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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 519
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Methoxyethanol

Synonyms:
EGME
Ethylene glycol methyl ether
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether
Glycol monomethyl ether
2-ME
beta-Methoxyethanol
Methoxyhydroxyethane
Methyl cellosolve
Methyl glycol
Methoxyethanol (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Éther monométhylique de l'éthylène glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Eter monometílico de etilenglicol

Trade Name(s):
Dowanol EM
Methyl Oxitol
Methyl Cellosolve

CAS Registry Number: 109-86-4
UN/NA Number(s): 1188
RTECS Number(s): KL5775000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-713-7
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy ethanol / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / ethylene glycol monoether
Molecular Formula: C3-H8-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-O-CH2-CH2-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid; mild ethereal odour.(11)

Odour Threshold:
0.096 ppm - 61 ppm (detection) (geometric mean odour threshold: 2.4 ppm); 0.22 ppm - 90 ppm (recognition) (geometric mean odour threshold: 4.4 ppm) (16)

Warning Properties:
POOR - odour threshold values vary significantly.

Composition/Purity:
Commercially available at a purity of 99% or greater. May contain inhibitors/stabilizers, such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (50 ppm) and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol. Uninhibited 2-methoxyethanol may contain up to 50 ppm peroxide.

Uses and Occurrences:
Solvent for nitrocellulose, cellulose acetate, natural and synthetic resins, coatings, lacquers, quick-drying varnishes and enamels, inks, nail polishes, wood stains and alcohol-soluble dyes; jet fuel deicing additive; sealing moisture-proof cellophane; fixing agent in perfume; dyeing leather; chemical intermediate; used in semiconductor and microfilm industries; manufacture of photographic film; constituent of painting plasters, cleaning compounds, liquid soaps, cosmetics, and hydraulic fluids.(11)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a mild ethereal odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flashback are possible. Can form explosive peroxides upon standing or upon exposure to air or direct sunlight. TOXIC. Harmful if inhaled or ingested. Central nervous system depressant. May cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. High vapour concentrations could cause unconsciousness and death. SUSPECT REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may cause fetotoxic and teratogenic effects; may have serious adverse effects on the male reproductive system.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
2-Methoxyethanol vapour can probably cause central nervous system (CNS) depression, based on animal evidence and comparison to related chemicals. Typical symptoms of CNS depression include headache, nausea, dizziness, incoordination. High exposures could cause unconsciousness and death.

Skin Contact:
2-Methoxyethanol is probably not irritating to the skin, based on animal information.
2-Methoxyethanol vapour and liquid are absorbed through the skin.(49) However, significant harmful effects are not expected following short-term skin contact, based on an animal toxicity value.

Eye Contact:
2-Methoxyethanol is probably not irritating to the eyes, based on animal information. One human case report does not provide enough details for evaluation.(8)
The vapour may be irritating based on one report of workers experiencing a burning sensation of the eyes following unspecified vapour exposure.(6)

Ingestion:
2-Methoxyethanol may be toxic if ingested, based on limited human information. Ingestion of 100 mL caused central nervous system effects (confusion, agitation, disorientation, muscle weakness and nausea), increased heart rate, deep breathing, cyanosis (blue tint to skin), metabolic acidosis and indications of kidney failure. Recovery occurred within 4 weeks.(1) Another case report describes a man who died after ingesting 400 mL of 2-methoxyethanol, mixed with brandy. Liver and kidney damage were observed.(43) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Nervous System:
Central nervous system effects (headache, drowsiness, lethargy, incoordination, general weakness, irregular pupils, personality changes and loss of appetite) and blood changes, including decreased number of red blood cells (anemia) and decreased number of white blood cells (leukopenia) were observed in workers exposed repeatedly to significant concentrations of 2-methoxyethanol.(1,3,6)

Two workers using 2-methoxyethanol as a cleaning agent over several months, without gloves, experienced central nervous system effects. Exposure was thought to occur primarily through the skin as vapour concentrations averaged only 8 ppm.(5)

Blood/Blood Forming System:
Blood changes were not seen in workers exposed to average vapour concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 8.5 ppm over a number of years.(1,9) A worker exposed to approximately 35 ppm 2-methoxyethanol, 40 hours/week for 1 1/2 years developed anemia followed by recovery after exposure stopped.(7)

Two workers using 2-methoxyethanol as a cleaning agent over several months, without gloves, experienced anemia and bone marrow damage. Exposure was thought to occur primarily through the skin as vapour concentrations averaged only 8 ppm.(5)

Immune System:
Three workers exposed primarily by skin contact to 2-methoxyethanol and acetone showed immune system effects, including low white blood cell counts and an increase in lymphocytes during exposure. The workers did not notice any symptoms and levels returned to normal after exposure stopped.(36)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Numerous animal studies have shown that 2-ME can cause toxic effects, death and serious malformations in the fetus at doses which are not maternally toxic or cause minimal maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
2-ME has had serious adverse effects (abnormal sperm and decreased fertility) on the male reproductive system in animal studies. Human population studies have not conclusively proven that 2-ME causes reproductive effects in man, but their results are compatible with animal information. Observed effects have included and increased incidence of oligospermia (low sperm numbers) and azoospermia (absence of sperm).(1,9,39) These studies are limited because of factors such as small study population size, exposure to many other chemicals at the same time, lack of detailed exposure information and lack of data to support a dose-response relationship.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. It is not possible to conclude that 2-ME is mutagenic based on animal information. 2-ME has produced positive results in the mouse sperm abnormality test following inhalation exposure to 500 ppm for 5 days. This effect was probably due to testicular toxicity, rather than mutagenicity. Inconclusive results were obtained in 2 other studies using live animals (male rat, inhalation). 2-ME was not mutagenic in cultured mammalian cells, bacteria or yeast.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate. 2-ME was exhaled as carbon dioxide (6%) and excreted in the urine (83-98%) within 48 hours in an animal study.(37) 2-Methoxyacetic acid, a product of 2-ME metabolism, has been shown to play a significant role in causing toxic effects attributed to 2-ME.(10,21,38)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR), or if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately (avoid mouth-to-mouth contact). Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently running water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g., watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately (avoid mouth-to-mouth contact). Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
39 deg C (102.2 deg F) (closed cup) (15); 41.7 deg C (107 deg F) (closed cup) (5)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.8% at STP (Standard temperature and pressure i.e. 0 deg C and 1 atmosphere).(15)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
14% at STP (15)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
285 deg C (545 deg F) (15)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available. Probably will not accumulate static discharge. The electrical conductivity of glycol ethers is high.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 39 deg C. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container if the air temperature exceeds the flash point. 2- Methoxyethanol (2-ME) can form heat sensitive peroxides which could explode in a fire. The rate and extent of this reaction for 2-ME is not known. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a flammability and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical, alcohol foam, polymer foam, carbon dioxide, or water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
2-ME is hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 76.09

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.11 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.322 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -85 deg C (-121 deg F) (12,17)
Boiling Point: 124 deg C (255 deg F) (12)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.9647 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (11,12)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(11,17)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in alcohols, ketones, glycols and most hydrocarbons.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -77 (11)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Vapour Density: 2.62 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 0.827 kPa (6.2 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (12); 1.29 kPa (9.7 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (10)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 8160 ppm (0.82%) at 20 deg C; 13000 ppm (1.3%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.53 (butyl acetate = 1); 34 (diethyl ether = 1) (44)
Critical Temperature: 292 deg C (558 deg F) (11)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1.7 mPa.s (1.7 centipoises) (17); 1.98 mPa.s (1.98 centipoises) (44) at 20 deg C
SURFACE TENSION: 33 mN/m (33 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C.(11)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


AIR AND LIGHT - Can react with air to form explosive peroxides. The rate and extent of this reaction is not known.(13,15)
OXIDIZING MATERIALS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) - increased risk of fire; may form peroxides which can be explosive.(11)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g sulfuric acid) or BASES or STRONG CAUSTICS (e.g. potassium hydroxide) - reaction may be vigorous or violent. Risk of fire.
ACID CHLORIDES, ACID ANHYDRIDES - formation of ester compounds.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Peroxides, acetaldehyde, methanol (6,13)

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 39 deg C, heat, open flames, static charge, sparks and other ignition sources, sunlight.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No specific information is available. The closely related chemical, 2-ethoxyethanol, is corrosive to aluminum, zinc and galvanized metals and not corrosive to cast iron, steel, stainless steel, copper, nickel and its alloys.(45)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
2-ME will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings.(11)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
2-Methoxyethanol (2-ME) and some other glycol ethers can form explosive peroxides during prolonged storage in contact with air. Formation of peroxides will occur more readily in sunlight. The rate and extent of peroxide formation from 2-ME is not known, but the peroxides are unlikely to be hazardous unless they are concentrated during distillation or allowed to evaporate to dryness.(13)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (mouse): 1960 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1480 ppm (7-hour exposure) (50)

LD50 (oral, rat): 2460 mg/kg (19); 3250 mg/kg (18)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): 950 mg/kg (18,19)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 890 mg/kg (18)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 1300 mg/kg (cited as 1.34 mL/kg) (24-hour contact) (18)

Eye Irritation:

Undiluted 2-methoxyethanol has produced mild irritation in animal studies.(1-3,10)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.5 mL undiluted 2-methoxyethanol for 4 hours was not irritating to rabbits.(3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Inhalation of 9700 ppm (approximately the saturated vapour concentration) for 1 to 3 hours caused tears, incoordination and, in some cases, kidney injury in guinea pigs, cats and rabbits. Guinea pigs died within 14 days.(14) Exposure to 2000 ppm for 7 hours caused fragility of red blood cells in female rats.(18)

Ingestion:
Ingestion of 300 mg/kg for 2 days produced significant reductions in liver, spleen, thymus and heart weights in rats.(20) Antibody response was suppressed in rats orally exposed to 2.64 mMol/kg for 2 days.(21)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Reduced numbers of red blood cells (anemia) and white blood cells (leukopenia) and adverse effects on the bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes have been observed in various species following ingestion, inhalation or dermal exposure to 2-methoxyethanol (exposure periods of 10 days to 13 weeks). These effects have been clearly seen at levels above 300 ppm (inhalation), 500 mg/kg/day (ingestion) and 1000 mg/kg/day (dermal). There is some evidence of at least partial recovery after exposure stops.(1,3,4,22-25)

Inhalation:
Inhalation of 2-methoxyethanol (400 ppm and above) has caused behavioural and neurological effects in rats in two studies.(1,27)

Skin Contact:
Male guinea pigs treated dermally with 1000 mg/kg/day for 13 weeks had significantly reduced body and spleen weights.(4)

Ingestion:
Significant dose-dependant alterations in immune responses and thymic atrophy were observed in rats following oral exposure to 1600 or 4800 ppm for 21 days. Spleen cell counts were reduced in females exposed to both doses and in high dose males.(26)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is clear evidence that 2-methoxyethanol causes embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in animals following oral, inhalation and dermal exposure to doses which have not produced or have produced minimal maternal toxicity.(1,3,10,22,28-31,40,41) Offspring of rats exposed to 25 ppm on days 7-13 of pregnancy showed behavioural changes (avoidance conditioning) when tested between 10 and 90 days after birth. Neurochemical changes were also evident in 21 day old rats.(32)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Short or long-term exposure 2-methoxyethanol has been shown to damage the testes of several species of experimental animals with inhalation, ingestion and dermal exposure. Testicular damage has led to disruption of sperm formation and decreased fertility. Effects have been seen following ingestion of doses as low as 62.5 mg/kg. The severity of effects increases with increased dose and duration of exposure.(1,4,10,20,25,29,35) In one study, male rats exposed by inhalation to 300 ppm for 13 weeks experienced reduced fertility when mated with unexposed females. Increased embryotoxicity was observed if the females became pregnant. When mating occurred 13 and 19 weeks after exposure, fertility and survival of embryos was significantly improved.(30)

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that 2-methoxyethanol is mutagenic. 2-Methoxyethanol produced positive results in the mouse sperm abnormality test following inhalation exposure to 500 ppm for 5 days. However, this effect was probably due to testicular toxicity, rather than a mutagenic effect. Negative results were obtained in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cell mutation assays. Inconclusive results were obtained in dominant lethal assays (male rat, inhalation) due to male infertility.(3,33,34,41)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Illing, H.P.A., et al. Toxicity review 10: glycol ethers. Health and Safety Executive, 1985
(2) RTECS record for ethanol, 2-methoxy-. Last updated: 9510
(3) Technical report no. 64: The toxicology of glycol ethers and its relevance to man: ECETOC technical report, ECETOC, Aug. 1995
(4) Hobson, D.W., et al. A subchronic dermal exposure study of diethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether in the male guinea pig. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 6 (1986). p. 339-348
(5) 2-Methoxyethanol. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Government Industrial and Hygienists, 1991. p. 922-924
(6) Browning, E. Toxicity and metabolism of industrial solvents. Elsevier Publishing Company, 1965. p. 604-608
(7) Cohen, R. Reversible subacute ethylene glycol monomethyl ether toxicity associated with microfilm production: a case report. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 6 (1984). p. 441-446
(8) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355- 1362
(9) Cook, R.R., et al. A cross-sectional study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether process employees. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 37, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1982). p. 346-351
(10) Gingell, R., et al. Glycol Ethers and other selected glycol derivatives. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 2761-2777
(11) HSDB record for 2-methoxyethanol. Last revision date: 96/01/18
(12) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1996. p. 973- 974
(13) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. p. 461. Vol. 2. p. 292-296. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995
(14) Toxicology and hygiene of industrial solvents. The Williams & Wilkins Company, 1943. p. 271-274
(15) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491
(16) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 22, 65
(17) Brown, E.S., et al. Glycols: ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd ed. Vol. 11. John Wiley and Sons, 1980. p. 942-946
(18) Carpenter, C.P., et al. The toxicity of butyl cellosolve solvent. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14 (1956) p. 114-131
(19) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. The single dose toxicity of some glycols and derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 6 (June 1941). p. 259-268
(20) Kawamoto, T., et al. Acute oral toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and diethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Vol. 44, no. 4 (Apr. 1990). p. 602-608
(21) Smailowicz, R.J., et al. Methoxyacetaldehyde, an intermediate metabolite of 2-methoxyethanol is immunosuppressive in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 21, no. 1 (July 1993). p. 1- 7
(22) Doe, J.E., et al. Comparative aspects of the reproductive toxicology by inhalation in rats of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 69, no. 1 (June 1983). p 43-47
(23) Grant, D., et al. Acute toxicity and recovery in the hemopoietic system of rats after treatment with ethylene glycol monomethyl and monobutyl ethers. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 77, no. 2 (Feb. 1985). p. 187-200
(24) Miller, R.R., et al. Comparative short-term inhalation toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol monomethyl ether in rats and mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 61, no. 3 (1981). p. 368-377
(25) Fairhurst, S., et al. Percutaneous toxicity of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and of dipropylene glycol monomethyl ether in the rat. Toxicology. Vol. 57, no. 2 (July 1989). p. 209-215
(26) Exon, J.H., et al. Effects of subchronic exposure of rats to 2-methoxyethanol or 2-butoxyethanol: thymic atrophy and immunotoxicity. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 16, no. 4 (May 1991). p. 830-840
(27) Savolainen, H. Glial cell toxicology of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether vapour. Environmental Research. Vol. 22, no. 2 (1980). p. 423-430
(28) Nelson, B.K., et al. Comparative inhalation teratogenicity of four glycol ether solvents and an amino derivative in rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 261-271
(29) Nagano, K., et al. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 75-84
(30) Hanley, T.R., et al. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and propylene gylcol monomethyl ether (PGME): inhalation fertility and teratogenicity studies in rats, mice and rabbits. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 7-12
(31) Toraason, M., et al. Electrocardiographic study of rat fetuses exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME). Teratology. Vol. 32 (1985). p. 33-39
(32) Nelson, B.K., et al. Behavioral and neurochemical alterations in the offspring of rats after maternal or parental inhalation exposure to the industrial solvent 2-methoxyethanol. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour. Vol. 20, no. 2 (1984). p. 269-279
(33) McGregor, D.B. Genotoxicity of glycol ethers. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 97-103
(34) McGregor, D.B., et al. Genetic effects of 2-methoxyethanol and bis(2-methoxyethyl)ether. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 70, no. 2 (Sept. 1983). p. 303-316
(35) Samuels, D.M., et al. The effects on the rat testis of single inhalation exposures to ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers, in particular ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. Archives of Toxicology. Suppl. 7 (1984). p. 167-170
(36) Larese, F., et al. The possible haematological effects of glycol monomethyl ether in a frame factory. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 49, no. 2 (Feb. 1992). p. 131-133
(37) Mebus, C.A., et al. 2-Methoxyethanol metabolism in pregnant CD-1 mice and embryos. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 112, no. 1 (Jan. 1992). p. 87-94
(38) Clarke, D.O., et al. 2-Methoxyacetic acid dosimetry: teratogenicity relationships in CD-1 mice exposed to 2-methoxyethanol. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 114, no. 1 (May 1992). p. 77-87
(39) Welch, L.S., et al. Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: II. Male reproduction. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1988). p. 509-526
(40) Hardin, B.D., et al. Relative potency of four ethylene glycol ethers for induction of paw malformations in the CD-1 mouse. Teratology. Vol. 35, no. 3 (June 1987). p. 321-328
(41) Rao, K.S., et al. Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether. II. Reproductive and dominant lethal studies in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 3, no. 2 (Mar./Apr. 1983). p. 80-85
(42) Goldberg, M.E., et al. Toxicologic implications of altered behavior induced by an industrial vapor. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 4 (1962). p. 148-164
(43) Young, E.G., et al. A case of fatal poisoning from 2-methoxy-ethanol. The Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 28, no. 6 (Nov. 1948). p. 267-268
(44) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 481, 485
(45) CHEMINFO record for 2-ethoxyethanol (record number 740). Last revision date: 96-06
(46) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(47) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 202-203
(48) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(49) Kezic, S., et al. Dermal absorption of vapours and liquid 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol in volunteers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 54 (1997). p. 38-43
(50) Werner, H.W. et al. The acute toxicity of vapours of several monoalkyl ethers of ethylene glycol. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 4 (1943). p. 157-163
(51) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2-Methoxyethanol. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(52) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2-Methoxyethanol. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(53) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Alcohols IV. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-10-15

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-03-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Mutagenicity 1999-09-01
Toxicological information 1999-09-01
Handling 1999-09-01
Stability 2002-06-24
Materials to avoid 2002-06-24
Stability/reactivity comments 2002-06-24
Corrosivity to non-metals 2002-06-24
Conditions to avoid 2002-06-24
NFPA (health) 2003-04-16
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-04-16
PEL-TWA transitional 2003-12-04
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-04
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2004-02-26
WHMIS proposed classification 2004-02-26
WHMIS classification comments 2004-02-26
WHMIS health effects 2004-02-26
Emergency overview 2004-02-26
Important New Information 2004-02-26
First aid skin 2004-02-26
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-04
Short-term skin contact 2004-04-08
Handling 2004-04-08
TLV proposed changes 2005-02-18
Bibliography 2005-03-09
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-09
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-09
TLV-TWA 2006-02-14
TLV proposed changes 2006-02-14



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