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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 6
CCOHS Chemical Name: Methyl isobutyl ketone

Synonyms:
Hexanone
Hexone
Isobutyl methyl ketone
Isopropylacetone
4-Methyl-2-oxopentane
2-Methyl-4-pentanone
4-Methyl-2-pentanone
2-Methylpropyl methyl ketone
MIBK
Methyl isobutyl cetone

Chemical Name French: Méthyl isobutyl cétone
Chemical Name Spanish: Metilisobutilcetona
CAS Registry Number: 108-10-1
UN/NA Number(s): 1245
RTECS Number(s): SA9275000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-550-1
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic ketone / alkanone
Molecular Formula: C6-H12-O
Structural Formula: CH3-CO-CH2-CH-(CH3)2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, camphor-like odour.(2,18)

Odour Threshold:
Range of values reported: 0.10-7.8 ppm (detection) (27); 0.27-16 ppm (recognition) (27).

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - Range of odour thresholds with high value, 16 ppm, about one third the TLV (50 ppm).

Composition/Purity:
Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is commercially available in a technical grade of 98.5% purity and laboratory grades of 99+% purity. It may contain the following main impurities: dimethyl heptane, methyl isobutyl carbinol, mesityl oxide and water.(2)

Uses and Occurrences:
MIBK is used principally as a solvent for protective coatings, such as cellulose-based (e.g nitrocellulose), resin-based (e.g. acrylic, alkyd, and vinyl) coating systems, polyurethane and other lacquers, and varnishes. It is also used as a raw material in the production of antioxidants; as an extraction solvent for metals, uranium from fission products, and pharmaceuticals; in the production of specialty surfactants for inks, paints and pesticide formulations; as a solvent for adhesives and wax/oil separations and cleaners; in the manufacture of methyl isobutyl carbinol; and as a denaturing agent for ethyl alcohol. It is a synthetic flavouring adjuvant. MIBK occurs naturally in food.(2,28,29)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a sweet, camphor-like odour. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. May be harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Irritating to the respiratory tract. Mild central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion and incoordination. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Exposure to methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) has produced irritation of the upper respiratory tract, as well as signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression, such as fatigue, headache and nausea at high concentrations. One group of workers exposed to 100 ppm MIBK reported headache and nausea, while another group reported only respiratory tract irritation. Tolerance seemed to develop during the work week but was lost on the weekend.(2,6) Volunteers exposed to over 200 ppm for 15 minutes experienced nose and throat irritation.(22) Fifty percent of unconditioned volunteers exposed for 5 minutes reported nasal irritation at 400 ppm.(6)
Volunteers exposed to approximately 2.5 or 50 ppm for 2 hours, with light exercise during the first 1.5 hours, experienced fatigue and irritation of the airways.(7) Irritation of the nose and throat, headache and nausea were reported in volunteers exposed to approximately 2.5, 25, or 50 ppm for 2 hours, with light exercise.(25) A large number of volunteers exposed to 100 ppm for 4 hours showed no effects in 5 psychomotor tests. However, 20-30% reported sensory and irritant effects (headache, throat irritation, nausea, tearing).(26)

Skin Contact:
MIBK is a mild skin irritant based on animal evidence. There is no human information available.

Eye Contact:
Liquid MIBK is a mild eye irritant based on animal evidence. There is no human information available for liquid MIBK.
The vapour is irritating at relatively low concentrations. The majority of volunteers exposed to MIBK vapours for 15 minutes experienced eye irritation at 200 ppm.(22) In another study, eye irritation was also reported by 50% of volunteers exposed for 5 minutes to 200-400 ppm.(6)

Ingestion:
No reports of acute human oral exposure were located. If ingested, MIBK can probably cause CNS depression with symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea and vomiting. Studies with rats indicate that MIBK can be aspirated (inhaled) into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting.(8) Aspiration of even a small amount of liquid could result in severe lung irritation, significant life threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (edema), respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and death may result.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Animal evidence suggests that repeated or prolonged contact with MIBK can cause dermatitis (red, dry, itchy skin). Nineteen workers were exposed chronically (duration not specified) by inhalation to 80-500 ppm for 20-30 minutes per 8-hour shift and by skin contact to MIBK, as well as other chemicals. There was a 15.8% incidence of dermal lesions on hands and forearms. Irritation (burning of the eyes, sore throat), gastrointestinal disturbances (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, intestinal pain) and nervous system disturbances (weakness, headache, drowsiness, insomnia) were also reported. A follow-up of 14 workers showed a marked reduction of symptoms when MIBK exposures were reduced to 50-100 ppm.(23,24) It is not possible to state with certainty that MIBK caused the observed effects due to the concurrent exposures.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. One animal study showed that MIBK was not teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic at exposures which did not cause maternal toxicity.(20)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. One unverifiable animal study showed changes in the testis in mice exposed dermally for 4 months.(2)

Mutagenicity:
There are no human mutagenicity studies available. The majority of animal (in vivo and in vitro) and bacterial studies have been negative.(2,6,21)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
In studies with mice, MIBK prolonged the loss of righting reflex induced by ethanol.(19) In animal studies, MIBK has been shown to potentiate the hepatotoxicity of haloalkanes, such as chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and 1,2-dichlorobenzene.(6) Combined exposure to methyl ethyl ketone and MIBK caused increased behavioural responses in baboons.(12)

Potential for Accumulation:
MIBK does not accumulate in the body. It can be absorbed by the inhalation, dermal and oral routes of exposure. MIBK has been detected in various tissues and body fluids of individuals exposed to MIBK, with high levels found in the blood. The relatively high clearance of MIBK from the blood suggests that it is probably rapidly metabolized. In studies with guinea pigs and rats, MIBK was oxidized to a major metabolite, 4-hydroxy-4- methyl-2-pentanone and reduced to a minor one, 4-methyl-2-pentanol. These 2 metabolites may enter the intermediary metabolism and may be eliminated as carbon dioxide or are incorporated into tissues. Small amounts of MIBK are probably excreted unchanged in the exhaled air, with even smaller amounts excreted in the urine.(2,25)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This product is flammable. Take proper precautions (e.g. remove any sources of ignition). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
No health effects expected. If irritation does occur, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until chemical is removed.

Eye Contact:
If irritation occurs, flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except under minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
13 deg C (56 deg F) (closed cup) (30); 18 deg C (64 deg F) (closed cup) (18)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.2% at 93 deg C (30)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
8% at 93 deg C (30)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
448 deg C (840 deg F) (18); 460 deg C (860 deg F) (2)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Insufficient information. Probably not sensitive, since it is a stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Insufficient information. Probably does not build up electrostatic charge (specific electrical conductivity is 5.2 x 10(6) pS/m) (10)) Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) vapours in the flammable range may be ignited by a static discharge.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 13 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion or toxicity hazard. Containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam. Water may be ineffective because it will not cool MIBK below its flash point.(30)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Because of the low flash point, water may be ineffective for fighting fires involving MIBK. However, water can be applied as a fine spray to absorb the heat of the fire and to cool exposed containers and materials, and is capable of extinguishing the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.(18)
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. Isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Keep fire-exposed tanks or containers cool by spraying with water to minimize the risk of rupture.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Firefighter's may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 100.16

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.09 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.245 ppm at 25 deg C (calc.)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -80 deg C (-112 deg F) (28,30); -85 deg C (-121 deg F) (18)
Boiling Point: 116.2 deg C (241.2 deg F) (2,28); 117-118 deg C (242.6-244.4 deg F) (30)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.8017 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (2,31)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (1.6-2.0 g/100 mL at 20 deg C) (2,28,29)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in ethanol, acetone, diethyl ether, benzene and chloroform (29)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.38 (2)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Vapour Density: 3.45 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.8 kPa (6 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (31); 1.99 kPa (14.9 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (2)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approx. 7900 ppm (0.79%) @ 20 deg C (calc.); approx. 19,610 ppm (1.96%) @ 20 deg C (calc.)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: 298.3 deg C (568.9 deg F) (29)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 0.61 mPa.s (0.61 centipoises) at 20 deg C (28)
SURFACE TENSION: 23.6 mN/m (23.6 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (28)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 3273 kPa (32.3 atm) (29)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. May form explosive peroxides when heated in air.(2,18,32)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitrates, perchlorates),
REDUCING AGENTS, STRONG BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react violently; increased risk of fire and explosion.(2,18,30)
POTASSIUM t-BUTOXIDE - violent reaction; contact with vapours of MIBK can ignite after 3 minute.(32)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Explosive peroxides such as methyl isobutyl peroxide

Conditions to Avoid:
Flames, sparks, electrostatic discharge, heat and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Insufficient information. Probably not corrosive to common metals.(33)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Can attack many plastics.(10)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 2000 - 4000 ppm (4-hour exposure) (1)

LD50 (oral, rat): 2,080 mg/kg (1)
LD50 (oral, male mouse): 1,200 mg/kg; cited as 1.5 mL/kg (3)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 3000 mg/kg (9)

Eye Irritation:

Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is a mild eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted MIBK caused mild irritation in rabbits (corneal opacity: 0.1/4; iris injury: 0.25/2; redness: 0.8/4 and chemosis: 0.17/4; Modified Maximum Average Score: 4.8/110).(41) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted MIBK caused mild irritation in rabbits (scored 5/110).(17) In a study designed to evaluate the consistency of results between different laboratories, application of 0.1 mL undiluted MIBK to rabbits was scored as a mild irritant (0-15/110) by 21 laboratories; a slight irritant (16-25/110) by two laboratories and a moderate irritant (26-50/110) by one laboratory.(16) Application of 0.02 mL of undiluted MIBK caused severe injury in rabbits (graded 5/10; scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury).(1) The results of this study are inconsistent with all other studies located.

Skin Irritation:

MIBK is a mild skin irritant.

In a study which compared procedures in different laboratories, skin irritation was evaluated by application of 0.5 mL to shaved skin. MIBK was determined to be non-irritating in rabbits by 13 laboratories, of questionable irritancy by 3 laboratories and irritating by 0 laboratories. Therefore, no laboratories would label MIBK as a skin irritant.(16) Application of 0.01 mL of undiluted MIBK produced mild irritation in rabbits (graded 2/10).(1) Undiluted MIBK applied to rabbit skin for 10 hours produced moderate erythema which persisted for 24 hours.(3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Exposure to very high concentrations can produce irritation of the upper respiratory passages with depression of the central nervous system (CNS).(3,5) Mice were exposed to up to 24500 ppm (cited as 43 to 100 mg/L) for 25 minutes to 6 hours. Exposure to saturated vapours produced intense excitement and rapid, shallow respiration after 3 minutes. In 30 minutes, most of the mice were unconscious. If exposure continued, the mice usually died.(3) Guinea pigs exposed to 1000, 16800 and 28000 ppm for up to 24 hours showed irritation of the upper respiratory passages and CNS depression. Even at the lowest concentration, the vapour was very irritating and there was a drop in the respiratory rate. Five of ten guinea pigs died within 2 hours after exposure to 16800 ppm.(5) The concentration of MIBK which reduced the respiratory rate of mice by 50% (the RD50) was 3195 ppm. The RD50 is an indicator of sensory irritation (burning and painful irritation of the eyes and nose).(11) Behavioural changes have been reported in rats after 6-hour exposures to 25 ppm, in baboons exposed to 50 ppm for 1 week, and in mice exposed to 662, 757, 807 or 892 ppm MIBK for 4 hours.(11,12,13) These observations may indicate early signs of CNS depression. There was a slight increase in liver weight in male rats at 2000 ppm, when rats and mice were exposed for 2 weeks (6 hours/day) to 100, 500 or 2000 ppm MIBK. At 500 and 2000 ppm, there were also reversible microscopic changes in the kidneys of male rats.(14) Continuous exposure of 8 dogs, 4 monkeys, 40 mice and 50 rats to 410 or 820 mg/m3 (100 or 200 ppm) MIBK for two weeks produced no signs of toxicity in dogs, monkeys or mice. The kidneys and livers of rats were significantly heavier at 200 ppm, but only the kidneys were affected at 100 ppm.(9)

Skin Contact:
MIBK can be absorbed through the skin but harmful effects have not been documented, suggesting low toxicity by this route. Undiluted MIBK applied to rabbit skin for 10 hours produced no systemic effects during a 10-day observation period.(3)

Ingestion:
Studies with rats indicate that ingested MIBK is easily aspirated into the lungs resulting in instant mortality.(8)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats and mice were exposed to 50, 250 and 1000 ppm (6 hours/day, 5 days/week) for 14 weeks. There were no serious or life-threatening toxic effects observed. Increased liver weights were observed in mice and male rats at 1000 ppm but there were no indications of liver damage. There was some evidence of a slight, reversible kidney effect in male rats at 1000 and 250 ppm. No effects were observed at 50 ppm. This kidney effect may be specific to the male rat and is not relevant to human exposures.(14) MIBK was not considered to be neurotoxic when male rats were exposed to 1500 ppm MIBK (contaminated with 3% methyl n-butyl ketone) for up to 5 months (6 hours/day, 5 days/week).(15)

Skin Contact:
Seven applications of undiluted MIBK to rabbit skin over a 21-day period produced drying of the skin but no systemic effects.(3) Rats exposed dermally to 300-600 mg/kg/day for 4 months developed dose and time dependent changes in the skin, brain, liver, adrenals, spleen and testis.(2) A translation of this study is not available, therefore details cannot be confirmed.

Ingestion:
Kidney effects and increased kidney and liver weights were seen at the high dose in rats exposed to 50, 250 or 1000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks. Similar effects, but to a lesser extent, were seen at 250 mg/kg/day.(2)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
MIBK was not teratogenic, embryotoxic or fetotoxic following exposures that did not produce maternal toxicity. Rats and mice were exposed to 300, 1000 or 3000 ppm MIBK on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Exposures to 3000 ppm produced maternal and fetal toxicity, but no teratogenicity. There was no maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity at 300 or 1000 ppm. Findings of fetotoxicity at 300 ppm were complicated by abnormal litter sizes and were determined not to be treatment related.(20)

Mutagenicity:
Most mutagenicity tests have produced negative results.
MIBK produced negative results in the micronucleus cytogenic assay in mice in vivo.(2,6,21)
MIBK was not mutagenic in vitro using the Chinese hamster ovary chromosome assay, the mouse lymphoma assay, with metabolic activation, the mouse embryo cell transformation assay, with metabolic activation, the rat liver chromosome assay or unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes. It produced inconclusive results in the mouse lymphoma assay at high concentrations, without metabolic activation. It produced positive results in the mouse embryo cell transformation assay, without metabolic activation but this could not be confirmed in a repeat assay. MIBK has produced negative results in several short-term bacterial assays on Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, both with and without metabolic activation.(2,6,21)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, H.F., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list IV. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 4 (1951). p. 119-122
(2) Methyl Isobutyl Ketone. Environmental Health Criteria 117. International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS). World Health Organization, Geneva, 1990.
(3) McOmie, W.A., et al. Comparative toxicological effects of some isobutyl carbinols and ketones. University of California Publications in Pharmacology. Vol. 2 (1949). p. 217-230
(4) Zakhari, S., et al. Acute oral, intraperitoneal and inhalational toxicity of methyl isobutyl ketone in the mouse. In: Isopropanol and Ketones in the Environment. Edited by L. Goldberg. CRC Press, 1977. p. 101-104
(5) Specht, H. Acute response of guinea pigs to inhalation of methyl isobutyl ketone. Public Health Reports. Vol. 53 (February 25, 1938). p. 292-300
(6) Topping, D.C. et al. Ketones. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. 4th edition. Toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Volume II, Part C. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1749-1750, 1787-1795
(7) Iregren, A., et al. Human experimental MIBK exposure: effects on heart rate, performance and symptoms. Environmental Research. Vol. 63 (1993). p.101-108
(8) Panson, R.D., et al. Aspiration toxicity of ketones. Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 17, no. 2 (1980). p. 272-317
(9) Toxicology information profile of MIBK & cover letter. EPA/OTS; Doc. #88-920000881. TSCATS/422380, NTIS/OTS 053 5383. January, 1992.
(10) Chemical safety sheets; working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 605, 941, 942
(11) De Ceaurriz, J., et al. Quantitative evaluation of sensory irritating and neurobehavioural properties of aliphatic ketones in mice. Food Chemistry Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 7 (1984). p. 545-549
(12) Geller, I. et al. Effects of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone on a match-to-sample task in the baboon. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. Vol. 11 (1979). p. 401-406
(13) Geller, I., et al. Effects of ketones on operant behaviour of laboratory animals. In: Voluntary Inhalation of Industrial Solvents. Edited by C.W. Sharp, et al. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1978. p. 363
(14) Phillips, R.D., et al. A 14-week vapor inhalation toxicity study of methyl isobutyl ketone. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 3 (Oct. 1987). p. 380-388
(15) Spencer, P.S., et al. Nervous system degeneration produced by the industrial solvent methyl n-butyl ketone. Archives of Neurology. Vol. 32 (Apr. 1975). p. 219-222
(16) Weil, C.S., et al. Study of intra-and interlaboratory variability in the results of rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 19, no. 2 (June 1971). p. 276-360
(17) Kennah II, H.E., et al. An objective procedure for quantitating eye irritation based upon changes of corneal thickness. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 12, no. 2 (Feb. 1989). p. 258-268
(18) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49
(19) Cunningham, J., et al. Pharmacological and metabolic interactions between ethanol and methyl n-butyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone, or acetone in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 1 (July 1989). p. 102-109
(20) Tyl, R.W., et al. Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled methyl isobutyl ketone in Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 8, no.3 (Apr. 1987). p. 310-327
(21) O'Donoghue, J.L., et al. Mutagenicity studies on ketone solvents: methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and isophorone. Mutation Research. Vol. 206 (1988). p.149-161
(22) Silverman, L., et al. Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 28, no. 4 (Nov. 1946). p. 262-266
(23) Linari, F., et al. Clinical observations and blood chemistry tests among workers exposed to the effect of a complex ketone: methyl-isobutyl ketone. (Translation) Archivio per le Scienze Mediche. (1964). p. 226-237
(24) Armeli, G., et al. Clinical and hematochemical examinations in workers exposed to the action of a ketone (MIBK) repeated after five years. (Translation) Lavoro Umano. Vol. 20, no. 9 (1968). p.418-424
(25) Hjelm, E.W., et al. Exposure to methyl isobutyl ketone: toxicokinetics and occurrence of irritative and CNS symptoms in man. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 62, no. 1 (1990). p.19-26
(26) Dick, R.B, et al. Neurobehavioral effects from acute exposures to methyl isobutyl ketone and methyl ethyl ketone. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 19, no. 3 (Oct. 1992). p.453-473
(27) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 24, 68
(28) Braithwaite, J. Ketones. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th Ed. Vol. 14. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. p. 978-1021
(29) HSDB record for methyl isobutyl ketone. Last revision date: 95/01/23
(30) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Vol. 2. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 2405C
(31) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 2nd Ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983. p. 856-858
(32) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th Ed. Butterworths, 1990. p. 474-475, 653, 1747-1750
(33) Corrosion data survey. Metals section. 6th Ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 82-83
(34) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 164- 165
(35) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(40) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. Dec. 15, 1998
(41) ECETOC. Eye irritation: Reference chemicals data bank (second edition). Technical Report No. 48(2). ECETOC, June 1998. p. 149-150
(42) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2-Butanone (MEK), Hexone (MIBK). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(43) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Ketones I. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1995-11-06

Revision Indicators:
HANDLING AND STORAGE 1995-09-01
Sampling 1995-09-01
TLV comments 1995-11-01
US transport 1998-03-01
Resistance of materials 1998-06-01
EU Number 2000-04-01
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
Bibliography 2002-12-05
Toxicological info 2002-12-05
Short-term eye contact 2002-12-05
Carcinogenicity 2002-12-05
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-12-05
WHMIS proposed classification 2002-12-05
WHMIS health effects 2002-12-05
First aid eye 2002-12-05
Emergency overview 2002-12-05
Eye/face protection 2002-12-06
Skin protection 2002-12-06
Handling 2002-12-06
Storage 2002-12-06
Bibliography 2003-04-15
NFPA (health) 2003-04-15
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-04-15
PEL-TWA transitional 2003-11-11
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-11
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-11
PEL-STEL final 2003-11-11
PEL final comments 2003-11-11
TLV basis 2004-01-03
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-31
Bibliography 2005-03-16
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-16
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-16



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