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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 755
CCOHS Chemical Name: Hydrodesulfurized kerosene

Synonyms:
Hydrodesulphurized kerosene
Hydrodesulfurized kerosine
Kerosene (non-specific name)

CAS Registry Number: 64742-81-0
UN/NA Number(s): 1223
RTECS Number(s): OA5510000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 265-184-9
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex mixture of C9-C16 hydrocarbons. See Composition/purity.
Structural Formula: Complex mixture.

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Water-white to pale yellow, mobile, oily, liquid with characteristic, mild petroleum odour.

Odour Threshold:
Not available.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Evaluation of the hazards of petroleum distillates is complicated by the fact that composition can vary greatly depending upon the original source of the crude oil, the degree and type of processing and confusion surrounding definition of these compounds. In some cases, the same synonym has been used to describe chemicals with very different compositions and associated hazards. Hydrodesulfurized kerosene is produced by treating a complex combination of hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum stock with hydrogen to convert organic sulfur to hydrogen sulfide which is then removed. Hydrodesulfurized kerosene is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (C9-16) which boils in the range of approximately 150-260 deg C.(4) The boiling range of kerosenes generally precludes the presence of substantial quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's).(2) This CHEMINFO record is based on literature which specifically identifies the test compound as hydrodesulfurized kerosene and on general information for related petroleum distillates. CHEMINFO record 21 reviews information available for straight-run kerosene (CAS 8008-20- 6). CHEMINFO record 761 reviews information available for deodorized kerosene.

Uses and Occurrences:
The most important use of kerosenes is in blending aviation fuels. Kerosenes are also used as domestic and industrial heating fuels and as solvents in the formulation of a wide range of products including cleaning compositions, insecticides, antifoams and mould release agents.(4)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Water-white to pale yellow, oily, liquid with characteristic, mild petroleum odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Causes skin irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
There is no specific information available for hydrodesulfurized kerosene. Like other petroleum distillates, exposure to the mist or vapour may cause symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression such as headache, dizziness, light-headedness, nausea and vomiting, similar to other petroleum distillates.

Skin Contact:
Hydrodesulfurized kerosene is probably a moderate skin irritant, based on animal and limited human information. In 24-hour patch tests, 85% "refined" kerosene produced some reaction in all 34 human volunteers tested, while 40% produced no reaction.(1) It is not clear if the compound tested was hydrodesulfurized kerosene, or not.

Eye Contact:
Hydrodesulfurized kerosene is not expected to be an eye irritant, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
Accidental ingestion of kerosene has frequently been reported in the literature, primarily with children. Often in these cases, kerosene has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting) causing severe lung damage and, in some cases, death. It is not possible to determine from the literature whether the type of kerosene ingested was specifically hydrodesulfurized kerosene or not. However, it is expected that hydrodesulfurized kerosene would be easily aspirated. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN: Hydrodesulfurized kerosene can probably cause irritation and/or dermatitis with repeated or prolonged contact, based on information available for kerosenes in general.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. Animal studies indicate that hydrodesulfurized kerosene is a tumour promoter, but does not initiate tumour formation. IARC has evaluated occupational exposures in petroleum refining but did not specifically evaluate hydrodesulfurized kerosene. IARC has concluded there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of straight-run kerosene (CAS 8008-20-6) in experimental animals.(2)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

This IARC listing is for distillate light fuel oils (including kerosene).(2)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for hydrodesulfurized kerosene. No harmful effects were observed in one animal study following the administration of straight-run kerosene (see CHEMINFO 21 for more information).

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Positive results were obtained in one test with mammalian somatic cells, but the route of exposure was injection. Other tests have been negative.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
There is no information available on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of hydrodesulfurized kerosene.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs. (240 to 300 ml) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
60 deg C (140 deg F) (closed cup) (NOTE: Data are given for USA samples; typical European sample flash points would be in the range 40- 45 deg C (104-113 deg F)) (4)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available.

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available.

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
230 deg C (446 deg F) (value for typical kerosene) (4)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Kerosenes have low electrical conductivity and therefore liquid can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation.(4) Vapour can be ignited by an electrostatic discharge of sufficient energy.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions. A complex mixture of airborne material (solid, liquid, and gas) will evolve during pyrolysis or combustion. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur oxides (depending on concentrations of nitrogen-containing compounds and sulfur) and unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 60 deg C. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous gases may be generated. Vapour from heated kerosene can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and flammability hazard. Containers may explode in heat of fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, foam, water spray or fog. Do not use water to fight the fire, except as a fog. Sand or earth may be useful for containment for small fires.(4)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to put out the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, keep cooling streams of water on fire-exposed tanks or containers to prevent vapour pressure build-up which could rupture the container, and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Although hydrodesulfurized kerosene is only slightly hazardous to health, its decomposition products are hazardous. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex mixture.

Conversion Factor:
Not available

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: Range: 175-284 deg C (347-543.2 deg F) (4); 150-290 deg C (302-554 deg F) (2,11)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.82 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (4)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble
Solubility in Other Liquids: Probably soluble in all proportions with other petroleum solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P (oct): 3.3-6+ (4)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Kinematic: 1.1-2.5 mm2/s (1.1-2.5 centistokes) at 20 deg C (4)
Vapour Density: Not available
Vapour Pressure: Not available
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available
Evaporation Rate: Not available.

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, chlorine or fluorine) - risk of fire and explosion.(13)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Information not available. Probably not corrosive.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 5000 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure); cited as 5 mg/L (no deaths) (3)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 5000 mg/kg (no deaths) (3)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (no deaths) (3)

Eye Irritation:

Application of 0.1 mL was practically non-irritating in rabbits (Draize scores: 0.3 at 24 and 48 hours, unwashed eyes; 0.7 at 24 hours and 0.0 at 48 hours, washed eyes).(3)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.5 mL to intact and abraded rabbit skin for 24 hours produced moderate irritation (scored 4.4).(3)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Animal evidence suggests that hydrodesulfurized kerosene has low short-term toxicity.(3,4)

Inhalation:
Only minor inflammation of the respiratory tract was observed in rats following inhalation of 0.024 mg/l of hydrodesulfurized kerosene for 4 weeks.(4)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
One study which investigated the effects of inhaling aerosols from various types of kerosene (lamp fuel kerosene, lamp fuel export types A and B) cannot be evaluated due to poor definition of the materials being tested.(5,6)

Skin Contact:
Repeated dermal application of hydrodesulfurized kerosene at doses of 200, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg, 3/week for 4 weeks resulted in moderate to severe skin irritation, flaking scabbing and ulceration at the treatment sites and reduced weight gain in rabbits.(4)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results were obtained in guinea pigs.(3)

Carcinogenicity:
Dermal application of 50 microlitre doses of hydrodesulfurized kerosene twice weekly to male mice for a lifetime produced an non-statistically significant increase in the incidence of skin tumours, with a malignant tumour incidence of 59% compared to a 0% incidence in controls. The incidence of malignant tumours was statistically significant.(7) In follow-up initiation/promotion studies, hydrodesulfurized kerosene was shown to be a tumour promoter, but not an initiator.(7,8)

Mutagenicity:
Positive results were obtained in bone marrow cytogenetics tests in male mice following the injection of 400, 2000 or 4000 mg/kg. Negative results have also been obtained in bone marrow cytogenetics tests with rats and female mice following injection.(4)
Negative results have been obtained in all in vitro tests (cultured mouse lymphoma cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells, both with and without metabolic activation and bacteria, without metabolic activation).(4)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Tagami, H., et al. Kerosine dermatitis. Dermatologica. Vol. 146 (1973). p. 123-131
(2) Fuel oils (heating oils). In: IARC Monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining; crude oil and major petroleum fuels. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1989. p. 72-81, 105-117
(3) Vernot, E.H., et al. Acute toxicologic evaluation of hydrosulfurized kerosine. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B. Vol. 1 (1990). p. 31-32
(4) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product dossier no. 94/106. CONCAWE, 1995.
(5) Volkova, A.P., et al. The toxicity of kerosene used as solvent in aerosol cylinders. [Abstract]. Gigiena i Sanitariia. Vol. 34 (1969). p. 24-29
(6) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to refined petroleum solvents. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, July, 1977.
(7) Skisak, C., et al. Chronic and initiation/promotion skin bioassays of petroleum refinery streams. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 102, no. 1 (1994). p. 82-87
(8) Skisak, C. The role of chronic acanthoses and subacute inflammation in tumour promotion in CD-1 mice by petroleum middle distillates. Toxicology and Applied pharmacology. Vol. 109 (1991). p. 399-411
(9) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for jet fuels (JP-5 and JP-8). Draft for public comment. US Department of Health and Human Services, August, 1996
(10) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 184-185
(11) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994
(12) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(13) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Rapid guide to chemical incompatibilities. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997
(14) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-02-25

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-03-01
Resistance of material 1998-05-01
Acute exposure (inhalation) 1998-06-01
TLV comments 1998-06-01
Vapour density 1998-06-01
Vapour pressure 1998-06-01
Saturation 1998-06-01
Evaporation 1998-06-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Comments 1998-11-01
Bibliography 1998-11-01
EU Safety 1998-11-01
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-02-01
NFPA (health) 2003-05-07
NFPA (flammability) 2003-05-07
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-05-07
LFL/LEL 2003-05-07
UFL/UEL 2003-05-07
Evaporation rate 2003-05-07
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV basis 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-26
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-05
Bibliography 2004-04-05



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