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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 470
CCOHS Chemical Name: Lithium carbonate

Synonyms:
Carbolith
Carbonic acid, dilithium salt
Carbonic acid, lithium salt
Dilithium carbonate
Lithicarb
Lithonate
Carbolithium
Lithionate

Chemical Name French: Carbonate de lithium
Chemical Name Spanish: Carbonato de litio

Trade Name(s):
Lithane
Lithizine

CAS Registry Number: 554-13-2
RTECS Number(s): OJ5800000
Chemical Family: Lithium and compounds / inorganic lithium compound / lithium salt / inorganic carbon compound / inorganic carbonic acid salt / inorganic carbonate
Molecular Formula: C-Li2-O3
Structural Formula: +Li.-O-C(=O)-O-.Li+

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
White or colourless, odourless crystals or powder.(24,25) The technical product is a fine white powder.(25)

Odour Threshold:
Not applicable. Odourless.

Warning Properties:
POOR. Odourless.

Uses and Occurrences:
Lithium carbonate is used as a starting material for the production of other lithium compounds (e.g. lithium bromide, lithium chloride, lithium hydroxide, lithium oxide, and lithium aluminum silicates; as a flux in the production of specialty glasses, enamels, and ceramics; in the production of glazes on ceramics and electrical porcelain; as an additive to cement and concrete to control setting times; as an additive to molten salt baths for the electrolytic production of aluminum; as a catalyst; for coating of arc-welding electrodes; in nucleonics; in luminescent paints; varnishes and dyes. Used medicinally in treatment of manic depression, clinical depression; and as a mood-stabilizing drug. It has also been evaluated in the treatment of schizophrenia, alcoholism, periodic aggressive behaviour and herpes.(2,23,25,30)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
White or colourless, odourless crystals or powder. The technical product is a fine white powder. Will not burn. Dust or mist may be irritating to the respiratory tract. Solutions may be irritating to the eyes.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Lithium carbonate dust or mists from concentrated solutions are probably irritating to the nose, throat, and airways, since the solutions are alkaline (pH 11.2; 1% solution).
Workers involved in production of lithium compounds have reported temporary upper respiratory symptoms (runny nose and irritation) following intermittent exposure mainly to lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide and silica dust. Concentrations of lithium carbonate were 5.87-42.3 mg/m3.(1) No specific conclusions about lithium carbonate can be drawn from this study because of the mixed exposure. There is no relevant animal information available for lithium carbonate.

Skin Contact:
Lithium carbonate may be a mild to moderate skin irritant, based on its alkalinity (pH 11.2; 1% solution) and comparison to sodium carbonate. There is no animal or human information available.
Lithium carbonate is poorly absorbed through the skin.(30)

Eye Contact:
Lithium carbonate dust or mist from concentrated solutions is expected to cause moderate to severe eye irritation, based on alkalinity (pH 11.2; 1% solution) and comparison to sodium carbonate. There is no animal or human information available.

Ingestion:
Lithium carbonate is not toxic if ingested, based on animal toxicity information. Lithium salts (usually lithium carbonate but also lithium chloride) are used therapeutically to treat psychiatric disorders. The occurrence of toxicity is related to the plasma concentration of the lithium ion and there is a narrow margin between toxic and therapeutic doses. Acute effects observed at 500 mg/day and higher include digestive problems, muscle cramps, and effects on the central nervous system (trembling, drowsiness and a dazed feeling). More severe effects include kidney injury, coma, tremors, convulsion and death.(9,31,32) Persistent neurological effects have occurred following accidental or suicidal overdoses.(33) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lithium salts (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride) are orally administered therapeutically at doses of about 500-1800 mg/day for treatment of certain psychiatric conditions. There is considerable information available on the effects of therapeutic lithium administration on the skin, nervous system, kidneys and thyroid. In most cases the effects are reversible. The effects of lithium salts observed during therapeutic treatment protocols are not considered relevant to occupational exposures.

Carcinogenicity:

Lithium carbonate is not carcinogenic. No conclusions regarding the possible carcinogenicity of lithium carbonate can be drawn based on a single case report of thyroid cancer, which did not involve a long enough latent period to warrant identification of the lithium salt exposure as a causal factor. A single case of thyroid cancer was reported in a woman who had been treated therapeutically with lithium carbonate for 3.5 years.(4) There is no animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Lithium carbonate should not be considered a developmental toxin in occupational exposure situations based on evidence of developmental toxicity at doses that may be used therapeutically in pregnant mothers with certain psychiatric conditions.
A number of studies on the developmental effects caused by ingestion of therapeutic doses of lithium salts (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride) during pregnancy have been extensively reviewed by an expert committee on developmental and reproductive toxicity (Institute for Evaluating Health Risks (IEHR) in the United States). The evidence is considered sufficient to conclude that lithium salts, at therapeutic doses, can cause developmental toxicity in humans, with increased risk for major malformations (particularly cardiac) and possibly neonatal mortality.(7)
There are no well-conducted studies in animals that show developmental toxicity for lithium carbonate or other lithium compounds, in the absence of maternal toxicity. The effects observed during therapeutic treatment with lithium salts are not considered relevant to occupational exposures.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is insufficient evidence to conclude that lithium carbonate is a reproductive toxin. No conclusions can be drawn from studies indicating that oral therapeutic doses of lithium compounds may affect libido and may impair sperm motility. The studies are limited by small numbers and by self-reporting biases.(7) Therapeutic exposures are not relevant to occupational situations.
Inadequate design or poor reporting limits most animal studies on the potential effects of lithium compounds on reproduction. In many cases, the animals were treated with high doses of lithium salts without consideration of whether the reported effects simply reflected generalized toxicity.(7)

Mutagenicity:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that lithium carbonate is mutagenic. Negative results (chromosome aberrations and/or sister chromatid exchanges) were obtained in most studies on patients receiving lithium compounds (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride) therapeutically.(35,36,37,38,39) A positive result (chromosome breaks) was obtained in one study.(19) These studies are limited by small numbers and by concurrent exposures to other medications. Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from positive results in two studies in live mice that are limited by poor reporting.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is considerable information on the interaction of lithium compounds (lithium carbonate or lithium chloride) used therapeutically and other medications.(9) Animal studies with lithium chloride indicate that sodium chloride decreases effects from ingestion of lithium compounds. A synergistic effect between lithium chloride and ethanol on the central nervous system was observed in one mouse study.

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. The soluble salts of lithium, including lithium carbonate, are completely absorbed in the small intestine and excreted in the urine, about 67% after 6-12 hours then more slowly over a period of several days.(31,40) In people, approximately 95% is excreted in urine, 4-5% is excreted in sweat and less than 1% in feces.(31) The lithium ion also passes freely into human breast milk.(7)

Health Comments:
Lithium is considered an ultratrace element meaning that its established, estimated or suspected requirement in the human diet is less than 1 mg/day. The requirement for lithium in humans has not been proven, but is indicated from studies in animals. The requirement in humans is probably less than 25 microg/day while the average intake is reported to range from 100-2645 microg/day.(32,40)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in stomach. Obtain medical advice immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not combustible (does not burn)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Lithium carbonate will not accumulate static charge.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not applicable

Potential for Dust Explosions:
There is no evidence that lithium carbonate dust or powder can cause a dust explosion. Lithium carbonate is not included in lists of compounds that cause dust explosions.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, lithium oxides.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Lithium carbonate and its decomposition products do not burn or support combustion. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Lithium carbonate does not burn. Use extinguishing media suitable for the surrounding fire.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Lithium carbonate does not burn. If a fire occurs in the vicinity of lithium carbonate, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. If this is not possible, cool fire-exposed material with flooding quantities of water to absorb heat, keep containers cool and protect fire-exposed material. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. Water spray may also be used to prevent dust formation and to knock down irritating/toxic thermal decomposition products, which may be produced in a fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
The thermal decomposition products of lithium carbonate are toxic. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 73.89

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 720-723 deg C (1328-1333.4 deg F) (5,21). Also reported as 726 deg C (1338.8 deg F) (23) and 732 deg C (1349.6 deg F) (25)
Boiling Point: Decomposes at 1300 deg C (2372 deg F).(5,21) Also reported to decompose at 1200 deg C (2192 deg F) (2,22)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 2.11 (water = 1) (5,21)
Solubility in Water: Slightly to moderately soluble in water (1.3 g/100 mL at 20 deg).(21,23) The solubility decreases with increasing temperature (e.g. 0.71 g/100 mL at 100 deg C).(23)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Insoluble in ethanol, acetone and ammonia.(5,21) Soluble in dilute acids.(2,24)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -6.19 (estimated) (41)
pH Value: 11.2 (1% solution) (1)
Basicity: Lithium carbonate is a strong base in water solution.(22) .
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Negligible
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitric acid, perchloric acid, peroxides) - reaction may be violent.
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid) - react violently; forms corresponding lithium salt with release of carbon dioxide gas.(22,25)
FLUORINE - ignites and burns fiercely in contact with fluorine.(26)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Lithium carbonate (1.3%; saturated solution) corrodes aluminum (type not specified) at a rate of between 0.5 and 1.27 mm/year at room temperature.(42) Lithium carbonate solutions have also been reported to corrode zinc, but the corrosion rate is not known.(22) Lithium carbonate is not corrosive to stainless steel (e.g. types 304 and 316), carbon steel (type not specified), nickel and its alloys, tantalum, titanium and zirconium at room temperature.(42)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Lithium carbonate attacks isophthalic acid polyester. It does not attack plastics, such as Teflon, polypropylene and bisphenol A-fumarate polyester.(43)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 values located for lithium combustion products are not relevant for assessing the toxicity of lithium carbonate.

LD50 (oral, rat): 710 mg/kg (cited as 0.71 g/kg) (11)
LD50 (oral, rat): 525 mg/kg (3, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2806 mg/kg (cited as 531 mg/kg; as lithium) (10)

Eye Irritation:

No conclusions can be drawn from the one study located.

In a non-standard test, eye irritation was observed in rats exposed to high concentrations of an aerosol formed from molten lithium (80% lithium carbonate; 20% lithium hydroxide).(12) Lithium hydroxide is extremely corrosive.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
It is not possible to draw specific conclusions about lithium carbonate from a study in which the exposure system was designed to simulate a fire involving lithium metal.(12) This situation is not considered typical of occupational exposure to lithium carbonate. Extremely corrosive lithium hydroxide was present in the airborne mixture generated.

Ingestion:
Male rats were given 3 doses of 100, 200 or 300 mg/kg/day lithium carbonate, with 6 days between each dose. Doses, as lithium, were 19, 38 or 57 mg/kg/day. There were significant changes in behaviour (learned bar-pressing performance) at all doses.(13)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Male rats were given lithium carbonate in the diet at a concentration of 1100 mg/kg for 4 months. The approximate dose was 66 mg/kg/day, as lithium carbonate, or 12.5 mg/kg/day, as lithium. There were no significant effects on body weight. There were decreases in serum thyroid hormones (T3 and T4), which became significant after exposure for 1 month, but there was no significant change in thyroid weight.(6)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
The available studies for lithium carbonate are generally of poor quality, with limitations such as administration of only a single dose, poor reporting of the data, and lack of information on maternal toxicity. Similar limitations exist for studies with other lithium compounds. There are no well-conducted studies that show developmental toxicity for lithium carbonate, or other lithium compounds, in the absence of maternal toxicity. For lithium compounds in general, the US Institute for Evaluating Health Risks (IEHR) concluded that there is adequate information to indicate that developmental toxicity can occur in rats and mice at doses from 19-89 mg/kg/day (cited as 2.71-12.67 mmol/kg/day), usually in the presence of maternal toxicity. In addition, IEHR concluded there is sufficient information that developmental toxicity can occur after birth based on developmental toxicity studies that included the period of lactation to weaning, and beyond, with lithium doses of 2.9-11.5 mg/kg/day (cited as 0.41-1.64 mmol/kg/day).(7)
Rats were given a diet containing 1000 mg/kg lithium carbonate throughout pregnancy and lactation. The approximate dose was 50 mg/kg/day, as lithium carbonate (9.5 mg/kg/day, as lithium). There were significant decreases in maternal weight and food consumption and in litter size, litter weight and average pup weight. No structural abnormalities (teratogenic effects) were seen in the offspring.(14) This study is limited by the use of only one dose group and the small number of mothers treated (12/group). Mice were given 2 mg/mL of lithium carbonate in their drinking water from days 1-18 of pregnancy. The approximate dose was 400 mg/kg/day, as lithium carbonate (76 mg/kg/day, as lithium). There was no report on maternal toxicity, but only 2/16 mothers produced litters and the resorption rate was very high (60%) in these litters. None of the 6 surviving fetuses were reported to have malformations.(8) This study is limited by the lack of information on maternal toxicity and the use of only one exposure group. In a poorly reported study, rats were given 50, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day (cited as 0.675, 2.025 or 4.05 meq/kg/day) lithium carbonate from day 14 of pregnancy through 21 day of lactation. (Doses, as lithium, were 9.5, 28 or 57 mg/kg/day). No effects were reported in mothers or the offspring, however the data was not presented. Pups nursing from mothers receiving 300 mg/kg/day had significantly reduced body weights at weaning.(16) Rats were given 0, 50 or 100 mg/kg/day lithium carbonate orally from days 6-15 of pregnancy. (Doses, as lithium, were 0, 9.5 or 19 mg/kg/day). At 100 mg/kg/day, there was a significant decrease in implantations and in the number of live offspring, a non-significant increase in early and late resorptions and a significant decrease in pup weight. There was also a marked increase (significance not reported) in various skeletal abnormalities. No soft tissue abnormalities were found. At 50 mg/kg/day, no significant effects were found in the offspring.(15) Interpretation of this study is limited by the lack of information on maternal toxicity and the small numbers of treated mothers (11 or 13/group). In a poorly reported study, rats (number/group not specified) were given 7 mg/kg/day lithium carbonate from days 1-10 of pregnancy. (The dose, as lithium, was 1.3 mg/kg/day). Effects on the mothers were not reported. Effects on the offspring included a reduction in fetal weight and body size, and an increase in the incidence of cleft palate, liver enlargement, brain liquification and non-ossification of the toes.(17) This study is limited by factors such as the lack of statistical evaluation, the use of only one dose group, the non-standard exposure time and lack of reporting on maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is insufficient evidence to conclude that lithium carbonate is a reproductive toxin.
In a long-term exposure study, which is limited by lack of information on generalized toxicity, oral exposure to lithium carbonate caused reproductive toxicity and reduced fertility in male rats.(28) Inadequate design or poor reporting limits most studies on the potential effects of lithium compounds on reproduction. In many cases, the animals were treated with high doses of lithium salts without consideration of whether the reported effects simply reflected generalized toxicity.(7) Male rats were given lithium carbonate in the diet at concentrations of 500, 800 or 1100 mg/kg for 90 days. Approximate doses were 30, 48 or 66 mg/kg/day, as lithium carbonate, or 5.7, 9.1 or 12.5 mg/kg/day, as lithium. At 48 or 66 mg/kg/day, there were significant decreases in relative weights of the testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles and prostate, in sperm counts and in serum testosterone levels. A significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm occurred at all doses. At 66 mg/kg/day, degenerative changes were seen in the testes and accessory reproductive organs. Treated males mated with untreated females showed a significantly reduced fertility index at 48 and 66 mg/kg/day. However, the mating index was not affected. When males were mated with females 30 days after treatment stopped, the fertility index was improved, but was still significantly less than controls.(28) This study is limited by lack of information on generalized toxicity, which may have occurred in the exposed animals at the doses administered.

Mutagenicity:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that lithium carbonate is a mutagen. No firm conclusions can be drawn from positive results in two studies in live mice, which are limited by poor reporting.
Male mice were fed 0, 325, 650 or 1300 mg/kg/day lithium carbonate, on alternate days, for up to 30 days. (Doses, as lithium, were 0, 61, 123 or 246 mg/kg/day). There was a significant dose-related increase in indicators of cytotoxicity and a significant increase in "mitotic and meiotic abnormalities" caused by spindle disruption.(29) No conclusions can be drawn from this study, because it is not clear what was meant by "mitotic or meiotic abnormalities". In another study using live mice, oral exposure to lithium carbonate in olive oil resulted in a dose-dependent, significant increase in chromosome aberrations in bone marrow. The same treatment did not cause an increase in sister chromatid exchanges.(18) Conclusions cannot be drawn from this study, because the numbers of animals tested and the number of cells evaluated were not reported.
A weak positive (gene mutation with no dose response) was obtained in cultured mammalian cells. The response was reduced by metabolic activation.(20)

Toxicological Synergisms:
Studies with lithium chloride, a related chemical, indicate that sodium chloride decreases harmful effects observed following the ingestion of lithium compounds. A synergistic effect between lithium chloride and ethanol on the central nervous system was observed in one mouse study.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Salisbury, S.A., et al. Health Hazard Evaluation Report No. HHE-80-036-922, Lithium Corporation of America. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, July 1981. (NIOSHTIC No. 00118873)
(2) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Lithium carbonate. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002
(3) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Lithium carbonate. Last updated: 2003-08. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Issue: 2003-4. Also available from World Wide Web: <http://ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html>
(4) Brownlie, B.E.W., et al. Lithium associated thyroid cancer. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Medicine. Vol. 10 (Feb. 1980). p. 62-63
(5) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE, 1999
(6) Dhawan, D., et al. Serum thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in rats receiving lithium carbonate. Hormone Metabolism Research. Vol. 17 (1985). p. 109-110
(7) Moore, J.A. An assessment of lithium using the IEHR evaluative process for assessing human developmental and reproductive toxicity of agents. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 9, no. 2 (1995). p. 175-210
(8) Smithberg, M., et al. Teratogenic effects of lithium in mice. Teratology. Vol. 26 (1982). p. 239-246
(9) Baldessarini, R.J. Drugs and the treatment of psychiatric disorders. In : Goodman & Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. Edited by A.G. Gilman, et al. 9th ed. McGraw-Hill. 1996. p. 446-449
(10) Samoilov, N.N. Comparative toxicity of some lithium salts. Russian Pharmacology and Toxicology. Vol. 33 (1970). p. 266-269
(11) Smyth, Jr., H.F. et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list VII. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 30 (1969). p. 470-476
(12) Greenspan, B.J., et al. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 18, no. 4 (1986). p. 627-637
(13) Chrislip, D.W., et al. Effects of acute oral administration of lithium compounds on multiple schedule performance in rats. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology. Vol. 7, no. 1 (Feb. 1985). p. 39-42
(14) Ibrahim, H. S., et al. Effects of dietary lithium on pregnant and lactating rats and their progeny. Nutrition Research. Vol. 10 (1990). p. 315-324
(15) Marathe, M.R., et al. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity of lithium carbonate in Wistar rats. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 34 (1986). p. 115-120
(16) Gralla, E. J. Studies in pregnant rats, rabbits and monkeys with lithium carbonate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 21 (1972). p. 428-433
(17) Sharma, A., et al. Teratogenic effects of lithium and ethanol in the developing fetus. Alcohol. Vol. 3 (1986). p. 101-106
(18) Sobti, R.C., et al. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and chromosome aberrations (CAs) caused by three salts of lithium (in vivo). Cytologia. Vol. 54 (1989). p. 245-248
(19) De la Torre, R., et al. The in vivo and in vitro effects of lithium on human chromosomes and cell replication. Teratology. Vol. 13, no. 2 (Apr. 1976). p. 131-138
(20) Slamenova, D., et al. Results of genotoxicity testing of mazindol (degonan), lithium carbonicum (contemnol) and dropropizine (ditustat) in Chinese hamster V79 and human EUE cells. Mutation Research. Vol. 169 (1986). p. 171-177
(21) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 3.35
(22) Lithium carbonate. In: Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 533
(23) Kamienski, C.W., et al. Lithium and compounds: lithium carbonate. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 15. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. p. 448
(24) Lithium carbonate. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. Edited by M.J. O'Neil, et al. 13th ed. Merck and Company, 2001. p. 991
(25) Bauer, R.J. Lithium and lithium compounds: lithium carbonate. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 15. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1990. p. 407-408
(26) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(27) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Particulates Not Otherwise Regulated, total. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(28) Thakur, S.C., et al. Subchronic supplementation of lithium carbonate induces reproductive system toxicity in male rat. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 17 (2003). p. 683-690
(29) Srivastava, S., et al. Effects of lithium carbonate on cellular systems in mice. Perspectives in Cytology and Genetics. Vol. 5 (1986). p. 381-386
(30) Lagerkvist, B.J., et al. Lithium and lithium compounds. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals. No. 131. Arbete och Halsa no. 16 (2002)
(31) Marcus, W.L. Lithium: a review of its pharmacokinetics, health effects, and toxicology. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 2 (1994). p. 73-79
(32) Perez-Granados, A.M., et al. Silicon, aluminium, arsenic and lithium: essentiality and human health implications. Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging. Vol. 6, no. 2 (2002). p. 154-162
(33) Kores, B., et al. Irreversible lithium neurotoxicity. Clinical Neuropharmacology. Vol. 20, no. 4 (1997). p. 283-299
(34) Lithium carbonate and lithium chloride: evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification. Health Council of the Netherlands. The Hague. May 2000
(35) Matsushima, Y., et al. Chromosome examination of patients under lithium therapy. The Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology. Vol. 40, no. 4 (1986). p. 625-630
(36) Turecki, G., et al. Lithium mutagenicity. British Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 165, no. 4 (Oct. 1994). p. 552-553
(37) Banduhn, N., et al. Is lithium mutagenic in man? Pharmakopsychiatre. Vol. 13 (1980). p. 218-227
(38) Garson, O.M., et al. Chromosome studies of patients on long-term lithium therapy for psychiatric disorders. The Medical Journal of Australia. Vol. 2 (1981). p. 37-39
(39) Genest, P., et al. Lithium, chromosomes, and mitotic index. The Lancet. Vol. 1 (May 29, 1971). p. 1132
(40) Schrauzer, G.N. Lithium: occurrence, dietary intakes, nutritional essentiality. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. Vol. 21, no. 1 (Feb. 2002). p. 14-21
(41) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>`
(42) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 78-4 to 79-4
(43) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 290-301

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-01-04

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS detailed classification 2005-01-13



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