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CHEMINFO Record Number: 21
CCOHS Chemical Name: Straight-run Kerosene

Kerosene (non-specific name)
Coal oil
Straight-run kerosine
Fuel oil no. 1
Range oil

Chemical Name French: Kérosène
Chemical Name Spanish: Queroseno (petroleo)
CAS Registry Number: 8008-20-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1223
RTECS Number(s): OA5500000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 232-366-4
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex mixture
Structural Formula: Complex mixture


Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to pale yellow liquid with characteristic, mild petroleum odour.

Odour Threshold:
0.5517 mg/m3 (33)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - Characteristic odour is identifiable well below the NIOSH REL.

Kerosene is a complex mixture of petroleum hydrocarbons, chiefly paraffins (decane-hexadecane), with a small fraction of aromatic and cyclic hydrocarbons. The composition varies widely according to the source and composition of the crude oil stocks and with the method of refining. Sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen compounds may be present as impurities. The boiling range of kerosenes generally precludes the presence of substantial quantities of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's).(20) Deodorized kerosene is not included in this review because it has undergone additional distillation and refining. See CHEMINFO record 761 for information on Deodorized kerosene. Hydrodesulfurized kerosene has also undergone additional processing and is reviewed in CHEMINFO record 755. Jet fuel (aviation kerosene) has the same CAS number as kerosene, but it is made under more stringent specifications, includes more light distillates and contains additives.(1,20) Therefore, it is not included in this review.

Uses and Occurrences:
Fuel for lamps, flares and stoves; diesel fuel for automobiles and tractors; vehicle for paints, thinners, enamels, polishes and varnishes; carrier for pesticides; cleaning and degreasing solvent; mould release agent in the ceramic and pottery industry; solvent in asphalt coating; illuminating and heating fuels.(1,17,20,32)


Colourless to pale yellow liquid with characteristic, mild petroleum odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Causes skin irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting may result in aspiration (inhalation of the liquid) into the lungs.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Like other petroleum distillates, straight-run kerosene may produce symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression such as headache, nausea, dizziness and lightheadedness and vomiting.
One review paper attributes symptoms such as excitement, headache, visual and auditory hallucinations, delirium and mania, fatigue, somnolence, staggering gait, sleepiness, loss of consciousness, loss of memory, gastrointestinal disturbances, bronchitis and pneumonia to a kerosene exposure (cited from a 1931 German reference).(32) It is not possible to evaluate these statements due to lack of detail on the exposure and information required to properly identify the compound as kerosene. The irritating concentration was reported as 120 mg/m3.(33)

Skin Contact:
Kerosene is a moderate to severe skin irritant. A volunteer exposed to undiluted kerosene, under a patch for 24 hours, developed severe irritation with redness and blistering of the skin. In the same study, application of 0.1 mL, under a patch for 24 hours, to 34 volunteers showed that a 40% solution in mineral oil produced no effect, while faint redness with blistering was seen in everyone exposed to an 85% solution in mineral oil.(24) Animal evidence also shows that kerosene is a moderate to severe skin irritant.
Animal evidence has shown that kerosene is only minimally absorbed through the skin and acute toxic effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
Kerosene is probably only a mild eye irritant. There is no human information available but animal evidence shows that it is practically non-irritating.

Accidental oral ingestion of kerosene has frequently been reported in the literature, primarily with children. Often in these cases, kerosene has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting) causing severe lung damage, and, in some cases, death.
Several hours after ingesting an unknown quantity of kerosene, a man experienced CNS effects such as headache and intense difficulty breathing, followed by vomiting, severe upper to middle abdominal pain and malaise. Acute disease of the bronchioles and lungs, fever and marked jaundice (indicating liver toxicity) developed. Complete recovery occurred after several weeks.(21) In another case, 2 adults ingested kerosene during fire-eating demonstrations. A dramatic reduction in blood lipids accompanied fever and pulmonary effects. Recovery occurred in 45 days for one and 15 days for the other.(22)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

SKIN: Long-term dermal exposure to kerosene has produced dermatitis. In one study, 34 of 79 female employees had direct heavy exposure of their hands to kerosene for 5 hours/day. The other 45 employees were lightly exposed. Most workers complained of an itching, burning or painful sensation at the site of exposure. Dermatoses were present in 91% of the heavy exposure group and 78% of the light exposure group. The most common finding was redness, followed by eczema.(27) In another study, 19 of 50 people working with kerosene developed dryness, cracks and follicular changes in the skin of the hands. Duration of exposure ranged from 1 to 15 years.(29) Kerosene retailers who were frequently in contact with kerosene developed itching, reddening, peeling and chapping of the skin.(20)
In animal studies, repeated application has produced significant reductions in body weight and body weight gains, reversible blood changes, as well as reversible decreases in the weight of some glands. Severe skin effects have also been observed.
INHALATION: One review paper attributes symptoms such as headache, vertigo, neuralgia, loss of memory, blood changes, respiratory disturbances, anesthesia and polyneuritis to kerosene exposure (as cited in a 1931 German reference).(32) It is not possible to evaluate these statements due to lack of detail on the exposures and information required to properly identify the petroleum distillate as kerosene. Another paper reported an increased prevalence of slight lung fibrosis in 25 cable plant workers exposed to mists and vapours of mineral oils and kerosene over a period of 5 to 35 years.(26) The limitations of this study (for example, exposures to other chemicals and additives) do not allow conclusions regarding kerosene to be drawn.
BLOOD EFFECTS: There is a single occupational case report in which a severe reduction in the number of red blood cells (hypoplastic anemia) was associated with kerosene exposure during degreasing operations.(30) Although the individual did have extensive kerosene exposure during the 3 years prior to diagnosis, approximately 20 years earlier he had experienced lead poisoning (known to cause anemia). Therefore, it is not possible to attribute the anemia to the kerosene exposure.
There are 3 non-occupational case reports where the exposed individuals developed bone marrow depression.(28) These case reports were published in 1963 and it is possible that there was a high benzene content in the kerosene at the time. Since benzene is known to cause severe blood effects such as leucopenia, it is not possible to draw any association between the development of leucopenia and kerosene exposure.
OTHER: Recent epidemiological studies have found associations between long-term solvent exposure, including kerosene, and certain effects such as multiple sclerosis (38) and urinary cellular sediment (39). No conclusions can be drawn from these observations due to mixed exposure, small numbers of cases reviewed, relationship to health effects not established and other limiting factors.


Repeated application of a high dose resulted in an increased incidence of skin tumours in one animal study. In a large case-control study, screening analyses indicated an association between kerosene and stomach cancer. However, in-depth analyses showed the association was entirely attributable to a stomach cancer risk among forestry workers that was unrelated to kerosene exposure.(31)
IARC has concluded there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of straight-run kerosene (CAS 8008-20-6) in experimental animals.(20)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

This IARC listing is for distillate light fuel oils (including kerosene).(21)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. One animal study found no evidence of teratogenicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

There is no human information available. In vivo and in vitro animal tests have been negative, as have standard Ames tests.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Kerosene increased the reactivity of guinea pig skin to 2,4- dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), a sensitizing agent.(9)

Potential for Accumulation:
Insufficient information is available on the absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of kerosene.(20).


Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air and obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs (240 to 300 mL) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
Complex mixture. Range: 38-72 deg C (100-162 deg F) (closed cup) (4,23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.7% (4,23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
5.0% (4,23)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
210 deg C (410 deg F) (23)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable compounds.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Liquid can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation due to its low electrical conductivity.(25) Vapours from heated liquid, at concentrations in the flammable range, can be ignited by a static discharge.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions. A complex mixture of airborne material (solid, liquid, and gas) will evolve during pyrolysis or combustion. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur oxides and unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 38 deg C. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxc and/or hazardous gases may be generated. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity and explosion hazard. Contains may explode in heat of fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Do not use water to fight the fire, except as a fog. Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire, due to vapour pressure build-up. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Although kerosene is only slightly hazardous to health, its decomposition products are hazardous. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.


NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.


Molecular Weight: Complex mixture; reported to be 170 - 180.(1,4)

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6.94-7.35 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.144-0.136 ppm (molecular weight 170-180) (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -45.6 deg C (-50 deg F) (Freezing point) (4)
Boiling Point: Range: 125-292 deg C (257-558 deg F) (40)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.81 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (40)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (17)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with other petroleum solvents.(17)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log Poct = 3.3 - greater than 6 (40)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 4.5 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 1.4 kPa (10.5 mm Hg) at 37.8 deg C (40)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 13820 ppm (1.38%) at 37.8 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available; Deodorized kerosene: approximately 0.01 (n-butyl acetate = 1)
Critical Temperature: Not available.

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 1.5 to 2.5 mm2/s (1.5 to 2.5 centistokes) at 20 deg C (40)
SURFACE TENSION: 23-32 mN/m (23-32 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (17)


Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, chlorine and fluorine) - risk of fire and explosion.(4)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Information not available. Probably not corrosive.


LC50 (rat): greater than 5000 mg/m3 (680-720 ppm) (4-hour exposure); cited as 5 mg/L (16)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 5000 mg/kg (16)
LD50 (aspiration, rat): approximately 600-800 mg/kg (cited as 0.2 mL) (5)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): approximately 16300 mg/kg (cited as 20.308 mL/kg) (2)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (16)

Eye Irritation:

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted kerosene was practically non-irritating to rabbits.(16)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.5 mL to the intact or abraded rabbit skin in a standard Draize test caused severe irritation.(16) Application of 0.5 mL undiluted kerosene produced moderate irritation in male guinea pigs and was not irritating to rabbits.(10) Covered application of 0.5 mL undiluted straight-run kerosene to the intact and abraded skin of rabbits produced moderate irritation. Tissue death was observed in 3/6 animals at day 7 after dosing. In another test, application of 0.5 mL undiluted kerosene to rabbits produced severe irritation.(36)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Reduced activity was the only reported effect in rats exposed by inhalation to 5000 mg/m3 (cited as 5 mg/L) for 4 hours.(16)

Skin Contact:
Application of approximately 5000 mg/kg (cited as 0.1 mL) kerosene to the foot pads of mice for 30 or 60 minutes produced no signs of intoxication.(13)

If ingested, kerosene is very readily aspirated into the lungs. If aspiration occurs, there is extensive damage to the lungs with edema and hemorrhaging and death with rapid onset.(5,6,8) Oral exposure, without aspiration, has produced central nervous system effects, such as dyspnea, drowsiness, rapid breathing, reduced activity, weakness, diarrhea and convulsions.(3,5,16)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Guinea pigs exposed to 20400 to 34000 mg/m3 (cited as 20.4 to 34 mg/L) kerosene aerosols for 15 minutes/day for 21 consecutive days developed cardiovascular changes resembling early atherosclerosis.(9)

Skin Contact:
Repeated application has produced significant reductions in body weight and body weight gains, reversible blood changes, as well as reversible decreases in the weight of some glands. Severe skin effects such as redness, swelling, scaling and cracking, tissue death and hair loss have also been observed. Covered application of approx. 5000 mg/kg (cited as 0.1 mL) to male mice for 15, 30 or 60 minutes for 7 days produced no mortality and no changes in body weight gain. There were significant, but reversible, changes in blood parameters and decreases in the relative weight of some glands (thymus, spleen, adrenals and abdominal lymph).(13) In another study, up to 2000 mg/kg of straight-run kerosene was applied to the shaved, intact skin of rabbits 3 times a week for 4 weeks. Significantly reduced mean body weights and mean body weight gains and two deaths were observed at 2000 mg/kg. Redness, swelling, cracked, flaky, and/or leathery skin, crusts and/or hair loss were observed at all doses. Significantly higher mean relative heart weights were observed in males at 1000 and 2000 mg/kg. Absolute and relative spleen weights for females exposed to 200 and 1000 mg/m3 were also significantly higher.(34) Straight-run kerosene was applied undiluted in single daily doses of 0, 300, 950 or 3000 mg/kg to the unabraded or abraded skin of rabbits for 3 weeks. Significant reductions in body weights and body weight gains were observed at all doses. Severe dermal irritation with redness, swelling, hair loss, scaling and scabbing of the skin occurred.(35) Application to female mice 3 times/week for up to 6 weeks produced folliculitis and inflammation of the skin around hair follicles with hair loss. Throughout the 6 week period, there were repeated cycles of tissue death and healing responses.(12) In another study, application of approximately 2400 mg/kg (cited as 3 mL/kg) onto rabbit skin for 6 days produced some local loss of hair with scaling and cracking of the skin but no systemic toxicity.(2)

Skin Sensitization:
No effects were noted in standard sensitization studies using guinea pigs.(16)

Repeated application of a high dose has resulted in an increased incidence of skin tumours. Application of 2000 mg/kg kerosene to shaven skin was made twice weekly to groups of 50 male mice for 80 weeks or until a papilloma larger than 1 mm3 appeared. In two groups tested, 9/30 and 4/27 survivors had skin tumours with a mean latent period of 70 or 62 weeks respectively.(18,20)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No evidence of teratogenicity was found in rats exposed by inhalation to 100 or 365 ppm 6 hours/day from day 6-15 of gestation.(11)

Kerosene was not mutagenic in two in vivo mutagenicity tests using rats and mice.(15,20)
Kerosene produced negative results in one in vitro test on mammalian cells, in the presence or absence of a metabolic system.(20) Straight-run kerosene was mutagenic in an Ames test that was modified to increase sensitivity for petroleum distillation fractions.(37) However, kerosene produced negative results in standard Ames testing, in the presence or absence of a metabolic system.(18,20)


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cavender, F. Aromatic Hydrocarbons. In: Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. 4th edition. Volume II. Toxicology. Part B. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 1396-1397, 1404, 1410-1413
(2) Deichmann, W.B., et al. Kerosene intoxication. Annals of Internal Medicine. Vol. 21, no. 5 (November, 1944). p. 803-823
(3) Narasimhan, M.J., et al. Experimental studies on kerosene poisoning. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 25 (1967). p. 214-224
(4) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 184-185
(5) Gerarde, H.W. Toxicological studies on hydrocarbons. V. Kerosine. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 1, no. 5 (September, 1959). p. 462-474
(6) Wolfsdorf, J., et al. Kerosene poisoning in primates. South African Medical Journal. Vol. 45, no. 20 (May 13, 1972). p. 619-621
(7) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(8) Goodwin, S.R., et al. Kerosene aspiration: immediate and early pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 30, no. 6 (December, 1988). p. 521-524
(9) Noa, M., et al. Induction of aortic plaques in guinea pigs by exposure to kerosene. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 42, no. 1 (January/February, 1987). p. 31-36
(10) Roudabush, R.L., et al. Comparative acute effects of some chemicals on the skin of rabbits and guinea pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 7 (1965). p. 559-565
(11) Schreiner, C.A. Petroleum and petroleum products: a brief review of studies to evaluate reproductive effects. In: Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology. Volume III. Assessment of Reproductive and Teratogenic Hazards. Edited by: M.S. Christian, et al. Princeton Scientific Publishers, 1984. p. 29-31
(12) Ingram, A.J., et al. The early changes in mouse skin following topical application of a range of middle distillate oil products. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 4 (1993) p. 247-257
(13) Upreti, R.K, et al. Dermal exposure to kerosene. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. Vol. 31, no. 1 (February, 1989). p. 16-20
(14) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. December 19, 1994
(15) McKee, R.H., et al. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 23 (1994). p. 234-238
(16) Vernot, E.H., et al. Acute toxicological evaluation of straight run kerosine. Journal of the American College of Toxicology, Part B. Vol. 1 (1990). p. 30-31
(17) HSDB record for kerosene. Last revision date: 96/09/04
(18) Blackburn, G.R., et al. Estimation of the dermal carcinogenic potency of petroleum fractions using a modified Ames assay. In: Polyaromatic hydrocarbons: a decade of progress. Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium. Edited by M. Cooke, et al. Battelle Press, 1988. p. 83-97
(19) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to refined petroleum products. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1977.
(20) Fuel oils (heating oils). In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining; crude oil and major petroleum fuels. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1989. p. 72-77, 203-218, 239-270
(21) Truffa, O., et al. Acute pneumopathy and icterus from accidental ingestion of kerosene. Minerva Medica. Vol. 60, no. 30 (1969). p. 1403- 1406. (English Translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00074137)
(22) Basdevant, A., et al. Hypolipidaemia in fire-eaters. Lancet. Vol. 2, no. 8505 (August 30, 1986). p. 526
(23) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325 (Fuel oil no. 1)
(24) Tagami, H., et al. Kerosine dermatitis. Dermatologica. Vol. 146 (1973). p. 123-131
(25) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 683
(26) Skyberg, K., et al. Pulmonary fibrosis in cable plant workers exposed to mist and vapor of petroleum distillates. Environmental Research. Vol. 40 (1986). p. 261-273
(27) Jee, S-H., et al. Prevalence of probable kerosene dermatoses among ball-bearing factory workers. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 12 (1985). p. 61-65
(28) Hiebel, J., et al. Bone marrow depression following exposure to kerosene: a report of 3 cases. The American Journal of the Medical Sciences. Vol. 246 (August, 1963). p. 91-97/185-191
(29) Rogaylin, V.I. Early skin lesions caused by common industrial solvents. Vestnik Dermatologii i Venerologii. Vol. 39, no. 6 (1965). p. 24-29. (English Translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00103039)
(30) Johnson, D.E. Hypoplastic anemia following chronic exposure to kerosene, Journal of the American Medical Women's Association. Vol. 10, no. 12 (December, 1955). p. 421-424
(31) Siemiatycki, J., et al. Associations between several sites of cancer and twelve petroleum-derived liquids: results from a case-referent study in Montreal. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health. Vol. 13 (1987). p. 493-504
(32) API Toxicological Review. Kerosine. Second Edition. American Petroleum Institute, 1967.
(33) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (March, 1985). p. A 147
(34) 28-Day dermal toxicity study of straight run kerosene in rabbits with cover letter dated 061092. Unpublished report. Shell Oil Company, 1986. (EPA/OTS 0541008)
(35) Three-week dermal toxicity study of straight run kerosene in rabbits (final report) with cover letter dated 022592. Unpublished report. Amoco Corp., 1985. (EPA/OTS 0533973)
(36) Letter from Arco Chemical Co. submitting 3 primary dermal irritation studies with Arcojet A-1, straight run kerosene, and kerosene in rabbits. Arco Chemical Co. July 28, 1992. (EPA/OTS 0544082)
(37) Blackburn, B.R., et al. Predicting carcinogenicity of petroleum distillation fractions using a modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Cell Biology and Toxicology. Vol. 2, no. 1 (1986). p. 63-84
(38) Landtblom, A.M., et al. Multiple sclerosis and exposure to solvents, ionizing radiation and animals. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 19, no. 6 (1993). p. 399-404
(39) Hashimoto, D., et al. The presence of urinary cellular sediment and albuminuria in newspaper pressworkers exposed to solvents. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 33, no. 4 (1991). p. 516-526
(40) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product dossier no. 94/106. CONCAWE, April, 1995
(41) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(42) American Petroleum Institute. Robust summary of information on kerosene/jet fuel. Dec. 20, 2003

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 1997-03-24

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-03-01
Acute exposure (inhalation) 1998-06-01
Conversion factor 1998-06-01
Vapour pressure 1998-06-01
Saturation 1998-06-01
Evaporation 1998-06-01
Partition coefficient 1998-06-01
Boiling point 1998-06-01
Relative density 1998-06-01
EU Risk 1998-11-01
EU Comments 1998-11-01
EU Safety 1998-11-01
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-02-01
TLV comments 2002-06-03
Synonyms 2003-05-07
NFPA (health) 2003-05-07
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV basis 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-05-26
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-05
Bibliography 2004-04-05
Bibliography 2006-06-26

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