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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 551
CCOHS Chemical Name: Maleic anhydride solid

Synonyms:
cis-Butenedioic anhydride
Dihydro-2,5-dioxofuran
2,5-Furandione
Maleic anhydride (non-specific name)
Maleic acid anhydride
MAA
MALA
Toxilic anhydride
Anhydride maléique

Chemical Name French: Anhydride maléique
Chemical Name Spanish: Anhídrido maleico
CAS Registry Number: 108-31-6
UN/NA Number(s): 2215
RTECS Number(s): ON3675000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-571-6
Chemical Family: Unsaturated aliphatic carboxylic acid anhydride / alkenoic acid anhydride / alkene dioic acid anhydride
Molecular Formula: C4-H2-O3
Structural Formula: -C(=O)-CH=CH-C(=O)-O- (cyclic structure)

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless or white crystalline solid; irritating, acrid, choking odour.(25,28) Slightly deliquescent (absorbs moisture from the air and forms wet solid or solution).(29)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values are not reliable. Range of referenced values: 0.25-0.32 ppm (1.0-1.3 mg/m3) (minimum perceptible value).(30) Also reported as 0.3-0.5 ppm (1.3-2.0 mg/m3) (method not given).(28)

Warning Properties:
NOT RELIABLE - reported odour threshold values are not reliable and are about the same magnitude as the TLV. There may be mild eye or respiratory tract irritation at 1-1.5 mg/m3 (0.25-0.38 ppm).(5,24)

Composition/Purity:
Pure maleic anhydride (MA) at 99.5% may contain 0.5% maleic or fumaric acid, and residual water and small amounts of iron (5 ppm) and ash (10 ppm). It may be shipped either as a solid or as a molten liquid.(28,29,31,32) This record reviews the hazards and control measures for solid maleic anhydride. For information on the molten liquid, refer to the CHEMINFO review of maleic anhydride, molten liquid.

Uses and Occurrences:
Its major use is in the manufacture of resins, especially unsaturated polyester resins and alkyd resins. It is also used in the production of various plastic additives and plasticizers; in the synthesis of malic and fumaric acids; in the manufacture of lubricating oil, petroleum and lubricant additives; in the manufacture of maleic copolymers, emulsifiers, dispersants, stabilizing agents, agricultural products and textile chemicals; used to modify the performance of various natural (soya and linseed) and synthetic drying oils; as a modifying agent in rubber compounds; in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, antiseptics, bactericides, wetting agents and surfactants; in the production of aspertame; and as a preservative for oils and fats.(28,29,32)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless or white crystalline solid with an irritating, acrid, choking odour. Slightly deliquescent. Can burn if strongly heated. COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Can form explosive dust-air mixtures. TOXIC. Harmful if swallowed. Irritating to the respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. RESPIRATORY SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic respiratory reaction. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. Can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness, or permanent scarring of the skin. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause allergic skin reaction.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Solid maleic anhydride sublimes readily, producing irritating fumes. It also reacts with moisture in the air or in the respiratory tract to form maleic acid.(1) The vapour, fumes or dust can cause severe irritation of the nose, throat, and upper airways, based on human and animal information. Coughing, sneezing, shortness of breath, nosebleeds and vomiting may occur, depending on severity of exposure.(2) High concentrations may cause a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema).(1,3) Symptoms of pulmonary edema such as shortness of breath can be delayed for several hours.
Irritation of the nose, throat and upper airways, with symptoms, such as cough, irritation and a burning sensation in the airways, shortness of breath and vomiting, have been reported following occupational exposure to dust and vapours from heated maleic acid.(4) In one study, airborne concentrations as low as 1-1.5 mg/m3 (vapour/aerosol mixture) caused minimal irritation of the upper respiratory tract in 12 volunteers. At 8-11 mg/m3, strong irritation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract were experienced, with symptoms of severe coughing and a burning sensation in the throat.(5)
Some people can develop an allergic sensitivity to maleic anhydride (see Chronic Effects section for more information).

Skin Contact:
The dust is probably not irritating to dry skin. However, on moist skin, maleic anhydride forms maleic acid and can cause severe irritation or burns (corrosive injury), based on animal information. Contact with concentrated solutions can also cause corrosive injury, based on animal information. Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent scarring.
Maleic anhydride may produce an allergic skin reaction in some individuals. Refer to "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" for information.
Maleic anhydride may be absorbed through the skin, but is not likely to cause toxic effects by this route of exposure, based on animal information.

Eye Contact:
The dust or concentrated solutions can produce severe irritation or corrosive injury, based on human and animal information. The severity of the effect would depend on the concentration of the solution and duration of contact. Corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness. Vapours can produce redness, irritation, blurred vision and burning sensation based on animal and human information.
Cases of eye irritation (with pain, tearing, blurring of vision) and burns have been reported in occupational settings following contact with solutions or exposure to airborne vapours.(2,4,6,7) The minimal airborne concentration of maleic anhydride which caused irritation of the eyes in 12 volunteers was 1-1.5 mg/m3, with severe irritation at 8-11 mg/m3.(5) Another report indicates that maleic anhydride has caused loss of vision or very slow healing corneal burns following industrial exposure. No details on the type of exposures are provided.(8)

Ingestion:
Animal information indicates that maleic anhydride is toxic by ingestion. There is no human information available. Severe irritation of the mouth, throat and digestive tract would be expected, based on its corrosivity. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
Exposure to vapours or dusts may cause allergic respiratory sensitization. Sensitized people can experience symptoms of bronchial asthma (wheezing, sneezing, runny nose or difficult breathing) at low airborne concentrations which have no effect on non-sensitized people.
Evidence that maleic anhydride can cause work-related asthma is provided by six cases in which bronchial challenge testing demonstrated that it was likely to have been the inducing agent. Supporting evidence is provided by its close relationship to phthalic anhydride and trimellitic anhydride, both for which there is a substantial body of information indicating a causal association with asthma.(43)
A number of case reports (up to 14) of occupational asthma were located.(3,10-14,42) In most cases, previous history of allergies was not discussed.(14) Several of the cases showed a positive response in inhalation challenge testing.(11,14,42)

Skin:
Repeated exposure to powder or vapour may cause symptoms such as drying, redness or itching of the skin (dermatitis).(9)

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated or prolonged skin contact with maleic anhydride may cause an allergic skin sensitization based on animal and limited human information. Once a person is sensitized to a material, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This can spread from the hands or arms to other parts of the body.
A 32-year old non-atopic operator presented with chronic irritation of the nose and eyes, shortness of breath, and hives. He was occupationally exposed to maleic anhydride, as well as several other chemicals including other anhydrides. Patch testing showed positive results to maleic anhydride. It was concluded that the man had occupational skin sensitization due to maleic anhydride. Following removal from exposure, he was symptomless.(45)
Two positive patch tests to maleic anhydride were reported among 190 ceramics enamellers and decorators occupationally exposed to maleic anhydride and other potential skin sensitizers used in the industry. These same authors reported 3 positive patch tests to maleic anhydride in a previous evaluation performed on ceramics workers. It is not clear if the workers who tested positive to maleic anhydride actually had symptoms of skin sensitization or prior exposure specifically to maleic anhydride. Previous history of allergies was not discussed.(15) This study provides limited evidence of the skin sensitizing potential of maleic anhydride. The results are provided in tabular form and it is not clear that the individuals showing a positive test result specifically had prior exposure to maleic anhydride or were showing symptoms of skin sensitization.
Other cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported among individuals exposed to materials containing maleic anhydride. However, exposure to other potential allergens may have been responsible for the effect.(2)

Eyes/Vision:
EYE CONTACT: Symptoms of chronic eye irritation with swelling and pain in the cornea (keratitis) may develop after years of exposure to this anhydride.(3, unconfirmed)

Blood/Blood Forming System:
A single case report describes a man who developed hemolytic anemia following occupational exposure to maleic anhydride.(10) The details of this case were questioned in a subsequent article.(11) It is not possible to conclude that maleic anhydride causes anemia, based on this very limited information.

Carcinogenicity:

One animal study did not show any effects which could be related to maleic anhydride exposure. There is no human information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Maleic anhydride was not teratogenic in one animal study, even in the presence of maternal toxicity. There is no human information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No harmful effects on male or female fertility were observed in an animal study. There is no human information available.

Mutagenicity:
A positive result was obtained in a test using cultured mammalian cells. Negative results were obtained in bacterial tests. There is no human information available.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Maleic anhydride does not accumulate in the body. It is a reactive chemical and decomposes rapidly in contact with water or tissue to form maleic acid. Maleic acid is not expected to accumulate in the body, based on information for related aliphatic carboxylic acids. Acid anhydrides are excreted in the urine as the corresponding dicarboxylic acids.(16)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue; e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by a trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. NOTE: Thermal burns may result when maleic anhydride dust is mixed with water.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
102 deg C (215 deg F) (closed cup) (28,29,33)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.4% (28,29,33)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
7.1% (28,29,33)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
477 deg C (890 deg F) (29,33)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Acetylene.(32,34) Incomplete combustion may also produce acrid smoke and irritating fumes.(28)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
During a fire, irritating/toxic gases and fumes may be generated. The presence of certain contaminants may cause containers to rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat. Refer to "Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid" below for additional information.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, alcohol foam, water spray or fog.(28,33,34) Do not use dry chemical powder extinguishers on burning maleic anhydride. These extinguishers contain sodium or potassium carbonates which react violently with maleic anhydride.(29,34)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the burning material, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire. In addition, water spray or fog can be used to prevent dust formation and protect exposed material.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of water spray. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Maleic anhydride and its decomposition products may be hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 1 - Must be preheated before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 98.06

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.0 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.25 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 53 deg C (127 deg F) (29,32,33); sublimes readily.(25,37)
Boiling Point: 202 deg C (396 deg F) (29,31,32)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.48 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (32)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (16.3 g/100 g at 30 deg C) (reacts slowly to form maleic acid) (25,28,29,32)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Very soluble in acetone and ethyl acetate; soluble in benzene, chloroform, diethyl ether, toluene, o-xylene and dioxane; slightly soluble in carbon tetrachloride and kerosene.(9,28,32) Soluble in alcohols with ester formation.(9,25,31)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: 2.42 (0.01 M solution); 2.62 (0.005 M); 3.10 (0.0001 M) (32)
Vapour Density: 3.38 (air = 1) (29,32)
Vapour Pressure: 0.021 kPa (0.16 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (28,29)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 211 ppm at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Probably very low at normal temperatures
Critical Temperature: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Reacts slowly with water, including moisture in the air, to form maleic acid.(28,29,32)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not polymerize on its own. Hazardous co-polymerization reactions can occur, for example, when mixed with olefins (unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbons) and a catalyst.(28)

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. perchlorates, peroxides, chromates, sodium hypochlorite) - may react violently or explosively. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(28,32,34,37)
WATER - reacts slowly with cold water, rapidly with hot water, producing heat. Forms maleic acid. Hot water may cause frothing.(28,32,34)
ALKALI METALS (e.g. sodium or potassium), ALKALIS (e.g. sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide), ALKALINE EARTH METALS (e.g. calcium. magnesium or barium), ALKALINE EARTH HYDROXIDES (e.g. calcium hydroxide), AMINES (e.g. dimethylamine, triethylamine), PYRIDINE, QUINOLINE, SODIUM OR POTASSIUM CARBONATES, AQUEOUS AMMONIA, AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE or AMMONIUM SALTS - at temperatures above 150 deg C, mixtures can react producing carbon dioxide, heat and pressure. Under these conditions, a mixture may be explosive. Small amounts as low as 200 ppm of the above chemicals are sufficient to start the decomposition.(28,29,32,34,38)
OLEFINS (e.g. ethylene, propylene or diethylene) and CATALYSTS - mixtures can undergo uncontrolled co-polymerization.(28)
STRONG REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. phosphorus, tin (II) chloride, metal hydrides) - may react vigorously or violently. Increased risk of fire.(34)
ALCOHOLS - react to form esters.(9,31)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Not available

Conditions to Avoid:
Static charge, sparks, heat, other ignition sources, generation of dust and moisture.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Dry maleic anhydride is not corrosive. In contact with water, it is corrosive to metals such as cast iron, mild steel and zinc. It is not corrosive to types 304 and 316 stainless steels.(29,32)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 400 mg/kg (17, unconfirmed); 625 mg/kg (18); 850 mg/kg (19); 900 mg/kg (in water) (20); 1050 mg/kg (in corn oil) (20)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 465 mg/kg (19)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): 390 mg/kg (18)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 875 mg/kg (18)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): Greater than 631 mg/kg (40% suspension in corn oil) (20); greater than 398 mg/kg (40% solution in water) (20); 2620 mg/kg (21)

Eye Irritation:

Maleic anhydride is corrosive to the eyes.

Application of in excess of a 1% solution caused corrosive injury in rabbits (graded 10/10).(8) In another test, cloudiness of the cornea and irritation was observed in rabbits following application of a 1% solution for 2 minutes. Eyes appeared normal the next day. Similar effects were observed following application of a 5% solution, however, the effects did not disappear until the 6th or 7th day.(6) Corrosive injury was observed in rabbits following application of finely ground maleic anhydride.(20) In another study, application of maleic anhydride powder for 2 minutes caused immediate clouding of the cornea and pain in rabbits. After 7 weeks, the corneas were still white and opaque and blindness resulted.(6) Evidence of eye irritation was observed in monkeys, rats and hamsters exposed to 1, 3 or 10 mg/m3 maleic anhydride vapour for 6 months, with the severity of the effect increasing with the airborne concentration.(22)

Skin Irritation:

Maleic anhydride is corrosive to the skin.

Corrosive injury was observed in rabbits following application of maleic anhydride, moistened with water, for 24 hours.(20) In another study, tissue death (necrosis) was observed in rabbits and guinea pigs following application of either maleic anhydride in solid form or water solutions greater than 30% (duration of contact and other details of the test procedure were unreported).(23)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
No significant harmful effects were observed following oral administration of 85 mg/kg/day to rats for 20 days. Dosed animals were less active than those not exposed.(19)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Irritation of the nose and upper airways and decreased weight gain have been observed in experimental animals exposed to relatively low vapour and aerosol concentrations.

Inhalation:
Reversible nose irritation was observed in rats, hamsters and monkeys exposed to 1.1, 3.3 or 9.8 mg/m3 vapour for 6 months. Some animals developed difficult breathing, coughing or sneezing.(22) In another study, inflammation of the nose and upper airways and a delay in weight gain were observed in rats exposed to 0.8 mg/m3 of a vapour/aerosol mixture for 70 days. A slight delay in body weight gain was observed with exposure to 0.34 mg/m3. No harmful effects were observed at 0.03 mg/m3. Some changes in blood composition were also noted in this study, however the significance of these effects is not clear.(24) A decrease in red blood cell count was observed in rats fed 10, 32 or 100 mg/kg/day for 2 years.(25)

Skin Sensitization:
Clear evidence of skin sensitization has been demonstrated in 3 well-conducted tests.
In the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (with an adjuvant), guinea pigs were induced with 0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 or 10(4) ppm maleic anhydride, then challenged with 10(4) or 10(5) ppm. Positive results were obtained in 3/5 animals with the 1 ppm induction and 10(5) ppm challenge; 3/5 animals with the 10 ppm induction and 10(4) ppm challenge and in 5/5 animals for all higher induction and challenge doses. Challenge doses were pre-tested to be maximal non-irritating concentrations. Rechallenge results were similar. In the Buehler Test, guinea pigs were induced with 0, 10(4), 10(5) or 5x10(5) ppm maleic anhydride, then challenged with 10(4) or 10(5) ppm. Positive results were obtained in 3/5 animals induced with 5x10(5) ppm and challenged with 10(5) ppm and 2/5 animals induced with 5x10(5) ppm and rechallenged with 10(5) ppm. Results for all other concentrations tested were negative. Positive results were also obtained in the Adjuvant and Patch Test.(44) Negative results were obtained when 0.1 mL maleic anhydride was topically applied to the backs of 8 guinea pigs four times in 10 days. At the time of the third application, 0.2 mL of Freund's adjuvant was injected intradermally at one point adjacent to the insult site. After a 2-week rest period, the guinea pigs were challenged. The challenge site was evaluated for erythema and edema at 24 and 48 hours. Maleic anhydride did not produce sensitization (0/8 animals reacted).(26)

Carcinogenicity:
An increase in benign tumours of the thyroid was observed in female rats, but not in males, fed 10, 32 or 100 mg/kg/day for 2 years. This effect was not judged by the authors to be treatment related.(25, unconfirmed)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No teratogenic effects were observed in rats following oral administration of 30, 90 or 140 mg/kg/day during of pregnancy. Slight evidence of toxicity (reduced body weight gain) was observed in the mothers.(27)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No harmful effects on fertility were observed in male or female rats following oral administration of 20 to 150 mg/kg/day for 3 generations. Toxicity to the parents was observed at all doses (increased kidney weight at the lower doses and deaths at the highest dose).(27)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 918-919
(2) Venables, K.M. Low molecular weight chemicals, hypersensitivity and direct toxicity: the acid anhydrides. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 46, no. 4 (Apr. 1989). p. 222-232
(3) Maleic anhydride. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. Vol. II. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991 including 1996 suppl.
(4) Ghezzi, I. et al. Clinical contribution to knowledge of pathology from phthalic and maleic anhydride. Medicina Lavoro. Vol. 56, no. 11 (1965). p. 746-752. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00115577)
(5) Grigor'eva, K.V. Studies on pollution of atmospheric air with maleic anhydride. Hygiene and Sanitation. Vol. 29 (Mar. 1964). p. 7-11
(6) Winter, C.A., et al. The irritating effects of maleic acid and of maleic anhydride upon the eyes of rabbits. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 33 (Mar. 1950). p. 387-388
(7) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (Nov. 1946). p. 1355-1362
(8) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(9) Center For Chemical Hazard Assessment. Syracuse Research Corporation. Maleic anhydride. In: Information profiles on potential occupational hazards: organic anhydrides. SRC TR 81-635. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1982. p. 51-67
(10) Gannon, P.F.G., et al. Haemolytic anaemia in a case of occupational asthma due to maleic anhydride. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 49, no. 2 (Feb. 1992). p. 142-143
(11) Durham, S.R., et al. The temporal relationship between airway reactivity and late asthmatic reactions induced by occupational agents. Thorax. Vol. 40, no. 9 (1985). p. 703
(12) Topping, M.D., et al. Specificity of the human IgE response to inhaled acid anhydrides. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Vol. 77, no. 6 (June, 1986). p. 834-842
(13) Baur, X., et al. A clinical and immunological study on 92 workers occupationally exposed to anhydrides. International Archives of Occupational Environmental Health. Vol. 67, no. 6 (Oct. 1995). p. 395-403
(14) Lee, H.S., et al. Occupational asthma due to maleic anhydride. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 48, no. 4 (Apr. 1991). p. 283-285
(15) Motolese, A., et al. Contact dermatitis and contact sensitization among enamellers and decorators in the ceramics industry. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 28, no. 2 (Feb. 1993). p. 59-62
(16) Keskinen, H. Organic acid anhydrides. In: Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1990. Edited by B. Beije, et al. Arbete Och Halsa. No. 2 (1991). p. 129-188
(17) RTECS record for maleic anhydride. Last updated: 1997-04
(18) Izmerov, N.F., et al. Toxicometric parameters of industrial toxic chemicals under single exposure. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 1982
(19) Berzin, V.I. Combined action of Dinil and maleic anhydride on the organism. Gigiena Truda i Professional'nye Zabolevaniya. No. 13 (1969). p. 42-44. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00138255)
(20) Randall, D.J., et al. Acute toxicologic evaluation of maleic anhydride. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B. Acute toxicity data. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1990). p. 75-76
(21) Vernot, E.H., et al. Acute toxicity and skin corrosion data for some organic and inorganic compounds and aqueous solutions. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 42, no. 2 (Nov. 1977). p. 417-423
(22) Short, R.D., et al. A 6-month multispecies inhalation study with maleic anhydride. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 3 (Apr. 1988). p. 517-524
(23) Kowalski, Z., et al. Experimental studies on the toxic action of maleic anhydride. English summary. Medycyna Pracy. Vol. 18, no. 3 (1967). p. 250- 251
(24) Grigore'eva, N.V. Atmospheric air pollution with maleic anhydride: its hygienic evaluation. USSR Literature on Air Pollution and Related Occupational Diseases. Vol. 16 (1966). p. 26-34. (NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00053463)
(25) HSDB record for maleic anhydride. Last revision date: 97/03/27
(26) Rao, K.S., et al. A collection of guinea pig sensitization test results - grouped by chemical class. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 4 (1981). p. 331-351
(27) Short, R.D., et al. Teratology and multigeneration reproduction studies with maleic anhydride in rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 7, no. 3 (Oct. 1986) p. 359-366
(28) Emergency action guide for maleic anhydride. Association of American Railroads, 1995
(29) Maleic anhydride. Bulletin number 1871. Ashland Chemical, Inc., 1990
(30) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 22, 65
(31) Lohbeck, K., et al. Maleic and fumaric acids. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 16. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990. p. 53-62
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-06-22

Revision Indicators:
TLV-TWA 2000-06-01
TLV Comments 2000-06-01
EU Class 1999-12-01
EU Risk 1999-12-01
EU Safety 1999-12-01
EU Comments 1999-12-01
Carcinogenicity 2000-06-01
TDG 2002-05-29
Toxicological info 2002-12-05
WHMIS detailed classification 2002-12-05
WHMIS proposed classification 2002-12-05
WHMIS health effects 2002-12-05
WHMIS disclosure list 2002-12-05
Emergency overview 2002-12-05
Long-term exposure 2002-12-05
Handling 2002-12-09
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
Bibliography 2004-04-06
EU classification 2005-02-06
ERPG-2 2005-07-01
ERPG-3 2005-07-01
ERPG-1 2005-07-01



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