The following information has been extracted from our CHEMINFO database, which also contains hazard control and regulatory information. [More about...] [Sample Record]

Access the complete CHEMINFO database by contacting CCOHS Client Services.

 
SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 777
CCOHS Chemical Name: JP-5

Synonyms:
Aviation kerosene (non-specific name)
Aviation turbine fuel (non-specific name)
AVJET
Distillate fuel oils, light (non-specific name)
Jet fuel (non-specific name)
Jet Fuel 5
Jet kerosine (non-specific name)
JP-5 jet fuel
Turbine engine aviation fuel (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Kérosène
Chemical Name Spanish: Queroseno (petroleo)
CAS Registry Number: 8008-20-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1863
RTECS Number(s): NY9350000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 232-366-4
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate / aviation turbine fuel
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a kerosene-like odour.(14)

Odour Threshold:
Not available; 0.5517 mg/m3 (unspecified kerosene) (20)

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
The most important aspect of evaluating the hazards of any petroleum distillate is accurate definition of the material in question. The source of the crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps influence the composition and hazards of the resulting petroleum distillate. Many commercial jet fuels have basically the same composition as kerosene, but they are made under more stringent specifications and contain various additives. JP-5 composition specifications are established by the US Navy and published in the US Department of Defense performance specification MIL-PRF- 5624S.(21). There is no standard formula for JP-5. The straight-run kerosene stream is used for aviation fuel production. JP-5 is a mixture of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9-C16. It typically contains approximately 30% aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes), 53% alicyclic hydrocarbons (cycloalkanes), 16-20% aromatic hydrocarbons and 0.5 to 1% olefins.(14) According to the specification, the maximum allowed level of aromatic hydrocarbons is 25% (by volume). The benzene content of JP-5 is normally below 0.02% and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are not expected to be present. Total sulfur (0.4% by mass) and mercaptan sulfur (0.002% by mass) are present as impurities. JP-5 has a distillation range of less than 206-300 deg C (403-572 deg F). The physical properties given in this review are either for specific products, from the specification or for straight-run kerosene (CAS 8008-20-6). Specification MIL-PRF-5624S lists a number of additives that may be used with JP-5. Typical additives include an antioxidant (e.g. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4- methylphenol, 6-tert-butyl-2,4-dimethylphenol, and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol), a metal deactivator (e.g. N,N-disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine or N,N- disalicylidene-1,2-cyclohexanediamine), a corrosion inhibitor, a fuel system icing inhibitor (0.15-0.20 volume % (specification)), and a static dissipator additive (Stadis 450). A lubricity improver may also be added.(21) The presence of additives can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of a product. Consult the manufacturer/supplier of your specific product for additional information.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as an aviation fuel in navy jets.(10,14,22)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a kerosene-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as unidentified organic compounds may be generated. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Very high concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting may result in aspiration (inhalation of the liquid) into the lungs. May contain CARCINOGENIC benzene and hazardous additives.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Based on comparison to straight-run kerosene, JP-5 probably evaporates readily at room temperature. Exposure to high concentrations of vapour can cause central nervous system depression. Symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression include dizziness, headache, nausea, fatigue, vomiting and incoordination. Severe exposures may result in unconsciousness and death. Two pilots heavily exposed (concentration unknown) to JP-5 vapours experienced symptoms of central nervous system depression such as nausea, headache, fatigue, light-headedness and impaired judgement and hand-eye coordination.(1)
More than 2/3 of 29 aircraft factory workers exposed to unspecified jet fuels reported that they repeatedly experienced dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, irregular heart beat, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea and/or headache following exposure.(2) In another study, airmen exposed to jet fuel during fuel cell repair occasionally reported dizziness, headaches and incoordination.(3)

Skin Contact:
JP-5 is a non-irritant to very mild skin irritant based on animal studies. Prolonged (24-hour) exposure to straight-run kerosene, a major component of jet fuel, has produced moderate to severe irritation in humans.
No specific dermal toxicity information was located for JP-5. Animal evidence for other jet fuels indicates that they are only minimally absorbed through the skin and harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
JP-5 is not irritating to the eyes based on animal information. Studies with other jet fuels have also shown no to slight irritation. No human information was located regarding direct contact with jet fuels or kerosene.
Two pilots heavily exposed to JP-5 (concentration unknown) experienced a burning sensation in the eyes with redness, tearing and itching.(1)

Ingestion:
In animal studies, the oral toxicity of jet fuels, including JP-5, is very low. There are no reported cases of human ingestion of jet fuel, but the accidental ingestion of kerosene, primarily in children, has been frequently reported in the literature. Often in these cases, the kerosene has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting). Severe lung damage and deaths have resulted. It is expected that jet fuel would also be easily aspirated. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Jet fuels are complex mixtures which can have variable composition (see "Composition/Purity" above). In addition, there is only a small amount of information available about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels available and often there are serious limitations to the studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any firm conclusions about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels.

SKIN: Repeated skin contact with jet fuels would likely result in dry, cracked, red skin (dermatitis), like kerosene.(4)

EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: It is not possible to draw any firm conclusions from the available studies because of the small number of employees studied, poor or no exposure information and the possibility that other exposures could have caused the observed effects.
Studies of a small number of employees (29-30) with long-term exposure to jet fuel concentrations which may have been as high as 3000 ppm reported psychiatric symptoms (e.g. anxiety or mental depression), poorer performance in some psychological tests and reduced sensorimotor speed. These employees also reported significant short-term health effects.(2,5) Another study reported memory problems, fatigue, moodiness, unsteadiness, and headache in 9 employees exposed to jet fuel for 15 to 41 years.(6) Another study showed a relationship between changes in postural balance in 27 subjects and exposure to jet fuels (average duration 12 years).(7)

A single case report describes symptoms of polyneuropathy such as pain, tingling, and numbness in the feet, legs, hands and arms in a man who had been exposed to jet fuel and other fuels for 30 years. The authors attribute these effects to exposure to n-hexane, a possible component of some jet fuels. Estimated exposure concentrations were up to 100 mg/m3 in the first 10 years, then lower.(8) It is not possible to draw conclusions from this single case report.

EFFECTS ON THE LIVER: It is not clear from the one study available that jet fuel exposure was responsible for the observed effect. In this study, 91 fuel filling attendants exposed to jet fuel showed increased liver metabolism during exposure compared to after summer vacation (unexposed for 2 or 4 weeks). A similar but smaller effect was observed in unexposed office workers.(9)

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuel in humans.(10) However, JP-5 can contain up to 0.02% benzene, a known carcinogen.
A study of 2176 employees with long-term exposure to jet fuel, as well as other fuels and chemicals, found no increase in the frequency of cancers even when duration of employment, latency, occupation or type of exposure were considered. This study was limited by the rather short follow-up (10 years).(10,11)
A study of 3726 cancer patients related their exposure to petroleum-derived liquids to the incidence of cancer by specific site. An association was observed between jet fuel exposure and kidney cancer.(10,12) However, this was a very preliminary study and no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Other jet fuels, but not JP-5, have caused skin tumours in animals following dermal application of doses that caused severe skin irritation and ulceration.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for JP-5. In a small number of animal studies, other jet fuels have not caused harmful effects in the unborn in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. In one study, no effects on the reproductive system were observed in mice following dermal exposure for 2 years.

Mutagenicity:
No human or live animal studies have been reported. Negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
There is no information available on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of JP-5.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical attention immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if the victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 ozs) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Minimum: 60 deg C (140 deg F) (closed cup) (21); Range: 53-68 deg C (127-154 deg F) (closed cup); Average: 62 deg (144 deg F) (closed cup) for 63 commercial samples (23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.6% (24)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
4.6% (24)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Approximately 246 deg C (approximately 475 deg F) (25)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable compound.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Like straight-run kerosene, JP-5 probably has a low electrical conductivity and therefore can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation.(26) An additive is added to dissipate charge more rapidly. The allowable electrical conductivity range is not given in the specification. Vapours from heated liquid, at concentrations in the flammable range, can be ignited by a static discharge.(26)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions and the type of additives and impurities present. A complex mixture of airborne material (solid, liquid, and gas) will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 60 deg C. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and unidentified organic compounds, may be generated. Vapours from warmed liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a explosion and toxicity hazard. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to heat of fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If it is not possible to cool the containers, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. Do not use water to fight the fire, except as a fog.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Although JP-5 is only slightly hazardous to health, its decomposition products may be hazardous. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight not known)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: -46 deg C (-51 deg F) (21)
Boiling Point: Distillation range: less than 206-300 deg C max (401-572 deg F) (21); see Other Physical Properties below for commercial sample information.
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.788-0.845 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (21)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble; approximately 0.5 mg/100 mL (unspecified kerosene) (14)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with other petroleum solvents.(14)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available; log P(oct) = 3.3-6+ (straight-run kerosene) (4)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Kinematic: 8.5 mm2/s maximum (8.5 centistokes maximum) at -20 deg C (21) See Other Physical Properties for commercial sample information.
Surface Tension: 25 mN/m (25 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (estimated) (24)
Vapour Density: 4.5 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: Not available; 1.4 kPa (10.5 mm Hg) at 37.8 deg C (straight-run kerosene) (4)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available; 13820 ppm (1.38%) at 37.8 deg C (straight-run kerosene) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
DISTILLATION RANGE for 63 commercial samples (23):
Initial boiling point: 173-190 deg C (343.4-374 deg F)
End point: 243-284 deg C (469.4-543.2 deg F)
Average: 180-261 deg C (356-502 deg F)

VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC for 63 commercial samples (23):
Range: 3.7-6.8 mm2/s (3.7-6.8 centistokes) at - 20 deg C; 1.29-1.66 mm2/s (1.29-1.66 centistokes) at 40 deg C
Average: 5.75 mm2/s (5.75 centistokes) at -20 deg C; 1.50 mm2/s (1.50 centistokes) at 40 deg C

NOTE: Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid or caustic, or both, as part of the refining process. Any residual acid or caustic is not desirable. According to specification MIL-PRF-5624S, the total acidity of JP-5 is 0.O15 mg KOH/g max.(21)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, perchlorates, chlorine and fluorine) - risk of fire and explosion.(26)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Specific information is not available. According to specification MIL-PRF- 5624S, JP-5 must pass the copper strip corrosion test (ASTM test method D 130) to ensure that the fuel will not corrode copper or any copper-base alloys in various parts of the fuel system.(21) JP-5 may corrode steel, but corrosion rates are not available.(26) In order to inhibit corrosion, a corrosion inhibitor is added to JP-5.(21)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 21300 mg/kg to greater than 49200 mg/kg; cited as 26 mL/kg (shale-derived) to greater than 60 mL/kg (petroleum-derived) (13)
NOTE: specific gravity is assumed to be 0.82.

No other animal toxicity values were located for JP-5. Other jet fuels have low inhalation and dermal toxicity.

Eye Irritation:

JP-5 is not an eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of JP-8 produced no irritation in rabbits (all scores were 0/110).(31)

Skin Irritation:

JP-5 is a non-irritant to very mild skin irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted JP-5, for 24 hours under a cover, caused very mild skin irritation in rabbits (score 0.04/8).(31) In an unpublished study, application of 0.5 mL of undiluted JP-5 (duration not reported) caused no irritation in rabbits.(32, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Extremely high oral doses have produced behavioural effects and other minor changes. Extremely high dermal doses have caused tissue injury and deaths.

Inhalation:
No significant neurobehavioural effects were observed in male rats following a 30-day inhalation exposure to shale- or petroleum-derived JP-5 at 1635 mg/m3.(15)

Skin Contact:
Mice were dermally exposed to 0.5 mL of JP-5 in 95% ethanol for 14 consecutive days (estimated doses were 5000, 10000, 20000, 30000 or 40000 mg/kg). All mice receiving 40000 mg/kg and all females receiving 30000 mg/kg died. Mice that received 10000 mg/kg or more lost weight. Scaly skin and hair loss were observed at the site of application.(16)

Ingestion:
Rats exposed orally to up to 6560 mg/kg (cited as 8 mL/kg) of shale- or petroleum-derived JP-5 experienced very slight behavioural changes (increased activity). Food and water consumption, as well as body weight, was decreased.(15) A single oral dose of 19680 mg/kg (24 mL/kg) of JP-5 produced moderate changes in kidney and liver function, hyaline droplet formation and fatty liver and kidney changes in male rats 1 to 3 days later.(13) The kidney changes observed are unique to male rats and have not been observed in other species or humans.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation exposure has produced a type of kidney injury which is unique to male rats. Mild liver injury has been observed in dogs. Long-term dermal application of high doses has produced deaths and other significant harmful effects in mice due to excessive irritation and ulceration.

Inhalation:
Dogs, rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 150 or 750 mg/m3 JP-5 derived from petroleum or shale continuously for 90 days. Kidney injury was seen in male rats only. Related effects such as reduced body weight gain, increased kidney weight and biochemical changes were also observed. Mild liver inflammation was observed in dogs exposed to 750 mg/m3. Fatty liver cell changes were observed in male rats exposed to 750 mg/m3 and in female mice and rats at both concentrations.(17,18) In another study, kidney injury was observed in male rats exposed to 2900 mg/m3 (cited as 2.9 mg/L) for 60 days.(4, unconfirmed) Liver lesions were observed in dogs exposed by inhalation continuously to 150 or 750 mg/m3 JP-5 for 90 days. These lesions were considered reversible.(14, unconfirmed)

Skin Contact:
Mice were dermally exposed to 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000 or 8000 mg/kg in acetone, 5 days/week for 13 weeks. The 8000 mg/kg dose was applied undiluted. Death occurred in 5/10 males. Slight to moderate spleen and liver effects and dermatosis were also observed.(16) Long-term dermal application (250 to 500 mg/kg for 2 years) in mice resulted in dermatitis and ulceration of the skin. The survival of low and high dose females was significantly lower.(16) Mice developed severe skin injury, including ulceration, and severe kidney injury following dermal application of 50 microlitres of JP-5 three times/week for 60 weeks. The most severe effects were observed in females treated with undiluted JP-5. The author's speculated that the kidney effects were secondary to dehydration of the animals.(19)

Skin Sensitization:
A patch test with 1% JP-5 produced mild dermal sensitization in guinea pigs.(14, unconfirmed) There are not further details available for evaluation. In another study, dermal sensitization was not observed in guinea pigs treated with nine doses of 0.1% JP-5 in propylene glycol over 3 weeks.(14, unconfirmed) Most studies with other jet fuels have produced negative results.

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuels in animals.(10)
Skin tumours were not observed in mice following application of 250 or 500 mg/kg JP-5 for 2 years. Malignant lymphomas were observed in females exposed at 250 mg/kg, but not at 500 mg/kg. The incidence of lymphomas was considered similar to historical untreated control female mice.(16) No conclusions can be drawn from another dermal carcinogenicity study due to poor reporting.(14, unconfirmed) Other jet fuels have caused skin tumours following long-term dermal application which resulted in severe irritation and ulceration.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for JP-5. Studies using other jet fuels have not shown harmful effects in the unborn in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No cellular changes were observed in the reproductive system of mice treated dermally with 2000 to 8000 mg/kg of JP-5 over 13 weeks or 250 or 500 mg/kg JP-5 for 2 years.(16)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Porter, H.O. Aviators intoxicated by inhalation of JP-5 fuel vapors. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 61, no. 7 (July 1990). p. 654-656
(2) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupational exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system. In: Adverse effects of environmental chemicals and psychotropic drugs: neurophysiological and behaviour tests. Vol. 2. Edited by H.J. Zimmerman. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978. p. 149-155
(3) Lombardi, A.R., et al. Health hazards encountered in repair of jet aircraft fuel cells. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 164, no. 5 (June 1, 1957). p. 531-533
(4) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product dossier no. 94/106. CONCAWE, Apr. 1995
(5) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. Cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Mar. 1978). p. 19-45
(6) Bergholtz, L.M., et al. Audiological findings in solvent exposed workers. Acta Otolaryngologica. Suppl. 412 (1984). p. 109-110
(7) Smith, L.B., et al. Effect of chronic low-level exposure to jet fuel on postural balance of US Air Force Personnel. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 7 (July 1997). p. 623-632
(8) Barregard, L., et al. Polyneuropathy possibly caused by 30 years of low exposure to n-hexane. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (June 1991). p. 205-207
(9) Dossing, M., et al. Jet fuel and liver function. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environmental and Health. Vol. 11, no. 6 (Dec. 1985). p. 433- 437
(10) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Jet fuel. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining: crude oil and major petroleum fuels. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 203-218
(11) Selden, A., et al. Mortality and cancer morbidity after exposure to military aircraft fuel. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 62, no. 8 (Aug. 1991). p. 789-794
(12) Siemiatycki, J., et al. Associations between several sites of cancer and twelve petroleum-derived liquids: results from a case-referent study in Montreal. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 13, no. 6 (Dec. 1987). p. 493-504
(13) Parker, G.A., et al. Acute toxicity of conventional versus shale- derived JP5 jet fuel: Light microscopic, hematologic and serum chemistry studies. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 57, No. 3 (March 15, 1981). p. 302-317
(14) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for jet fuels (JP-5 and JP-8). Draft for Public Comment. US Department of Health and Human Services, Aug. 1996
(15) Bogo, V., et al. Neurobehavioral toxicology of petroleum- and shale- derived jet propulsion fuel No. 5 (JP5). In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 17- 32
(16) US National Toxicology Program. NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis of marine diesel fuel and JP-5 navy fuel (CAS 8008-20-6) in B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies). NTP TR 310. US Department of Health and Human Services, Sept. 1986
(17) Gaworski, C., et al. Comparison of the subchronic inhalation toxicity of petroleum and oil shale JP-5 jet fuels. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 33-47
(18) MacNaughton, M.G., et al. Toxicology of mixed distillate and high- energy synthetic fuels. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 7. Renal effects of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by M. Mehlman. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 121-132
(19) Easley, J.R., et al. Renal toxicity of middle distillates of shale oil and petroleum in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 65, no. 1 (Aug. 1982). p. 84-91
(20) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (Mar. 1985). p. A 147
(21) US Department of Defence. Performance specification: Turbine fuel, aviation, grades JP-4, JP-5, and JP-5/JP-8 ST. Document no. MIL-PRE-56243S. US Department of Defence, Nov. 1996
(22) Dukek, W.G. Aviation and other gas turbine fuels. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 3. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 788-812
(23) Bowden, J.N., et al. A survey of JP-8 and JP-5 properties. Interim report BFLRF no. 253. ADA207721. US Army Belvoir Research, Development and Engineering Center, Sept. 1988
(24) CHRIS database record for Jet Fuels: JP-5. Issue: 98-2 (May 1998)
(25) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(26) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Rapid guide to chemical incompatibilities. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. p. 465
(27) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994
(28) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. Sept. 30, 1996
(29) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(30) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(31) Kinkead, E.R., et al. Acute irritation and sensitization potential of petroleum-derived JP-5 jet fuel. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Vol.11 (1992). p. 706
(32) Ritchie, G.D., et al. Biological and health effects of exposure to kerosene-based jet fuels and performance additives. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B. Vol. 6 (2003). p. 357-451

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-12-30

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-02-01
TDG 2002-05-29
NFPA (health) 2003-04-19
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV basis 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-13
Bibliography 2006-03-23
Toxicological info 2006-04-04
Short-term skin contact 2006-04-04
Short-term eye contact 2006-04-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-04-04



©2007 Canadian  Centre  for  Occupational  Health  &  Safety  
www.ccohs.ca  E-mail: clientservices@ccohs.ca  Fax: (905) 572-2206  Phone: (905) 572-2981  
Mail:  250  Main  Street  East,  Hamilton  Ontario  L8N  1H6