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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 76
CCOHS Chemical Name: Methylene chloride

Synonyms:
Dichloromethane
Methylene dichloride
Chlorure de méthylène

Chemical Name French: Chlorure de méthylène
CAS Registry Number: 75-09-2
UN/NA Number(s): 1593
RTECS Number(s): PA8050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-838-9
Chemical Family: Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon / saturated halogenated hydrocarbon / halogenated alkane / haloalkane / dihaloalkane / chloroalkane / dichloroalkane
Molecular Formula: C-H2-Cl2

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a penetrating ether-like odour.

Odour Threshold:
A wide range of values are reported (1.2 to 440 ppm), but detection occurs around 150 ppm and recognition around 230 ppm.

Warning Properties:
Poor/unreliable - odour threshold is above the TLV, olfactory fatigue may occur (smell may not be noticed after short exposures).

Composition/Purity:
Commercially available in high purity (99-99.99%). May contain small amount of stabilizers such as cyclohexane, propylene oxide, alcohols, phenols and amines. Commercial dichloromethane may contain impurities such as methyl chloride, chloroform,1,1- dichloroethane and trans-1,2-dichloroethane.(1)

Uses and Occurrences:
Solvent; degreasing agent; paint remover ingredient; aerosol products ingredient; blowing agent in foams; refrigerant.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a penetrating ether-like odour. Essentially non-flammable under most conditions of use, but can probably burn if strongly heated. Can decompose at high temperatures forming toxic gases, such as hydrogen chloride and phosgene. TOXIC. Mild central nervous system depressant. May cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion, unconsciousness and death. Causes skin and eye irritation. POSSIBLE CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer, based on animal information. POSSIBLE MUTAGEN - May cause genetic damage, based on animal information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Methylene chloride can cause slight irritation and mild central nervous system (CNS) depression. Slight irritation of the nose and throat were noted in one study after exposure to 500 ppm for 1 hour.(15) However, in another study, no irritation was noted following exposures to concentrations from 515 ppm (1 hour) to 986 ppm (2 hrs).

No effects were seen when volunteers were exposed to 213 ppm for 60 minutes.(17) Mild CNS effects (headache, dizziness) were seen in volunteers exposed to concentrations as low as 200 ppm for 2-3 hours (24) or 986 ppm for 1 hour.(17) Other signs of mild CNS depression such as dizziness, nausea, inability to concentrate, and reduced coordination have been reported in numerous case reports, usually when methylene chloride was used in poorly ventilated areas.(2,3,5) In more severe cases, methylene chloride has caused serious CNS depression including unconsciousness and respiratory failure as well as pulmonary edema and death.(2,3,5)

Metabolism of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide (which binds to red blood cells forming carboxyhemoglobin) may cause heart problems.(2,31) See CHEMINFO record 57 for details on the effects of carbon monoxide.

Skin Contact:
The liquid is a moderate to severe irritant. If methylene chloride is sealed to the skin by gloves, shoes or tight clothing, serious irritation may result. In one case, a worker developed second and third degree burns after collapsing and laying unconscious for about 30 minutes in methylene chloride.(23) Absorption through the skin can occur, but it is not reported to be significant.(16)

Eye Contact:
A vapour concentration of 500 ppm caused mild irritation after one hour.(15) Liquid and concentrated vapours may cause moderate to severe irritation. Liquid may cause temporary corneal damage.

Ingestion:
Methylene chloride has relatively low toxicity if ingested, based on limited human information and animal studies. Ingestion of about 1-2 pints (about 500-1000 mL) of a paint remover containing methylene chloride caused severe burns and swelling in the throat of a man. The man became unconscious one and a half hours after ingesting the paint remover and hospitalization was required. He recovered but continued to have stomach problems 6 months after the event.(22)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

A group of employees exposed to an average concentration of 475 ppm (8 hour TWA) for more than 10 years was compared to a similar non-exposed group. There was no difference in liver, cardiac or neurologic health when the two groups were compared.(30)

SKIN: Repeated or prolonged skin contact may result in dermatitis (redness and irritation).

NEUROLOGICAL: Long-term (months, years) exposure to methylene chloride has caused neurological effects. In one case, a worker developed memory loss, speech problems and balance problems after regular exposure for about three years to an estimated airborne concentration of 500-1000 ppm methylene chloride.(25) In another case, a worker developed delirium (auditory hallucinations), memory loss, blurred vision and confusion. The worker had worked with a solution containing 78% methylene chloride in a vat room for 12 hour periods over 4 years.(26) In both of these case reports, the authors attribute the effects to the metabolism of methylene chloride to carbon monoxide.

Carcinogenicity:

Methylene chloride is possibly carcinogenic to humans. This evaluation is based on inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity to experimental animals.(37)
There have been numerous studies which have examined the risk of cancer in humans exposed to methylene chloride. Different studies have noted associations between methylene chloride and different types of cancer (e.g. pancreatic cancer, liver cancer or breast cancer). Many of the studies are limited by factors such as the small number of people studied and concurrent exposure to other potentially harmful chemicals. In addition, there has been no consistent elevation of risk across the studies. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude that methylene chloride causes cancer in humans.(37)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
In animal studies, slight fetotoxicity was noted, but no embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were seen. The fetotoxicity was observed at doses which were maternally toxic. A study of women working in a pharmaceutical factory found an increased risk of spontaneous abortions associated with exposure to several chemicals including methylene chloride.(1) Another study of women working with glue found methylene chloride in the fetal tissues. This observation indicates methylene chloride crosses the placental barrier.(5)

Reproductive Toxicity:
In a case study, eight men had histories of infertility and testicular or prostatic discomfort. These men all worked in a process where they had mixed skin and inhalation exposure to methylene chloride. The average airborne concentration was 68 ppm (range 3.3 to 154.4 ppm). Biological monitoring also indicated exposure to methylene chloride. Four of the eight men were tested for sperm count. In all four, there was a significant reduction in the motile sperm count.(29) These case reports suggest that methylene chloride may inhibit sperm production. However, the men were exposed to other chemicals at the same time, and additional research is required to confirm these findings. Testicular atrophy was seen in one animal study.(13) Methylene chloride has been detected in human breast milk.(5)

Mutagenicity:
Methylene chloride is considered mutagenic based on positive results obtained in mice exposed by inhalation. Other studies using live animals have shown negative results. There is no human information available. Positive results have been obtained in tests using cultured human cells.(37)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Because methylene chloride can be metabolized to carbon monoxide, other exposures to carbon monoxide (e.g. smoking, vehicle exhaust) should be monitored. Animal evidence indicates that exposure to ethanol may potentiate the effects of methylene chloride.(7)

Potential for Accumulation:
Animal evidence suggest that methylene chloride is well absorbed through the lungs, intestine and skin. It is converted to carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the body. The carbon monoxide results in increased levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin. Methylene chloride does not appear to accumulate in the body and is rapidly excreted.(3,5)

Health Comments:
Refer to CHEMINFO record 57E for a review of the potential effects of carbon monoxide.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is a possible carcinogen. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, properly trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
Never give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink about 250 ml (8 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, repeat administration of water. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Quickly transport victim to an emergency facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its condition of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
None measurable by standard methods.(19) Vapour can burn in air above 100 deg C.(20)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
12% (oxygen-enriched air, elevated temperature, elevated pressure, or ambient air if ignition energy is high enough).(20)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
19% (oxygen-enriched air, elevated temperature, elevated pressure, or ambient air if ignition energy is high enough).(20)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
556 deg C (1033 deg F) (19); 640 deg C (1184 deg F) (21)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Stable material

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Probably not sensitive under normally conditions.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Initial thermodegradation in dry air is at 120 deg C (248 deg F). Hydrogen chloride, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and small amounts of phosgene are produced. As moisture content increases the thermal degradation temperature decreases.(5,21)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Methylene chloride is essentially non-flammable under most conditions of use. However, it becomes flammable at 102 deg C.(20) During a fire, irritating/toxic hydrogen chloride and phosgene gases may be generated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, foam, water spray, dry chemical

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products. If products other than methylene chloride are burning, extinguish fire using extinguishing agent suitable for surrounding fire. Isolate materials not yet involved in fire and protect personnel. Move containers from fire area if it can be done without risk. Use flooding quantities of water as a fog. Use water spray to keep fire-exposed containers cool and flush spills away and prevent exposures.
Methylene chloride is hazardous to health and a possible cancer hazard. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 84.94

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.48 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.287 ppm at 20 deg C (21)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -97 deg C (-142 deg F) (3)
Boiling Point: 39.8 deg C (103.6 deg F) (1,21)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.3266 (water=1) (1,5)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (2 g/100 mL at 20 deg C) (3,5)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.25 (1)
pH Value: Not available
Vapour Density: 2.93 (air = 1) (3,21)
Vapour Pressure: 400 mm Hg at 24 deg C (11)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 54.4% at 24 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 27.5 (butyl acetate = 1)
Critical Temperature: 245 deg C (437 deg F) (21)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY: 0.43 centipoises (mPa.s) at 20 deg C (21)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. On prolonged contact with water, slowly decomposes forming hydrochloric acid.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


METHANOL - dichloromethane becomes flammable in air at 27 deg C in the presence of less than 0.5 vol % of methanol.(20)

ALUMINUM POWDER - reacts exothermically and uncontrollably when mixed with methylene chloride above 95 deg C under appropriate pressure.(20)

AMINES - Reacts exothermically.(20)

AZIDE FORM OF QUATERNARY ION EXCHANGE RESINS - when methylene chloride was used as a solvent in the preparation of alkyl azides, a violent explosion occurred after the reaction mixture was left to stand for 7 days (due to the production of diazidomethane).(20)

DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE (DMSO) AND PERCHLORIC ACID - a violent explosion occurred when a syringe used for DMSO was rinsed with methylene chloride and then filled with perchloric acid.(20)

ALKALI METALS (e.g. lithium, sodium, potassium, sodium-potassium alloy) - mixtures are impact or shock sensitive and may explode violently.(19,20)

DINITROGEN TETRAOXIDE, DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE - mixtures may be explosive.(20)

NITRIC ACID - produces a detonable solution.(20)

N-METHYL-N-NITROSO UREA - a mixture of 40% potassium hydroxide and methylene chloride detonated when N-methyl-N-nitroso urea was added.(19)

POTASSIUM TERT-BUTOXIDE - mixture ignited after 2 minutes.(19,20)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Hydrochloric acid is formed on prolonged contact with water.

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 100 deg C

Corrosivity to Metals:
When dry (no water present) methylene chloride is not corrosive to metals. At high temperature and in presence of water, methylene chloride can corrode iron, some stainless steels, copper, aluminum.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (guinea pig): 11600 ppm (6-hour exposure) (7)
LC50 (rat): 57000 ppm (15-minute exposure) (8)
LC50 (mouse): 16186 ppm (8-hour exposure) (9)

LD50 (oral, rat): 2100-3000 mg/kg (1)

Eye Irritation:

Application of 0.01 mL and 0.1 mL resulted in moderate to severe irritation in rabbits.(3)

Skin Irritation:

Application to intact and abraded skin resulted in severe irritation in rabbits.(3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Methylene chloride depressed the central nervous system (CNS) of rats exposed for 10 minutes to extremely high concentrations (7000-12000 ppm).(8) Symptoms included muscular incoordination, loss of righting reflex, stupor and shallow respiration. Cardiac arrhythmias have occurred in dogs inhaling 500-5000 ppm.(3) Cardiac sensitization to adrenaline was produced in dogs exposed for 5 minutes to 1.9-3.4% (19000-34000 ppm).(8) Elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (a reversible condition of carbon monoxide binding to red blood cells) were seen in guinea pigs exposed to 560, 5000 and 11000 ppm methylene chloride for 6 hours.(7) Elevated carboxyhemoglobin levels were also seen in dogs, monkeys and rats exposed for 24 hours to 5000 ppm. Methylene chloride is metabolized to carbon monoxide in animals.(13) Carboxyhemoglobin is formed by carbon monoxide.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Liver injury was seen in male and female rats exposed to 1000 ppm during a two-year study. Kidney injury was also seen in male rats exposed to 2000 ppm and in female rats exposed to 4000 ppm in the same study.(13) Slight liver effects and kidney injury were seen in rats exposed to 25 or 100 ppm methylene chloride continuously for up to 100 days. Slight liver effects were also seen in mice exposed to 100 ppm methylene chloride continuously for up 100 days. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels were seen in monkeys exposed for a similar period to 25 or 100 ppm and in dogs exposed to 100 ppm.(14)

Carcinogenicity:
Rats exposed by inhalation to 1000, 2000 and 4000 ppm for 2 years had a higher incidence of benign mammary gland tumours (male and female). In the same study, there was increased incidence of lung and liver tumours in mice exposed for 2 years to 2000 and 4000 ppm.(13) In another study, rats were exposed to 500, 1500 and 3500 ppm for two years. A dose-related increase in benign mammary gland tumours (male and females) and sarcomas located in the neck (males) was observed.(1,37) Negative or inconclusive results have been obtained in oral administration studies using rats and mice.(37) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of dichloromethane to experimental animals: Sufficient evidence.(1,37) The American Industrial Hygiene Association (ACGIH) has designated methylene chloride as an A3 (animal carcinogen).

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Slight fetotoxicity (decreased fetal body weight) and maternal toxicity (increased liver weights, increased carboxyhemoglobin levels) were seen following exposure of female rats to 4500 ppm for 12-14 days prior to gestation and/or during days 1-17 of gestation. No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were seen.(10) Signs of slight behavioral changes (slow environmental habituation) were seen in the offspring of rats exposed to 4500 ppm for about 21 days before and/or throughout days 1-17 of gestation. No teratogenic effects were seen. Mothers had increased carboxyhemoglobin levels and liver weights.(11) No embryotoxic, fetotoxic or teratogenic effects seen when mice and rats were exposed to 1250 ppm methylene chloride during days 6-16 of gestation. Increased carboxyhemoglobin levels were seen in the pregnant animals.(12)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Testicular atrophy was seen in mice exposed daily to 2000 or 4000 ppm for a two year period.(13) There were no effects observed in rats exposed to concentrations up to 1500 ppm in a two generation reproductive study.(28)

Mutagenicity:
Methylene chloride is considered mutagenic, based on positive results observed in mice exposed by inhalation.
Positive results (chromosomal damage, sister chromatid exchanges and/or micronuclei induction) have been observed in lung, bone marrow and blood cells of mice exposed by inhalation to concentrations which are also considered carcinogenic (4000 or 8000 ppm) for 10 days. A 3-month exposure to 2000 ppm showed small, but significant increases in sister chromatid exchanges in lung cells and micronuclei induction in red blood cells.(38) In another inhalation study, inhalation of 4000 or 8000 ppm for 6 hours produced DNA damage in the liver cells of mice. The damage was evident immediately after exposure, but not 2 hours after exposure.(39) Other studies using live animals have produced negative results.(37)
Results from studies using cultured mammalian cells are inconclusive or negative. Consistently positive results have been obtained in studies using bacteria and fungi.(37)
Negative results have been obtained in fruit flies.(37)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) IARC Monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 41. IARC, 1986. p. 43-68
(2) Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to methylene chloride. NIOSH, 1976
(3) Illing, H.P.A., et al. Toxicity review 12 : dichloromethane (methylene chloride). Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1985
(4) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. NIOSH, June 1994. p. 208-209
(5) Organo-chlorine solvents: health risk to workers. Royal Society of Chemistry, 1986. p. 147-173
(6) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Supplement 7. IARC, 1987. p. 194-195
(7) Balmer, M.F., et al. Effects in the liver of methylene chloride inhaled alone and with ethyl alcohol. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 37, no. 6 (June 1976). p. 345- 352
(8) Clark, D.G., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of some halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons. Human Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 3 (1982). p. 239-247
(9) Svirbely, J.L., et al. The toxicity and narcotic action of mono-chloro-mono-bromo-methane with special reference to inorganic and volatile bromide in blood, urine and brain. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 29 (Nov. 1947). p. 382- 389
(10) Hardin, B.D., et al. Absence of dichloromethane teratogenicity with inhalation exposure in rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 52, no. 1 (Jan. 1980). p. 22-28
(11) Bornschein, R.L., et al. Behavioral toxicity in the offspring of rats following maternal exposure to dichloromethane. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 52, no. 1 (Jan. 1979). p. 29-37
(12) Schwetz, B.A., et al. The effect of maternally inhaled trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene, methyl chloroform, and methylene chloride on embryonal and fetal development in mice and rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 32 (1975). p. 84-96
(13) NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) (CAS no. 75-09-2) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies) (NIH publication no. 86-2562). NIOSH, January 1986
(14) Haun, C.C., et al. Continuous animal exposure to low levels of dichloroemethane (report no. AMRL-TR-72-130). Aerospace Medical Research Laboratories, 1972
(15) Stewart, R.D., et al. Methylene chloride : development of a biologic standard for the industrial worker by breath analysis. NIOSH, 1974
(16) Stewart, R.D., et al. Absorption of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, methylene chloride, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane through the human skin. Industrial Hygiene Journal (Sept-Oct 1964). p. 439-446
(17) Stewart, R.D., et al. Experimental human exposure to methylene chloride. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 25 (Nov. 1972). p. 342-348
(18) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(19) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49
(20) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 4th ed. Butterworths, 1990. p. 24, 35, 140-142, 475, 956-957, 1158, 1314-1315, 1352, 1372-1373, 1690-1691
(21) Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 5. 4th ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1979. p. 686-693
(22) Roberts, C.J.C., et al. Recovery after "lethal" quantity of paint remover. British Medical Journal. Vol. 1 (3 Jan. 1976). p. 20-21
(23) Wells, G.G., et al. Methylene chloride burns. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 41 (1984). p. 420
(24) Winneke, G. The neurotoxicity of dichloroemthane. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 3, no. 4 (1981). p. 391-395
(25) Barrowcliffe, D.F., et al. Cerebral damage due to endogenous chronic carbon monoxide poisoning caused by exposure to methylene chloride. Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 29 (1979). p. 12-14
(26) Tariot, P.M. Delirium resulting from methylene chloride exposure : case report. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Vol. 44, no. 9 (1983). p. 340-342
(27) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. ACGIH, 1989. p. 23
(28) Nitschke, K.D., et al. Methylene chloride : two generation inhalation reproductive study in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 11 (1988). p. 60-67
(29) Kelly, M. Case reports of individuals with oligospermia and methylene chloride exposures. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 2 (1988). p. 13-17
(30) Soden, K.J. An evaluation of chronic methylene chloride exposure. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 35, no. 3 (March 1993). p. 282-286
(31) Wilcosky, T.C., et al. Solvent exposure and cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 19 (1991). p. 569-586
(32) Vahdat, N. Permeation of protective clothing materials by methylene chloride and perchloroethylene. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 48, no.7 (1987). p. 646-651
(33) Report on Carcinogens. 11th ed. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program
(34) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(35) Emergency Response Planning Guidelines for Methylene Chloride. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1996
(36) Federal Register. Vol. 62, no. 7 (Jan.10 1997)
(37) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. World Health Organization, 1999
(38) Allen, J., et al. Cytogenic analyses of mice exposed to dichloromethane. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 15 (1990). p. 221-228
(39) Graves, R.J., et al. Methylene chloride-induced DNA damage: an interspecies comparison. Carcinogenesis. Vol. 16, no. 8 (1995). p. 919-928
(40) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Methylene Chloride. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(41) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Methylene Chloride In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(42) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Volatile Organic Compounds (Screening). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1993-10-20

Revision Indicators:
HANDLING AND STORAGE 1994-12-01
EU number 1995-10-01
EU class 1995-10-01
EU risk 1995-10-01
EU safety 1995-10-01
Sampling 1995-10-01
Protective equipment 1995-10-01
Respiratory guidelines 1995-10-01
Extinguishing media 1995-10-01
Flash point 1995-10-01
Fire hazard comments 1995-10-01
Materials to avoid 1995-10-01
ERPG 1996-09-01
TLV-TWA 1996-09-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 1997-07-01
US transport 1998-03-01
Emergency overview 2000-03-01
Carcinogenicity 2000-03-01
Mutagenicity 2000-03-01
Toxicological info 2000-03-01
WHMIS (detailed class) 2000-03-01
WHMIS (health effects) 2000-03-01
TDG 2002-05-27
PEL final comments 2003-10-30
PEL-TWA final 2003-10-30
PEL-STEL final 2003-10-30
TLV comments 2004-01-01
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28
Bibliography 2005-02-02
Bibliography 2005-04-11
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-11
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-11
Hazardous decomposition products 2005-12-19



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