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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 776
CCOHS Chemical Name: JP-4

Synonyms:
Aviation kerosene (non-specific name)
AVJET
AVTAG JP-4
Jet fuel (non-specific name)
Jet fuel 4
Jet fuel JP-4
JP-4 jet fuel
JP-4 military
JP no. 4 fuel
Turbine engine aviation fuel (non-specific name)
Wide-cut jet fuel (non-specific name)
Wide-cut type aviation turbine fuel (non-specific name)

CAS Registry Number: 50815-00-4
UN/NA Number(s): 1863
RTECS Number(s): NY9340000
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate / aviation turbine fuel
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless to straw coloured liquid with a kerosene-like or gasoline-like odour.(2)

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
The most important aspect of evaluating the hazards of any petroleum distillate is accurate definition of the material in question. The source of the crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps influence the composition and hazards of the resulting petroleum distillate. The composition of military aviation fuels is established by the US Air Force and published in the US Department of Defense performance specification MIL- PRF-5624S.(21) There is no standard formula for JP-4. The physical properties given in this review are either from the specification or for specific products. JP-4 is a naphtha-type fuel made by blending straight-run kerosene streams with lower boiling distillate to meet the requirements of US military specifications MIL-PRF-5624S. It is called a wide-cut fuel because it is produced from a broad distillation temperature range and contains a wide array of carbon chain-lengths, from 4-16 carbons long (basically a mixture of naphtha and kerosene). The composition of a typical sample is approximately 13-14% aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. toluene, xylene), 1% olefinic hydrocarbons, and 86% saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes (e.g. butane, n-hexane) and cycloalkanes (e.g. cyclohexane)).(2) Benzene is usually present below 0.5%. The maximum allowed levels of aromatic hydrocarbons are 25% (by volume). Total sulfur (0.4% by mass) and mercaptan sulfur (0.002% by mass) are present as impurities. JP-4 has a distillation range of less than 100 deg C to 270 deg C (212-518 deg F). Specification MIL-PRF-5624S lists a number of additives that may be used in jet fuels. Typical additives include an antioxidant (e.g. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4- methylphenol, 6-tert-butyl-2,4-dimethylphenol and 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol), a metal deactivator (e.g., N,N-disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine or N,N- disalicylidene-1,2-cyclohexanediamine), a corrosion inhibitor, a fuel system icing inhibitor (0.15-0.20 volume %), and a static dissipator additive (Stadis 450). A lubricity improver may also be added.(21) The presence of additives can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of a product. Consult the manufacturer/supplier of your specific product for additional information.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as a aviation fuel by the US Air Force.(2,10,22)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to straw coloured liquid with a gasoline-like odour. EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Vapour can spread along the ground and accumulate in low-lying areas or confined spaces resulting in a toxicity, flammability and explosion hazard. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and spread fire. During a fire, irritating and toxic hazardous gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, may form. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Very high concentrations may cause unconsciousness and death. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting may result in aspiration (inhalation of the liquid) into the lungs. May contain CARCINOGENIC benzene, TOXIC n-hexane, and hazardous additives.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Wide cut jet fuels, like JP-4, evaporate readily at room temperature. Exposures to high vapour concentrations can rapidly cause central nervous system (CNS) depression.(1) Symptoms of CNS depression include dizziness, headache, nausea, fatigue, incoordination, and vomiting. Severe exposures may lead to unconsciousness and death. Exposure of a pilot to an estimated 3000- 7000 ppm of JP-4 produced symptoms of CNS depression, such as staggering gait, mild muscle weakness, and slight slurring of speech.(2, unconfirmed)
More than 2/3 of 29 aircraft factory workers exposed to unspecified jet fuels reported that they repeatedly experienced dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, irregular heart beat, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea and/or headache following exposure.(3) In another study, airmen exposed to jet fuel during fuel cell repair occasionally reported dizziness, headaches and incoordination.(4)

Skin Contact:
Short-term contact is probably not irritating. Prolonged exposure (24-hours) to JP-4 caused slight irritation in one animal study and severe irritation in another study. No human information was located.
Animal evidence indicates that JP-4 is only minimally absorbed through the skin and harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
JP-4 is not irritating to the eyes based on animal information. No human information was located regarding direct eye contact with jet fuels.

Ingestion:
In animal studies, the oral toxicity of JP-4 is very low. There are no reported cases of human ingestion of jet fuel, but the accidental ingestion of petroleum distillates, primarily in children, has been frequently reported in the literature. Often in these cases, the petroleum distillate has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting). Severe lung damage and deaths have resulted. It is expected that jet fuel would also be easily aspirated. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Jet fuels are complex mixtures which can have variable composition (see "Composition/Purity" above). In addition, there is only a small amount of information available about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels available and often there are serious limitations to the studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any firm conclusions about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels.

SKIN: Repeated skin contact with jet fuels would likely result in dry, cracked, red skin (dermatitis).(1)

EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: It is not possible to draw any firm conclusions from the available studies because of the small number of employees studied, poor or no exposure information and the possibility that other exposures could have caused the observed effects.
Studies of a small number of employees (29-30) with long-term exposure to jet fuel concentrations which may have been as high as 3000 ppm reported psychiatric symptoms (e.g. anxiety or mental depression), poorer performance in some psychological tests and reduced sensorimotor speed. These employees also reported significant short-term health effects.(3,5) Another study reported memory problems, fatigue, moodiness, unsteadiness, and headache in 9 employees exposed to jet fuel for 15 to 41 years.(6) Another study showed a relationship between changes in postural balance in 27 subjects and exposure to jet fuels (average duration 12 years).(7)
A single case report describes symptoms of polyneuropathy such as pain, tingling and numbness in the feet, legs, hands and arms in a man who had been exposed to jet fuel and other fuels for 30 years. The authors attribute these effects to exposure to n-hexane, a possible component of some jet fuels. Estimated exposure concentrations were up to 100 mg/m3 in the first 10 years, then lower.(8) It is not possible to draw conclusions from this single case report.

EFFECTS ON THE LIVER: It is not clear from the one study available that jet fuel exposure was responsible for the observed effect. In this study, 91 fuel filling attendants exposed to jet fuel showed increased liver metabolism during exposure compared to after summer vacation (unexposed for 2 or 4 weeks). A similar but smaller effect was observed in unexposed office workers.(9)

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuel in humans.(10) However, wide cut jet fuels, like JP- 4, contain up to 0.5% benzene, a known carcinogen.
A study of 2176 employees with long-term exposure to jet fuel, as well as other fuels and chemicals, found no increase in the frequency of cancers even when duration of employment, latency, occupation or type of exposure were considered. This study was limited by the rather short follow-up (10 years).(10,11)
A study of 3726 cancer patients related their exposure to petroleum-derived liquids to the incidence of cancer by specific site. An association was observed between jet fuel exposure and kidney cancer.(10,12) However, this was a very preliminary study and no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Jet fuels have caused skin tumours in animals following dermal application of doses that caused severe skin irritation and ulceration.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

(Jet Fuels)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available for JP-4. A small number of animal studies for other jet fuels and kerosenes have not shown effects in the offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
No human in vivo studies have been reported. Negative results were obtained in two limited tests using live animals and in most tests using cultured mammalian cells, yeast and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
There is no information available on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of JP-4.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if the victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not given in the specification; -23 to -1 deg C (-10 to 30 deg F) (closed cup) (23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.3% (23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
8% (23)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
240 deg C (464 deg F) (23)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable compounds.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Like other petroleum distillates, JP-4 probably has a low electrical conductivity and therefore can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation.(25) An additive is added to dissipate charge more rapidly. The allowable fuel conductivity range in the specification is 150-600 pS/m.(21) Vapours from heated liquid, at concentrations in the flammable range, can be ignited by a static discharge.(25)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions and the type of additives and impurities present. A complex mixture of airborne material (solid, liquid, and gas) will evolve during pyrolysis or combustion. Sulfur and nitrogen oxides, as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed upon combustion.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Extremely flammable liquid. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Vapour is heavier than air and may travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Vapour can spread along the ground and accumulate in low-lying areas or in confined spaces, resulting in a toxicity, flammability and explosion hazard. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and unidentified organic compounds, may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of a fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam or polymer foam. Water may be ineffective because it will not cool JP-4 below its flash point. Fire fighting foams are the extinguishing agent of choice for most flammable liquid fires.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If the flames are extinguished without stopping the leak, vapours could form explosive mixtures with air and reignite.
Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

Conversion Factor:
Not available

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: -58 deg C maximum (-72 deg F) (21); -40 to -72 deg C (-40 to -98 deg F) (2)
Boiling Point: DISTILLATION RANGE: Specifications: Minimum 100-270 deg C, maximum (212-518 deg F) (20- 100% recovered) (21) Commercial Products: 50-270 deg C (122-374 deg F); 90-300 deg C (194-572 deg F); 45-280 deg C (113-536 deg F) (2)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.751-0.802 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (21)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (approximately 5.7 mg/100 mL at 20 deg C) (2)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with many organic solvents.(2)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 3-4.5 (major components of JP-4) (2)
pH Value: Not applicable.
Viscosity-Kinematic: Not available
Surface Tension: 25 mN/m (25 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (24)
Vapour Density: 4 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: 14-21 kPa (2-3 psi - 105-157.5 mm Hg) at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (21); 12.13 kPa (91 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (68 deg F) (2)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 132000-207300 ppm (13.2-20.73%) at 37.8 deg C; 119750 ppm (11.98%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
NOTE: Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid or caustic, or both, as part of the refining process. Any residual acid or caustic is not desirable. According to specification MIL-PRF-5624S, the total acidity of JP-4 is 0.O15 mg KOH/g max.(21)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, perchlorates, chlorine and fluorine) - risk of fire and explosion.(25)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Specific information is not available. According to specification MIL-PRF- 5624S, JP-4 must pass the copper strip test (ASTM test method D 130) to ensure that the fuel will not corrode copper or any copper-base alloys in various parts of the fuel system.(21) Jet fuels may corrode steel, but no corrosion rates are available.(25) In order to prevent this corrosion, additives are added to JP-4.(21)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 5000 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure); cited as 5.0 mg/L (4-hour exposure) (0/10 deaths; shale- or petroleum-derived) (13)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 5000 mg/kg (0/10 deaths; shale-derived) (13)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 2000 mg/kg (0/10 deaths; shale- or petroleum-derived) (13)

Eye Irritation:

JP-4 is not an eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted JP-4 (shale- or petroleum-derived) was non-irritating in rabbits.(13) Similar results have been obtained rabbits in other studies.(2,14)

Skin Irritation:

Prolonged (24-hour) exposure caused slight irritation in one confirmed study and severe irritation in another confirmed study.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted JP-4 (shale- or petroleum-derived), to intact and damaged skin under a cover for 24 hours, produced severe irritation in rabbits (scored 5.2/8 and 5.5/8).(13) Application of 0.5 mL of petroleum-derived JP-4, to intact and damaged skin under a cover for 24 hours, produced only slight irritation in rabbits (scored 1.04/8).(14) In unpublished studies, application of 0.5 mL caused severe irritation.(2, unconfirmed) No further details are available.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Animals exposed by inhalation to very high concentrations (38000 mg/m3) showed signs of central nervous system depression such as poor coordination and convulsions.(2, unconfirmed)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term inhalation studies with exposures up to 5000 mg/m3 for 1 year have produced a characteristic mild kidney injury in male rats. This type of kidney injury has not been observed in female rats or other species. Other minor changes were noted in prostate of male rats, liver of female mice, body weights and relative organ weights. Dermal application has produced severe irritation at the site of application, as well as minor systemic effects.

Inhalation:
There were no treatment related deaths in rats, mice, dogs or monkeys exposed by inhalation to up to 5000 mg/m3 JP-4 for 4-8 months. Increased lung, liver, spleen and kidney weights were observed in animals exposed to the highest concentration. Dogs and monkeys showed some decreased activity.(2,15,16) Dogs, rats and mice were continuously exposed to 500 or 1000 mg/m3 JP-4 for 90 days. Slight biochemical changes were observed in the dogs. Mild treatment- related, fatty changes were observed in the livers of female mice. These changes were considered reversible. Characteristic kidney changes unique to male rats (hyaline droplets) were also observed.(16,17) Rats and mice were exposed to JP-4 vapours for 12 months to 1000 or 5000 mg/m3. Animals were evaluated when the study ended or 12 months later. Characteristic kidney injury (associated with hyaline droplet formation) unique to male rats was observed. There was also an increase in degeneration of the prostate in male rats, 12 months after exposure. Body weight was reduced in male rats and liver and kidney weights were increased compared to body weight. Renal tumours were not statistically increased in male rats, but were considered biologically significant and related to the kidney injury.(18)

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of 100 microlitres of undiluted JP-4 to rats for 2 weeks, 1, 3 or 6 months resulted in reduced body weight in rats treated for 3 months. Thymus weight was reduced after 2 weeks and 1 month. Blood changes were observed at 3 months. Skin irritation was prominent at the site of application.(19) Dermal application of 25 mg shale- or petroleum-derived JP-4 to mice three times/week for 2 years produced irritation at days 10 to 15. Generally, inflammation appeared after the 6th month of treatment. Tissue death occurred shortly before the end of the first year.(20)

Skin Sensitization:
JP-4 (shale- or petroleum-derived) has produced negative results in guinea pigs in two studies.(13,14) Shale-derived JP-4 produced mild-moderate sensitization in guinea pigs in another study, but insufficient details are available for evaluation.(2, unconfirmed)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuels in animals.(10)
A long-term skin painting study with mice exposed to shale- or petroleum- derived JP-4 produced an increase in skin tumours. Shale-derived JP-4 had greater carcinogenic and irritant potential than petroleum-derived JP-4.(20) The tumours may have been related to severe irritation at the test site rather than true carcinogenicity.

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for JP-4. Other jet fuels and kerosenes have not produced harmful effects in the offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
Negative results were obtained in two dominant lethality tests using mice and rats exposed to JP-4 orally. However, no firm conclusions can be drawn from these studies because the number of pregnant females per group was too small.(2-unconfirmed)
JP-4 produced a dose-dependent increase in unscheduled DNA synthesis (an indirect measure of DNA damage) in cultured human cells. Negative results have been obtained in other studies using cultured mammalian cells, yeast and bacteria.(2, unconfirmed)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product dossier no. 94/106. CONCAWE, Apr. 1995
(2) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Toxicological profile for jet fuels (JP-4 and JP-7). US Department of Health and Human Services, June 1995
(3) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupational exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system. In: Adverse effects of environmental chemicals and psychotropic drugs: neurophysiological and behaviour tests. Vol. 2. Edited by H. J. Zimmerman. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978. p. 149-155
(4) Lombardi, A.R., et al. Health hazards encountered in repair of jet aircraft fuel cells. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 164, no. 5 (June 1, 1957). p. 531-533
(5) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. Cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Mar. 1978). p. 19-45
(6) Bergholtz, L.M., et al. Audiological findings in solvent exposed workers. Acta Otolaryngologica. Suppl. 412 (1984). p. 109-110
(7) Smith, L.B., et al. Effect of chronic low-level exposure to jet fuel on postural balance of US Air Force Personnel. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 7 (July 1997). p. 623-632
(8) Barregard, L., et al. Polyneuropathy possibly caused by 30 years of low exposure to n-hexane. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (June 1991). p. 205-207
(9) Dossing, M., et al. Jet fuel and liver function. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environmental and Health. Vol. 11, no. 6 (Dec. 1985). p. 433- 437
(10) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Jet fuel. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining: crude oil and major petroleum fuels. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 203-218
(11) Selden, A., et al. Mortality and cancer morbidity after exposure to military aircraft fuel. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 62, no. 8 (Aug. 1991). p. 789-794
(12) Siemiatycki, J., et al. Associations between several sites of cancer and twelve petroleum-derived liquids: results from a case-referent study in Montreal. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 13, no. 6 (Dec. 1987). p. 493-504
(13) Clark, C.R., et al. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 5, no. 6 (Dec. 1989). p. 1005-1016
(14) Kinkead, E.R., et al. Acute irritation and sensitization potential of petroleum-derived JP-4 jet fuel. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B. Vol. 1 (1992). p. 699
(15) MacEwen, J.D., et al. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Technical Report: 1975. Report number AMRL-TR-75-57. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Aerospace Medical Division, Air Force Systems Command, Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Oct. 1975
(16) MacNaughton, M.G., et al. Toxicology of mixed distillate and high- energy synthetic fuels. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 7. Renal effects of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by M. Mehlman. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 121-132
(17) Bruner, R. Pathologic findings in laboratory animals exposed to hydrocarbon fuels of military interest. In: Advances in modern experimental toxicology. Vol. 7. Renal effects of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by M. Mehlman. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 133-140
(18) Bruner, R., et al. The toxicologic and oncogenic potential of JP-4 jet fuel vapors in rats and mice: 12-month intermittent inhalation exposures. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 20, no. 1 (Jan. 1993). p. 97-110
(19) Chubb, L., et al. Effects of subchronic dermal exposure of F344 rats to Air Force jet fuel (JP-4). Abstract. Toxicologist. Vol. 15 (1995). p. 43
(20) Clark, C.R., et al. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Mar. 1988). p. 11-22
(21) US Department of Defence. Performance specification: Turbine fuel, aviation, grades JP-4, JP-5, and JP-5/JP-8 ST. Document no. MIL-PRE-56243S. US Department of Defence, Nov. 1996
(22) Dukek, W.G. Aviation and other gas turbine fuels. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 3. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 788-812
(23) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(24) CHRIS database record for Jet Fuels: JP-4. Issue: 98-2 (May 1998)
(25) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Rapid guide to chemical incompatibilities. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. p. 465
(26) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(27) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for occupational Safety and Health, June 1997

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-12-30

Revision Indicators:
NFPA (health) 2003-04-18
Boiling point 2003-05-12
WHMIS disclosure list 2003-07-09
WHMIS classification comments 2003-07-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-09
Bibliography 2004-04-09
Toxicological info 2006-04-04
Short-term skin contact 2006-04-04
Short-term eye contact 2006-04-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-04-04
WHMIS proposed classification 2006-04-04
WHMIS health effects 2006-04-04
Emergency overview 2006-04-04
First aid skin 2006-04-04
Eye/face protection 2006-04-04
Skin protection 2006-04-04
Handling 2006-04-04



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