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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 450
CCOHS Chemical Name: Lithium

Synonyms:
Lithium metal
Li
Elemental lithium

Chemical Name French: Lithium
Chemical Name Spanish: Litio
CAS Registry Number: 7439-93-2
UN/NA Number(s): 1415
RTECS Number(s): OJ5540000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-102-5
Chemical Family: Lithium and compounds / Alkali metal
Molecular Formula: Li
Structural Formula: Li

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Soft, silvery white solid that quickly becomes covered with a yellowish or gray layer on exposure to air.(3) Usually supplied in mineral oil or under an inert gas (e.g. argon).

Odour Threshold:
Odourless

Warning Properties:
POOR - lithium metal is odourless.

Composition/Purity:
Lithium metal is available commercially in ingots, special shapes (including foil, wire, and rod), shot and powder. The metal is usually supplied in mineral oil or under an inert gas, such as argon gas. It is also available in hermetically sealed copper cartridges and in sealed copper tubes for use in treating molten copper and copper-base alloys. Lithium powder is available as dispersions in 30% mineral oil or in other solvents. Lithium metal is shipped in carbon steel drums or cans under an argon atmosphere or under a coating of oil.(4,5) Lithium is available in three grades: high sodium, low sodium content and battery grade.(5) Standard grade lithium metal has a purity in excess of 99% and contains about 0.5% sodium. Battery grade lithium contains less than 200 ppm of sodium.(4)

Uses and Occurrences:
The largest use of lithium metal is in the production of organometallic alkyl and aryl lithium compounds. It is also used for production of lithium hydride and lithium nitride; in organic synthesis for preparations of alkoxides and organosilanes, and for reductions. Other uses for the metal include fabricated lithium battery components and the manufacture of lithium alloys; in metallurgical operations for degassing and impurity removal; and as a deoxidizing and desulfurizing agent, especially for copper, nickel, and alloy steels. Lithium is used in the nuclear industry, e.g. in the production of tritium, as a heat-exchange cooling medium, as a shielding material, and as a solvent for other nuclear fuels. Other major end uses for lithium are in the manufacture of lubricants and greases and in the production of synthetic rubber.(4,5)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Soft, silvery white solid that quickly becomes covered with a yellowish or gray layer, consisting mainly of lithium hydroxide, lithium oxide, lithium nitride and lithium carbonate, on exposure to air. Usually supplied in mineral oil or under an inert gas (e.g. argon). REACTIVE FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. WATER REACTIVE. Lithium metal reacts with water or moist air to produce extremely flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive lithium hydroxide. Finely divided lithium ignites spontaneously on contact with water or moisture in the air. Burns with a very luminous white flame, forming dense, white smoke, the constituents of which are toxic and irritating. May react violently or explosively with many organic and inorganic chemicals. Lithium hydroxide is CORROSIVE to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. High concentrations of the mixture of lithium hydroxide, lithium oxide, lithium nitride and/or lithium carbonate can cause lung injury-effects may be delayed.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Lithium is usually protected from air and moisture, for example, under mineral oil or an inert atmosphere (e.g. argon). Therefore, it is unlikely that it will be inhaled. However, if the inert atmosphere is lost, lithium metal reacts with air and moisture to form corrosive lithium hydroxide and lithium oxide. Depending on the lithium particle size, this reaction can be extremely rapid. Spontaneous ignition can occur with finely divided lithium dust.

If inhaled, lithium hydroxide and lithium oxide are strong respiratory irritants even at very low concentrations. Symptoms of exposure may include irritation of the nose and throat, coughing and a choking sensation.
Exposures to higher concentrations of the mixture of lithium hydroxide and/or lithium oxide can lead to a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema (chest pain and shortness of breath) can be delayed for up to 24 or 48 hours after exposure. There is no human or animal information available for lithium metal.

Skin Contact:
There is no specific information for lithium metal. Lithium hydroxide, one of the reaction products of lithium metal, is corrosive to the skin. Corrosive materials can cause severe burns, blisters, ulcers and permanent scarring, depending on the concentration and the duration of contact.
In general, lithium and lithium compounds are not absorbed through the skin.(3,6)

Eye Contact:
There is no specific information for lithium metal. Lithium hydroxide, one of the reaction products of lithium metal, is corrosive to the eyes. Corrosive materials can cause severe eye burns, and permanent injury, including blindness, depending on the concentration and duration of contact.

Ingestion:
There is no information available for lithium metal. Lithium hydroxide, one of the reaction products of lithium metal, is corrosive and can burn the lips, tongue, throat and stomach; cause abdominal pain; nausea; vomiting; diarrhea and death. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is no human or animal information for lithium metal.
Lithium metal is protected from air and moisture, for example, under mineral oil or an inert atmosphere (e.g. argon). Therefore, it is unlikely that long-term exposure to lithium metal will occur. If the inert atmosphere is lost, lithium metal reacts with air and moisture to form corrosive lithium hydroxide and lithium oxide.
There is information available for long-term ingestion of some lithium salts (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride), which are used therapeutically in the treatment of certain psychiatric conditions. However, this exposure scenario is not relevant to lithium metal exposure.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for lithium metal. The evidence that lithium salts (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride) at therapeutic doses can cause developmental toxicity in humans, is not applicable to lithium metal.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for lithium metal.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human or animal information available for lithium metal.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no human or animal information available for lithium metal.

Potential for Accumulation:
The lithium ion is not expected to accumulate based on information for lithium compounds (lithium chloride and lithium carbonate).


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, trained personnel should administer emergency oxygen. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently brush away any solid or powder. Immediately flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 60 minutes. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, and it can be done safely, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility. Double bag, seal, label and leave contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods at the scene for safe disposal. Keep contaminated clothing under water in an uncovered container until it can be safely discarded. Note that the water will react with lithium to form corrosive lithium hydroxide.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently brush any solid or powder off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 60 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 60 to 240 mL (2 to 8 oz) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some first aid procedures recommended above require advanced first aid training. Protocols for undertaking advanced procedures must be developed in consultation with a doctor and routinely reviewed.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

Note to Physicians:
This product is corrosive and reacts violently with water. Treatment should first remove as much of the material as possible as quickly as possible, then flush with very large quantities of water.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
179 deg C (354 deg F) (2)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Lithium metal will not accumulate static charge, since it has good electrical conductivity.(4,5) It will not be ignited by a static discharge, because it has a high ignition temperature.

Electrical Conductivity:
1.06 x 10(17) pS/m at 20 deg C (5)

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not applicable

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide.

Fire Hazard Summary:
REACTIVE FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. WATER REACTIVE. Lithium metal reacts with water or moisture in the air to produce extremely flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive lithium hydroxide. Finely divided lithium metal becomes spontaneously flammable on contact with water or moist air. Lithium metal is a very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat or flame. Temperatures above the melting point (180.5 deg C) can result in spontaneous ignition in humid air. The susceptibility of molten lithium surfaces to spontaneous ignition is increased by the presence of lithium oxides or nitrides.(2) Lithium metal burns with a very luminous, white flame, forming dense, white smoke consisting mainly of lithium oxide and other toxic and irritating fumes. Molten lithium metal will burn in air, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, and reacts explosively with water.(2)

Extinguishing Media:
Use approved Class D fire extinguishing agents. Finely powdered copper metal is the preferred extinguishing agent for lithium fires.(8) Other recommended Class D extinguishing agents are Lith-x (a graphite-base dry chemical) and Graphex (a graphite-sulfate complex). Powdered limestone (calcium carbonate), dry clay, dry soda ash or dry lithium chloride may also be used.(2,4,5,9) Extinguishing agents must be dry.

Extinguishing Media to be Avoided:
DO NOT use water, foam, carbon dioxide, halogenated extinguishing agents, silicates (sand) or extinguishers based on sodium chloride or sodium carbonate. Lithium metal or powder can react violently with these extinguishing agents.(2,5)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Extreme caution is required in a fire situation. Evacuate area and fight fire from a protected, explosion-resistant location or maximum distance possible. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and very toxic decomposition products.
Confine and smother fire, if possible. Isolate containers exposed to heat, but not directly involved in the fire. Move materials not yet involved in the fire, if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Cool fire-exposed containers by spraying with water if this can be done without accidental contact with water. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. It is extremely important not to get water inside containers, since a violent reaction can occur with the formation of extremely flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive lithium hydroxide. Lithium fires are very hot and difficult to extinguish unless they are caught early. Lithium fires can throw off molten lithium metal particles.
Small fires can be controlled by the recommended extinguishing agents, but large fires may be impossible to extinguish. If a lithium fire reaches large proportions, isolate the fire if possible, protect surroundings and allow the fire to burn itself out. Evacuate the area. The class D fire extinguishers recommended for fighting lithium fires act by smothering the lithium. Because much heat is retained under the extinguisher blanket, reignition can easily occur if the blanket is disturbed. Never leave an extinguished fire unattended.
Containers should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down. After the fire has been extinguished, explosives and toxic atmospheres may linger. Before entering such an area, especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective suit.
After all the material has apparently burned and cooled, carefully turn over the remaining residue and be prepared to re-extinguish should it reignite. Carefully place residue in steel drums, using a long-handed shovel and cover with extinguishing media.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Lithium and its combustion and thermal decomposition products are corrosive. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.
NFPA - Specific Hazards: WATER REACTIVE

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 6.941

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 180.5 deg C (356.9 deg F) (4,5)
Boiling Point: 1342 deg C (2448 deg F) (4,15); also reported as 1336 deg C (2437 deg F) (5,16)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.531 at 20 deg C (5); 0.534 at 20 deg C (4,17) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Not applicable (reacts with water).
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in liquid ammonia.(5,16) Insoluble in hydrocarbon oils. Reacts with chlorinated solvents, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones or esters.(1,4,9,23)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable (reacts with water).
pH Value: Not applicable. Reacts with water to form very alkaline solutions of lithium hydroxide.
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low (essentially zero) at room temperature.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Unstable in air. Solid rods, wire or shot will react with moisture, nitrogen or carbon dioxide in air forming a layer of lithium hydroxide, lithium oxide, lithium nitride and lithium carbonate on the surface. Lithium dust or powder will spontaneously ignite in air. Lithium metal is stable in dry air (relative humidity less than 2% at 21 deg C).(24)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not polymerize.

Flammable Gases Released Upon Contact with Water:
Hydrogen gas.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Lithium metal is very reactive. The presence of sodium as an impurity, even in amounts of 0.5 -1%, increases its reactivity.

WATER or MOIST AIR - powdered lithium reacts vigorously or violently forming extremely flammable hydrogen gas and corrosive lithium hydroxide. Lithium shavings react violently with hot water; the liberated hydrogen may ignite.(1,9) Lithium metal reacts more slowly and moderately vigorously with cold water, but sufficient heat is not generated to ignite the hydrogen gas which is formed.(25) Prolonged contact with steam forms a thermally insulating layer that promotes overheating of the underlying metal, which can lead to an explosion as the insulating layer breaks up.(1)
NITROGEN - forms lithium nitride, which reacts violently with moisture to form lithium hydroxide and ammonia, and ignites and burns intensely in air.(5,26)
CHLORINE TRI- or PENTAFLUORIDES - ignite spontaneously (hypergolic) on contact. Reaction is very energetic.(1)
NITRIC ACID - ignites on contact, becoming violent and ejecting burning lithium.(1,2)
METAL OXIDES (e.g. chromium(III) oxide, tungsten trioxide or vanadium pentoxide) - reaction is rapid and violently exothermic (generates heat).(1,9)
METAL CHLORIDES (e.g. chromium trichloride or zirconium tetrachloride) - ignite on contact.(1,9)
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE - decomposes explosively.(2)
HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS (e.g. bromoform, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform or trichloroethylene) - contact can produce extremely violent reactions, especially on impact.(1,2)
MERCURY - formation of amalgam is violently exothermic and may be explosive if large pieces of lithium are used.(1)
DIAZOMETHANE - contact causes explosions.(1)
DIBORANE - reacts spontaneously to give complex hydrides that ignite in air.(1,2)
CARBON DISULFIDE - mixtures are capable of detonation by shock, but not by heating.(1)
BROMINE - mixtures explode on heavy impact.(9)
BROMOBENZENE - vigorous stirring with powdered lithium can lead to an explosion.(1,9)
ETHYLENE - passage of the gas over heated lithium causes lithium to incandesce, producing a mixture of lithium hydride and lithium acetylide.(1)
CONCRETE, SAND or REFRACTORY MATERIALS - may be attacked by molten lithium and react violently at high temperatures.(1,5)
CARBON DIOXIDE - reacts slowly with lithium at normal temperatures, and vigorously at high temperatures.(1,4,5)

Molten lithium is very reactive and attacks carbides, silicates, metals (e.g. vanadium, beryllium or chromium, cobalt alloys, iron alloys, magnesium alloys and nickel alloys).(1,2)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Extremely flammable hydrogen gas, corrosive lithium hydroxide, corrosive lithium oxide and unstable lithium nitride.

Conditions to Avoid:
Exposure to moist air or water, temperatures above the melting point, open flames, loss of protective oil layer, dust generation.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No specific information is available for lithium metal. However, lithium metal reacts with moisture in the air to form lithium hydroxide, which is corrosive to aluminum (types 3003 and Cast B-356), naval brass, aluminum, silicon and naval bronze, lead and zinc.(18,19) Lithium hydroxide is not corrosive to stainless steels, carbon steel (types 1010, 1020 and 1075), nickel and nickel-base alloys, e.g. Monel and Hastelloy B.(18,20)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No specific information is available for lithium metal. Lithium metal reacts with moisture in the air to form lithium hydroxide, which attacks plastics, e.g. general purpose, isophthalic and halogenated polyesters, polyurethane, high density and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene; and elastomers, e.g. nitrile Buna-N (NBR), chloroprene, styrene butadiene (SBR), polyurethane, silicone and fluorosilicone.(19,21,22) Lithium hydroxide does not attack plastics, e.g. Teflon and other fluorocarbons, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polypropylene; and elastomers, e.g. ethylene-propylene diene, natural rubber, and perfluorinated elastomers, e.g. Chemraz and Kalrez.(19,21,22)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Lithium metal is very reactive, though considerably less so than other alkali metals, such as sodium and potassium. The presence of sodium as an impurity, even in amounts of 0.5 -1 %, increases its reactivity, e.g. for the formation of lithium alkyls from lithium metal and organic halides.(4)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

There is no relevant animal toxicity information available for lithium metal. Studies conducted with lithium compounds (e.g. lithium carbonate, lithium chloride, etc.) are summarized and evaluated in the relevant CHEMINFO reviews of the specific compounds.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(2) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(3) Lagerkvist, B.J., et al. Lithium and lithium compounds. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals; no. 131. Arbete och Halsa no. 16 (2002)
(4) Wietelmann, U., et al. Lithium and lithium compounds. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 7th ed. John Wiley and Sons, 2002. Also available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(5) Kamienski, C.W., et al. Lithium and lithium compounds. Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. John Wiley and Sons, 2004. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs.html> (Subscription required)
(6) Beliles, R.P. The metals: lithium, Li. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part C. John Wiley & Sons, 1994. p. 2087-2097
(7) Perez-Granados, A.M., et al. Silicon, aluminium, arsenic and lithium: essentiality and human health implications. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. Vol. 6, no. 2 (2002). p. 154-162
(8) Science Kit and Boreal Laboratories. Fire safety and fire extinguishers in a chemistry laboratory. Last updated: 2004-08-23. Available at: <www.ilpi.com/safety/extinguishers.html>
(9) Armour, M.-A. Lithium. In: Hazardous laboratory chemicals disposal guide. 3rd ed. Lewis Publishers, 2003. p. 278-279
(10) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(11) Safe storage of laboratory chemicals. John Wiley & Sons (n.d.). p. 94-95
(12) Young, J.A., ed. Improving safety in the chemical laboratory: a practical guide. John Wiley and Sons, 1987. p. 91
(13) Prudent practices for disposal of chemicals from laboratories. National Academy Press, 1983. p. 89-90
(14) Prudent practices for handling hazardous chemicals in laboratories. National Academy Press, 1981. p. 71-72
(15) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999
(16) Lithium. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 990
(17) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 3.35
(18) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 194-205
(19) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part B, E-O. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1745-1748
(20) Craig, B.D., et al, eds. Lithium hydroxide. In: Handbook of corrosion data. 2nd. ed. ASM International, 1997. p. 511
(21) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 290-301
(22) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C-218 to C-223
(23) Fire, F.L. The common sense approach to hazardous materials. 2nd ed. Fire Engineering Books and Videos, 1996. p. 329
(24) Safe handling of lithium metal. Technical data sheet. Available at: <www.espimetals.com/tech/handlinglithium.pdf>
(25) Markowitz, M.M. Alkali metal-water reactions. Journal of Chemical Education. Vol. 40, no. 12 (Dec. 1963). p 633-636
(26) Markowitz, M.M., et al. Lithium metal-gas reactions. Journal of chemical and Engineering Data. Vol. 7, no. 4 (Oct. 1962). p 586-591
(27) Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards. XXIV. Consensus report for lithium and lithium compounds. Criteria for occupational standards. Arbete och Halsa. Vol. 16 (2003). p. 55-65
(28) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Metals and Metalloid Particuates (including lithium). In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(29) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Elements by ICP (including lithium). In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-12-29



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