005-04-18
Hazardous polymerization 2005-04-18
Hazardous decomposition products 2005-04-18



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