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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 608
CCOHS Chemical Name: Lead

Synonyms:
Lead flake
Lead metal
Plumbum
Elemental lead

Chemical Name French: Plomb
Chemical Name Spanish: Plomo
CAS Registry Number: 7439-92-1
RTECS Number(s): OF7525000
Chemical Family: Lead and compounds / elemental lead / lead metal
Molecular Formula: Pb
Structural Formula: Pb

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
A bluish-white, silvery, gray heavy, ductile, soft metal; tarnishes on exposure to air.(33,34)

Odour Threshold:
Probably odourless.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation

Composition/Purity:
Commercial lead has a minimum purity of 99.85-99.985% and may contain bismuth, antimony, tin, arsenic, copper, iron, silver and zinc as impurities.(22) It is available as foil, ingot, rod, shot, wire and powder.

Uses and Occurrences:
Lead is used in the manufacture of storage batteries, ammunition, nuclear and X-ray shielding devices, cable coverings in the power and communication industries, lead sheet for roofing, restoration of old buildings and chemically resistant linings, noise control materials, electrical and electronic equipment, motor vehicles and other transportation equipment, and as a bearing metal. It is used in brass and bronze alloys, casting metals, glass making, ceramic glazes, plastic stabilizers and paints, pipes, traps and bends, and other extruded products for building construction, fuel and storage tanks, and process vessels; and in some solders.(1,35,36) Minor uses include products such as wheel weights, yacht keels, ornamental items and stained glass.(36)
The use of lead in gasoline, paints, pigments and coloured inks is restricted or eliminated in many countries.(1)
Lead is a naturally occurring metal found in small amounts in the earth's crust. However, the occurrence of concentrated and easily accessible lead ore deposits is unexpectedly high and these are widely distributed throughout the world. Lead occurs chiefly as the sulfide in galena.(33,35,36)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Bluish-white, silvery, gray heavy, ductile, soft metal. Tarnishes on exposure to air. Probably odourless. COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARD. Powdered or finely divided material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. When heated in air, forms highly toxic lead oxide fumes. DANGER OF CUMULATIVE EFFECTS if inhaled or ingested. Symptoms may include headache, fatigue, nausea, abdominal cramps, joint pain, metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting and constipation or bloody diarrhea. Can cause harmful effects to the nervous system. SUSPECT CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer. REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may cause harmful effects in the unborn child; may have serious adverse effects on the male and female reproductive systems. MUTAGEN - may cause genetic damage.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
One case report describes moderate exposure to inorganic lead while sandblasting lead-based paint for twelve-hours. Symptoms included headache, fatigue, nausea, abdominal cramps, and joint pain.(1) Other health effects such as a metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting and constipation or bloody diarrhea might also be expected to occur.(2) Harmful effects due to short-term exposure to inorganic lead compounds are rarely seen any more because of strict controls used in workplaces where lead exposure might occur.
Lead accumulates in the body and inorganic lead compounds are well known to cause significant health effects following long-term (chronic) exposure. If a significant amount of lead has accumulated in the body, symptoms of long-term toxicity may develop after what may seem to be a short-term acute exposure.(3) For more information, refer to "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" below.

Skin Contact:
Inorganic lead compounds are not known to cause skin irritation and are poorly absorbed through the skin.(1,4)

Eye Contact:
There is no relevant human or animal information available. The dusts would probably cause some tearing, blinking and mild, temporary pain as the solid material is rinsed from the eye by tears. Concentrated solutions or high levels of elemental lead fumes may also cause irritation.

Ingestion:
Symptoms of ingestion of a very large dose over a short time period may include headache, fatigue, nausea, abdominal cramps, and joint pain. Other health effects such as a metallic taste in the mouth, vomiting and constipation or bloody diarrhea might also be expected to occur.(2) Reports of effects following short-term ingestion in adults are very rare, particularly now that strict controls are used in workplaces where lead exposure might occur.
Cases of ingestion of inorganic lead compounds by children are commonly reported. Children are much more susceptible to the effects of lead than adults and, therefore, effects observed in children are not necessarily relevant to adults.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Long-term health effects of inorganic lead compounds, including elemental lead, are similar following inhalation or ingestion. Inorganic lead compounds are poorly absorbed through the skin.

Blood lead levels are often used as a general indicator of how much exposure to lead has occurred. As a result, blood lead levels are provided in most reports which discuss the potential health effects of exposure to inorganic lead compounds, rather than airborne levels. The relationship between airborne lead levels and blood lead levels is complicated and depends many factors, including other sources of lead exposure and individual physical differences. Several studies indicate that an airborne exposure of 0.05 mg/m3 compares to a blood lead level of approximately 30-40 micrograms/deciLitre (range 20-60 micrograms/deciLitre).(6,7)
Average blood lead levels of adults with no occupational exposure vary widely depending upon factors such as smoking habits, nutritional status, geographic area, and recreational exposures (for example, the use of firearms). In most industrialized countries, blood lead levels in adults without occupational exposure are typically less than 20-30 micrograms/deciLitre.(8) In this review, blood lead levels below 50 micrograms/deciLitre are considered to reflect relatively low lead exposure; blood lead levels of 51-100 micrograms/deciLitre reflect moderate lead exposure, and blood lead levels above 100 micrograms/deciLitre would reflect high lead exposure. Many jurisdictions require that workers be monitored more closely or be removed from exposure if their blood lead levels exceed a certain level. Contact your regulatory jurisdictions for information.

Long-term lead toxicity is commonly referred to as "plumbism" and may include effects on the following body systems.

EFFECTS ON THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Central nervous system (CNS) or brain function has been harmed in workers with long-term, low-level lead exposure.(9) Symptoms typically occur with low to moderate exposure and include forgetfulness, irritability, tiredness, headache, fatigue, impotence, decreased libido (sexual drive), dizziness, and depression. Repeated exposure to moderate to high levels can cause encephalopathy (a progressive degeneration of certain parts of the brain). Early symptoms of encephalopathy include dullness, irritability, poor attention span, headache, muscular tremor, loss of memory and hallucinations. More severe symptoms occur at very high exposures and include delirium, lack of coordination, convulsions, paralysis, coma and death.(1)
Repeated exposed to inorganic lead compounds can affect behaviour. Lead smelter workers with long-term exposure to low levels of lead have experienced altered mood states.(10) Effects at moderate exposures include disturbances in hand-eye coordination, reaction times, visual motor performance, and mental performance.(1,11)
Disturbances to vision have been observed in workers after months to years of overexposure to inorganic lead compounds. Symptoms range from very slight visual changes to a gradual decrease in vision, with slow recovery or, in some instances, progression to blindness.(5)
Changes in hearing ability have also been reported in lead-exposed workers, particularly those with moderate to high exposure.(12)

EFFECTS ON THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM: Peripheral nerve function (nerves of the arms and legs) has been harmed in workers exposed to low to moderate levels of inorganic lead. Effects were shown to be reversible following a 5- month exposure.(1,6) However, only partial recovery may occur, particularly if lead exposure continues or treatment is not carried out.(2)
Peripheral neuropathy (loss of myelin which insulates the nerves) has been observed following long-term overexposure to inorganic lead compounds. This disorder is often referred to as "lead palsy" and symptoms include weakness of the arms and legs and weakness and paralysis of the wrist, fingers and ankles. Decreased hand dexterity (measured by finger tapping speed) has been reported in workers with low to moderate exposure to inorganic lead.(13,14) Footdrop and wristdrop (an inability to hold the foot or hand extended) commonly occur with higher exposures.(2)

EFFECTS ON THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM: Effects on the gastrointestinal tract tend to be observed following high exposure to inorganic lead compounds, although they have sometimes been noted in workers with moderate exposure. Symptoms include loss of appetite, inflammation of the stomach walls (gastritis) and colic, with severe abdominal pain, cramps, nausea, vomiting, constipation, anorexia (loss of appetite), weight loss and decreased urination.(1) In severe cases of lead exposure, a deposit of lead occurs in the gums near the base of the teeth. This deposit is visible as a blue-gray line.

EFFECTS ON THE KIDNEYS: Reversible kidney injury has been observed in some workers with repeated low exposure to inorganic lead compounds.(1,4,15) Irreversible kidney damage has been observed following long-term, moderate exposures.(4,16) An increased number of deaths due to kidney disease were observed in smelter and lead production workers with moderate lead exposure.(1,17)

EFFECTS ON THE BLOOD AND HEART: Inorganic lead can cause harmful effects to certain types of blood cells, including reduced hemoglobin production and reduced life span and function of red blood cells. Reduced hemoglobin production has been associated with low-level exposure to inorganic lead in the workplace.(6) Hemoglobin is the molecule responsible for carrying oxygen to body tissues. With moderate exposures, anemia has been observed in lead- exposed workers.(15)
Low, moderate or high exposures to inorganic lead compounds may increase blood pressure, particularly in men.(1,6,15)
In two studies, electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities were observed in workers with moderate exposure to inorganic lead compounds.(1)

EFFECTS ON THE THYROID AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Whether or not long-term exposure to inorganic lead is associated with harmful effects on thyroid and immune system function has not been well studied yet and the available evidence is weak.(1,4,7,16) In one study, firearm instructors with low exposure to inorganic lead had reduced numbers of some types of immune system cells. This observation is a very early indicator of impaired immune response.(18) With moderate levels of exposure, workers had more colds and flu infections, but did not have impaired antibody production.(1)

SKIN SENSITIZATION: Inorganic lead compounds are not known to be skin sensitizers. One case report describes a lead-exposed employee who developed dry, red, itchy skin (dermatitis). Patch testing with elemental lead was negative. This employee and another lead-exposed employee who had developed dermatitis tested positive in patch tests with two lead salts.(19) These reports cannot be evaluated due to insufficient details.

Carcinogenicity:

Inorganic lead compounds are probably carcinogenic to humans.(54)
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of exposure to inorganic lead compounds to humans. IARC evaluated the epidemiological evidence and found 6 occupational cohort studies of high-exposed workers to be particularly informative. One study showed a statistically significant two-fold excess of lung cancer among smelter workers, but this excess may have been caused by exposure to arsenic. In four studies, there was a fairly consistent 30-50% excess of stomach cancer. However, it is possible that other factors (e.g. ethnicity, dietary habits) played a role in the stomach cancer excesses. Five studies reported findings for kidney cancer. In one study, there was a statistically significant two-fold excess of kidney cancer. All five studies were based on small numbers of deaths. Four studies reported findings of tumours of the brain and nervous system, but there was no consistent pattern in these studies. In a separate cohort of workers, a nested case-control study showed a statistically significant, positive dose-response relationship between blood lead concentrations and the risk for glioma; this cohort had lower exposures to lead than the other occupational cohorts. All of these studies were also based on small numbers of deaths.(54)
Another comprehensive review of more than twenty human studies involving workers exposed to inorganic lead compounds in battery industries, smelters, pigment factories, printing trades and the glass manufacturing industry concluded that there was a significant excess risk of overall cancer (stomach, lung, and bladder cancers), but not cancer of the kidney.(21)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A).

(Inorganic lead compounds)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

(Lead and Lead Compounds)

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
Inorganic lead exposure during pregnancy has historically been associated with significant harmful effects on pregnancy, including increased miscarriages and stillbirths.(1,4,22) Many of these historical reports involved exposure to very high levels of lead, as well as other environmental, social and lifestyle characteristics which may have caused or contributed to the observed effects. Lead exposure which has not also caused significant toxicity in the mother has not been clearly associated with teratogenic or embryotoxic effects.(7,23-25)
Several non-occupational studies indicate that low to moderate exposure to lead during pregnancy and in early childhood, can produce harmful effects on neurobehavioural development and IQ, a measure of intelligence.(16,26) Reduced birth weight and shorter pregnancy may also be related to low level lead exposure. However, this literature is inconsistent and no firm conclusions can be drawn.(7,23,27)
There is no relevant animal information available for elemental lead. In studies with lead acetate, a closely related inorganic lead compound, neurobehavioural effects have occurred in offspring of rats at oral exposures which did not produce maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Significant harmful effects have been reported in the male reproductive system following low to moderate exposures. Harmful effects on the female reproductive system have not been clearly demonstrated following low to moderate inorganic lead exposure. Harmful reproductive effects have been reported in both men and women following high level exposures.
Despite limitations in human population studies, the overall literature suggests that low to moderate lead exposures are associated with significant male reproductive effects, such as low sperm count and abnormal sperm structure and mobility. Recent reviews conclude that lead is a male reproductive toxicant, producing reduced fertility, at exposure levels that produce a blood lead level exceeding 40 microg/dL or a level exceeding 25 microg/dL for a period of years.(28,29,50,51,54) There is moderate evidence that adverse male reproductive effects (reduced fertility, lowered sperm counts and increased numbers of abnormal sperm) may occur at even lower exposure levels.(50,52,54) In Yugoslavia, 101 male workers exposed to low to high levels of inorganic lead had reduced semen volume and density; reduced total, mobile and viable sperm; and increased numbers of abnormal sperm.(17) Another study of 150 male workers with moderate to high, long-term exposure to inorganic lead compounds showed signs of reduced fertility, as measured by reduced viability of spermatozoa, low sperm counts and abnormal sperm structure.(30) Similar effects have been observed in animal studies.
Associations between workplace exposure of the father and an increased rate of miscarriage or fetal death have also been reported.(31,32) A critical review of the literature which relates these effects directly to the male (that is, through the sperm) indicates the information is limited and incomplete and that published results are conflicting.(7) Therefore, no firm conclusions can be drawn. Historically, these effects have been related to poor hygiene procedures resulting in exposure of a pregnant woman to lead which has been carried home on her partner's work clothing.
There are historical reports of reduced fertility and menstrual disorders in women with relatively high inorganic lead exposures.(7,29) There are no recent human studies which meet current scientific standards. There is no relevant information available for elemental lead. Animal studies using lead acetate, a closely related chemical, are inconclusive.

Mutagenicity:
Lead is considered mutagenic, based on positive results obtained in tests using somatic and germ cells of animals exposed by relevant routes of exposure. Several studies have reported positive results (chromosomal aberrations) in the white blood cells of workers with low to moderate inorganic lead exposure. Other studies have shown no increase in chromosomal aberrations in workers with similar exposures.(1)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Significantly increased kidney toxicity was reported in rats given the related chemical, lead acetate, and selected nitroso- or amide-type chemicals.(20) Nutritional status and exposure to other metals such as calcium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper may influence inorganic lead absorption and toxicity.(1)

Potential for Accumulation:
Inorganic lead compounds are absorbed into the body following inhalation or ingestion. It is estimated that 30-50% of inhaled lead and that 5-15% of ingested lead is absorbed. The amount of lead absorbed is affected by many factors, including particle size (inhalation), as well as age, nutritional status and time of last meal (ingestion). Inorganic lead compounds are poorly absorbed through the skin. Once absorbed, inorganic lead compounds are distributed throughout the body. They can readily cross the placenta, reaching the unborn child. The majority of absorbed lead is excreted in the urine and feces. Small amounts are also excreted in sweat, hair, fingernails and breast milk. Some lead is not excreted, but is stored in the bones and accumulates in the body. It can take more than 20 years for half of the inorganic lead in the bones to be removed from the body. Lead which is released from the bones can cause health effects, even if there is no current exposure to lead. In some cases,lead can be rapidly released from the bones because of fractures, infections or other stresses on the body.(1,2,4,7,15)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is very toxic. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Immediately obtain medical attention.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. Obtain medical advice.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. DO NOT allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, immediately obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eye(s).

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.

Lead can accumulate in the body and cause significant long-term health effects. Medical advice should be sought following any exposure.

Note to Physicians:
Many jurisdictions have specific regulations for lead. These regulations may include requirements for medical surveillance programs, including pre-employment and pre-placement examinations, periodic medical examinations, clinical tests, health education and record keeping. Obtain detailed information from the appropriate government agency in relevant jurisdictions.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Electrical Conductivity:
7.8 (Cu = 100); 4.84 MS/m or 4.84 x 10(18) pS/m at 20 deg C (35) 20.65 microohms.cm at 2O deg C; 27.02 microohms.cm at 100 deg C; 96.73 microohms.cm at 330 deg C (33,35,36)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
When heated in air, forms highly toxic lead oxide fumes.(34,35)

Flammable Properties:

Extinguishing Media:
Lead metal is not combustible and does not support combustion. Use extinguishing media appropriate to surrounding fire conditions.(40) Finely divided lead may ignite and burn.(41) Smother fire with dry sand, clay, ground limestone, or sodium chloride based extinguishers, use approved Class D dry powder extinguishers or blanket the fire with an inert gas such as argon, helium or neon.(42,43)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance.
Move containers from the fire area if it can be done without risk. Confine and smother fire, if possible. Small metal fires can be controlled by the recommended extinguishing agents, but large fires may be impossible to extinguish. In this case isolate the fire, protect surroundings and allow the fire to burn itself out.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Lead and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 207.19

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 327.4 deg C (621.3 deg F) (33,35,36)
Boiling Point: 1740 deg C (3164 deg F) (1,33,36)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 11.34 at 20 deg C (water=1) (33,35,36)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble (1,14)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Nitric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid; insoluble in organic solvents.(1)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not applicable
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Approximately zero at normal room temperature; 0.133 kPa (1 mm Hg) at 980 deg C (35,36)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately zero at normal temperatures (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Critical Temperature: Not applicable

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 2.75 mPa.s (2.75 centipoise) at 327.4 deg C; 1.70 mPa.s (1.70 centipoise) at 550 deg C (molten lead) (35,36)
SURFACE TENSION: 444 mN/m (444 dynes/cm) at 327.4 deg C (molten lead) (36)
ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY: 7.8 (Cu = 100); 4.84 MS/m or 4.84 x 10(18) pS/m at 20 deg C (35)
ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY: 20.65 microohms.cm at 2O deg C; 27.02 microohms.cm at 100 deg C; 96.73 microohms.cm at 330 deg C (33,35,36)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Fresh cut or cast lead surfaces oxidize rapidly to form an insoluble protective layer of basic lead carbonate.(36)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hot concentrated nitric acid, boiling concentrated hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid) - may react vigorously or violently.(34,40)
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE - contact may cause violent decomposition.(41,44)
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE and TRIOXANE - mixtures may be detonated by heat, shock, or spontaneously after contact with metallic lead.(41)
SODIUM AZIDE - may form lead azide, an unstable, explosive compound.(44)
AMMONIUM NITRATE, SODIUM ACETYLIDE, SODIUM CARBIDE or CHLORINE TRIFLUORIDE - react violently or explosively with powdered lead.(41,44)
ZIRCONIUM - an alloy of lead and 10-70% zirconium will ignite when struck with a hammer.(44)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
LEAD POWDER: Generation of dust, sparks, flames or other sources of ignition.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

NOTE: Results from studies with lead acetate are considered relevant for identifying hazards associated with other inorganic lead compounds, including elemental lead, for two reasons. First, it is the lead component of lead acetate which is responsible for the toxic effects observed in these studies. Second, although different inorganic forms of lead have different water solubilities, absorption of inorganic salts following inhalation, which is the main route of occupational exposure, has been demonstrated to be similar.(1) Refer to the CHEMINFO of lead acetate for a detailed review on this chemical.

Standard animal toxicity values (for example, LD50s) are not available for elemental lead.

Studies on the short- and long-term health effects of elemental lead on animals have not been conducted because effects in humans are well-defined.

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that the evidence for carcinogenicity to animals is sufficient for inorganic lead compounds.(47) This conclusion is based on studies with lead acetate and other lead salts, as elemental lead has not been adequately studied.
In one study, oral administration of elemental lead powder, 10 mg/animal, twice a month for 12 months, did not cause more tumours in rats.(20,22)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No relevant information for elemental lead was located. In studies with lead acetate, neurobehavioural effects have occurred in offspring of rats at oral exposures which did not produce maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No relevant information for elemental lead was located. Altered testicular structure, effects on sperm, and effects on hormonal and biochemical processes have been observed in male animals exposed to lead acetate. Results of studies on female animals exposed to lead acetate are inconclusive. Effects on fertility have been observed in multi-generation studies with exposure to lead acetate, but only at doses which have also caused toxicity in the parents.

Mutagenicity:
The mutagenicity of elemental lead has not been investigated in animal or cell systems. In studies with lead acetate, positive results were reported for tests with somatic and germ cells of animals exposed by relevant routes of exposure. Therefore, lead is considered mutagenic.


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for lead. TP-92/12. US Department of Health and Human Services, 1993
(2) The Report on the Designation of Lead in Ontario. Occupational Health and Safety Division, Ontario Ministry of Labour, July 1981
(3) Gosselin, R.E., et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, 1984
(4) Cohen, A.J., et al. Review of lead toxicology relevant to the safety assessment of lead acetate as a hair colouring. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 29, no. 7 (1991). p. 485-507
(5) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993
(6) Lead. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991
(7) Nearing, J.N. Health effects of inorganic lead with an emphasis on the occupational setting: an update. Ontario Ministry of Labour, 1987
(8) The Commission on Lead in the Environment. Health effects of lead. Edited by M.C.B. Hotz. The Royal Society of Canada, Sept. 1986
(9) Hirata, M., et al. Effects of lead exposure on neurophysiological parameters. Environmental Research. Vol. 63, no. 1 (Oct. 1993). p. 60-69
(10) Maizlish, N.A., et al. Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 52, no. 6 (June 1995). p. 408-414
(11) Balbus-Kornfeld, J.M., et al. Cumulative exposure to inorganic lead and neurobehavioural test performance in adults: an epidemiological review. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 52, no. 1 (Jan. 1995). p. 2-12
(12) Otto, D.A., et al. Auditory and visual dysfunction following lead exposure. NeuroToxicology. Vol. 14, no. 2-3 (Summer/Fall 1993). p. 191-208
(13) Matsumoto, T., et al. Relations between lead exposure and peripheral neuromuscular functions of lead-exposed workers: results of tapping test. Environmental Research. Vol. 61, no. 2 (May 1993). p. 299-307
(14) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Inorganic lead. Environmental Health Criteria; 165. World Health Organization, 1995
(15) Toxic effects of metals: lead. In: Casarett and Doull's Toxicology: the basic science of poisons. 5th ed. Edited by M.O. Amdur, et al. McGraw- Hill, 1995. p. 703-709
(16) Gennart, J.P., et al. Assessment of thyroid, testes, kidney and autonomic nervous system function in lead-exposed workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 64, no.1 (1992). p. 49-57
(17) Goyer, R.A. Lead toxicity: current concerns. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 100 (Apr. 1993). p. 177-187
(18) Fischbein, A., et al. The immune system as target for subclinical lead related toxicity. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 50, no. 2 (Feb. 1993). p. 185-186
(19) Cronin, E. Contact dermatitis. Churchill Livingstone, 1980. p. 337- 338
(20) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lead and lead compounds: lead and inorganic lead compounds (Group 2B). In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Suppl. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42. World Health Organization, 1987. p. 65, 230-232
(21) Fu, H., et al. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 52, no. 2 (Feb. 1995). p. 73-81
(22) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Lead and lead compounds. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 23. Some metals and metallic compounds. World Health Organization, July 1980. p. 325-415
(23) Ernhart, C.B. A critical review of low-level prenatal lead exposure in humans. 1. Effects on the fetus and newborn. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 6, no. 1 (1992). p. 9-19
(24) Ernhart, C.B. A critical review of low-level prenatal lead exposure in humans. 2. Effects on the developing child. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 6, no. 1 (1992). p. 21-40
(25) Bellinger, D. Teratogen update: lead. Teratology. Vol. 50, no. 5 (Nov. 1994). p. 367-373
(26) Hatch, M.C. Prenatal and postnatal exposure to lead in relation to infant development: a review. Division of Standards Development and Transfer Technology, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Jan. 1992. (NIOSH Purchase Order No. 0009139428)
(27) Andrews, K.W., et al. Prenatal lead exposure in relation to gestational age and birth weight: a review of epidemiologic studies. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 26, no. 1 (July 1994). p. 13-32
(28) Winder, C. Lead, reproduction and development. NeuroToxicology. Vol. 14, no. 2-3 (Summer/Fall 1993). p. 303-318
(29) Tas, S., et al. Occupational hazards for the male reproductive system. Current Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 3 (1996). p. 261-307
(30) Lancranjan, I., et al. Reproductive ability of workmen occupationally exposed to lead. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 30, no. 8 (Aug. 1975). p. 396-401
(31) Savitz, D.A., et al. Review of epidemiologic studies of paternal occupational exposure and spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 25, no. 3 (Mar. 1994). p. 361-383
(32) Kristensen, P., et al. Perinatal outcome among children of men exposed to lead and organic solvents in the printing industry. American Journal of Epidemiology. Vol. 137, no. 2 (Jan. 15, 1993). p. 134-144
(33) Budavari, S, ed. The Merck index: an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 12th ed. Merck and Co., Inc., 1996
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-05-27

Revision Indicators:
TLV comments 1998-08-01
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
EU Comments 2000-04-01
TLV basis 2004-01-04
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-29
PEL final comments 2004-01-29
PEL-TWA transitional 2004-01-29
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-29
Toxicological info 2004-03-15
Mutagenicity 2004-03-15
WHMIS proposed classification 2004-03-15
WHMIS classification comments 2004-03-15
WHMIS health effects 2004-03-15
WHMIS detailed classification 2004-08-25
Emergency overview 2004-08-25
Handling 2004-09-28
Carcinogenicity 2005-02-02
Bibliography 2005-09-26
Reproductive toxicity 2005-09-26
Conversion factor 2006-10-05
Vapour density 2006-10-05



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