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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 768
CCOHS Chemical Name: Jet A

Synonyms:
Aviation kerosene (non-specific name)
Aviation turbine fuel (non-specific name)
Jet Fuel A
Jet A-1
Jet fuel (non-specific name)
Jet Fuel A-1
Jet fuel type A
Turbine engine aviation fuel (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Kérosène
Chemical Name Spanish: Queroseno (petroleo)
CAS Registry Number: 8008-20-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1863
RTECS Number(s): SE7548500
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 232-366-4
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate / aviation turbine fuel
Molecular Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to pale yellow liquid with a kerosene-like or petroleum odour.

Odour Threshold:
Not available; 0.5517 mg/m3 (unspecified kerosene) (23)

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
The most important aspect of evaluating the hazards of any petroleum distillate is accurate definition of the material in question. The source of the crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps influence the composition and hazards of the resulting petroleum distillate. The composition of Jet A is established by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) in consultation with manufacturers and users. The specifications are based primarily on performance characteristics. There is no standard formula for Jet A. The straight-run kerosene stream is used for aviation fuel production. Jet A and Jet A-1 are mixtures of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9-C16 and which meet the requirements of ASTM specification D 1655.(24) Jet A and Jet A-1 only differ in freezing point. According to the specification, the maximum allowed level of aromatic hydrocarbons is 25% (by volume) and 3% naphthalenes (by volume). Total sulfur (0.3% by weight) and mercaptan sulfur (0.003% by weight) are present as impurities. Jet A has a distillation range of less than 205 to 300 deg C (401 to 572 deg F). The physical properties given in this review are either for specific products, from the specification or for straight-run kerosene (CAS 8008-20-6). The specification lists a number of additives that may be used in jet fuels. Typical additives include an antioxidant (e.g. 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol and tert- and tri-tert-butylphenols), a metal deactivator (e.g., N,N- disalicylidene-1,2-propanediamine), an electrical conductivity additive (e.g. Stadis 450), a static inhibitor, a fuel system icing inhibitor (e.g. diethylene glycol monomethyl ether), a corrosion of steel inhibitor, a lubrication improver, a biocide, a fuel lubricity additive, and a thermal stability improver. The presence of additives can contribute significantly to the overall hazards of a particular jet fuel product. Consult the manufacturer/supplier of your specific product for additional information.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as an commercial aviation fuel.(9,25,26)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to pale yellow liquid with a kerosene-like or petroleum odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating and/or toxic gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides, as well as unidentified organic compounds may be generated. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting may result in aspiration (inhalation of the liquid) into the lungs. May contain hazardous additives.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
There is no specific information available for Jet A. Based on comparison to straight-run kerosene, Jet A probably readily forms a vapour at room temperature. Like other petroleum distillates, Jet A can probably cause symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression, such as dizziness, headache, nausea, fatigue, vomiting and incoordination. Severe exposures may result in unconsciousness and death.
More than 2/3 of 29 aircraft factory workers exposed to unspecified jet fuels reported that they repeatedly experienced dizziness, respiratory tract symptoms, irregular heart beat, a feeling of pressure on the chest, nausea and/or headache following exposure.(1) Airmen exposed to unspecified jet fuel during fuel cell repair occasionally reported dizziness, headaches and incoordination.(2)

Skin Contact:
Jet A is a very mild skin irritant based on animal information. No human information was located for Jet A. A 24-hour exposure to straight-run kerosene, a major component of jet fuel, has produced moderate to severe irritation in humans.
Animal evidence indicates that Jet A is only minimally absorbed through the skin and harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
Jet A is slightly or not irritating to the eyes based on animal information. No human information was located regarding direct eye contact with jet fuels.

Ingestion:
In animal studies, the oral toxicity of Jet A is very low. There are no reported cases of human ingestion of jet fuel, but the accidental ingestion of kerosene, primarily in children, has been frequently reported in the literature. Often in these cases, the kerosene has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting). Severe lung damage and deaths have resulted. It is expected that Jet A would also be easily aspirated. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Jet fuels are complex mixtures which can have variable composition (see "Composition/Purity" above). In addition, there is only a small amount of information available about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels available and often there are serious limitations to the studies. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any firm conclusions about the potential long-term health effects of jet fuels.

SKIN: Repeated skin contact with jet fuels would likely result in dry, cracked, red skin (dermatitis), like kerosene.(3)

EFFECTS ON THE NERVOUS SYSTEM: It is not possible to draw any firm conclusions from the available studies because of the small number of employees studied, poor or no exposure information and the possibility that other exposures could have caused the observed effects.
Studies of a small number of employees (29-30) with long-term exposure to jet fuel concentrations which may have been as high as 3000 ppm reported psychiatric symptoms (e.g. anxiety or mental depression), poorer performance in some psychological tests and reduced sensorimotor speed. These employees also reported significant short-term health effects.(1,4) Another study reported memory problems, fatigue, moodiness, unsteadiness, and headache in 9 employees exposed to jet fuel for 15 to 41 years.(5) Another study showed a relationship between changes in postural balance in 27 subjects and exposure to jet fuels (average duration 12 years).(6)

A case report describes symptoms of polyneuropathy such as pain, tingling and numbness in the feet, legs, hands and arms in a man who had been exposed to jet fuel and other fuels for 30 years. The authors attribute these effects to exposure to n-hexane, a possible component of some jet fuels. Estimated exposure concentrations were up to 100 mg/m3 in the first 10 years, then lower.(7) It is not possible to draw conclusions from this single case report.

EFFECTS ON THE LIVER: It is not clear from the one study available that jet fuel exposure was responsible for the observed effect. In this study, 91 fuel filling attendants exposed to jet fuel showed increased liver metabolism during exposure compared to after summer vacation (unexposed for 2 or 4 weeks). A similar but smaller effect was observed in unexposed office workers.(8) It is not clear from this study that jet fuel exposure was responsible for the observed effect.

Carcinogenicity:

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuel in humans.(9)
A study of 2176 employees with long-term exposure to jet fuel, as well as other fuels and chemicals, found no increase in the frequency of cancers even when duration of employment, latency, occupation or type of exposure were considered. This study was limited by the rather short follow-up (10 years).(9,10)
A study of 3726 cancer patients related their exposure to petroleum-derived liquids to the incidence of cancer by specific site. An association was observed between jet fuel exposure and kidney cancer.(9,11) However, this was a very preliminary study and no firm conclusions can be drawn.
Jet fuels have caused skin tumours in animals following dermal application of doses that caused severe skin irritation and ulceration.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. No harmful effects were observed in one animal study.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
No human studies have been reported. Positive results were obtained in one study using live animals. This study has been criticized for technical errors. Negative results have been obtained in other studies using live animals, cultured mammalian cells without activation and bacteria. Positive results were obtained in cultured mammalian cells with activation.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
There is no information available on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of Jet A.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if the victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
38 deg C min (100 deg F min) (closed cup) (24); 43-66 deg C (110-150 deg F) (closed cup) (27)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not available

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable compounds.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Like straight-run kerosene, Jet A and A-1 probably have low electrical conductivities and therefore can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation.(28) Additives can be added to dissipate charge more rapidly. This is most effective when the fuel electrical conductivity range is 50 to 450 pS/m.(24) Vapours from heated liquid, in the flammable range, can be ignited by a static discharge.(28)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on combustion conditions and the type of additives and impurities present. A complex mixture of airborne material (solid, liquid, and gas) will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, as well as unidentified organic compounds may be formed.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 38 deg C. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous gases, such as sulfur and nitrogen oxides and unidentified organic compounds, may be generated. Vapours may accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a explosion and toxicity hazard. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to heat of fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If it is not possible to cool the containers, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. Do not use water to fight the fire, except as a fog.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Although Jet A and A-1 are only slightly hazardous to health, their decomposition products may be hazardous. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) may not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 0 - Exposure, under fire conditions, would be no more hazardous than an ordinary combustible material.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight unknown)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Freezing point: Jet A: -40 max deg C (-40 max deg F); Jet A-1: -47 deg C (- 53 deg C) (24)
Boiling Point: Distillation range: 205-300 deg C (401-572 deg F) (temperature of 10% recovered to final boiling point) (24)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.755-0.840 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (24)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble; approximately 0.5 mg/100 mL (unspecified kerosene)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with many other petroleum solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available; Log P(oct) = 3.3-6+ (straight-run kerosene) (3)
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 4.5 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: Not available; 1.4 kPa (10.5 mm Hg) at 37.8 deg C (straight-run kerosene) (3)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available; 13820 ppm (1.38%) at 37.8 deg C (straight-run kerosene) (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 8.0 mm2/s max (8.0 centistokes max) at -20 deg C (24)
NOTE: Some petroleum products are treated with mineral acid or caustic, or both, as part of the refining process. Any residual acid or caustic is not desirable. Neither is likely to be present.
According to specification D 1655, the total acidity of Jet A is 0.1 mg KOH/g max.(24)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
According to specification D 1655, commercial jet fuels should be thermally stable at temperature as high as 149 deg C (300 deg F). These fuels have been shown to be stable in storage.(24)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, perchlorates, chlorine and fluorine) - risk of fire and explosion.(28)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Specific information is not available. According to specification D 1655, Jet A and Jet A-1 must pass the copper strip test (ASTM test method D 130) to ensure that the fuel will not corrode copper or any copper-base alloys.(24) Jet A and Jet A-1 may corrode steel, but corrosion rates are not available.(28) In order to inhibit this corrosion, additives are added to Jet A and Jet A- 1.(24)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 5.0 mg/L (5000 mg/m3) (4-hour exposure) (0/10 deaths) (shale-derived).(12)

LD50 (oral, rat): greater than 20000 mg/kg; cited as 25.0 mL/kg (0/10 deaths) (3,13,14); greater than 5000 mg/kg (0/10 deaths) (shale-derived) (12)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 5000 mg/kg (14); greater than 2000 mg/kg (0/10 deaths) (shale-derived) (12)
NOTE: specific gravity is assumed to be 0.8 for conversion purposes.

Eye Irritation:

Jet A is a non-irritant to very mild eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted shale-derived Jet A was non-irritating in rabbits.(12) In other studies, application of Jet A resulted in minimal or slight irritation in rabbits.(3,13,14)

Skin Irritation:

Jet A is a very mild skin irritant.

In 2 studies, application of 0.5 mL undiluted Jet A, under a cover to intact and abraded skin for 24 hours, caused very mild irritation in rabbits (scored 2/8 and 1.96/8).(13,14) Application of 25 or 79 microL of Jet A, covered and uncovered for 5 or 24 hours to intact skin, caused no or very mild irritation in rabbits. Scores immediately following exposure were: erythema 0/4-1/4; edema: 0/4. Scores were not measured at later times.(32) Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted Jet A derived from shale, under a cover, to intact and damaged skin for 24 hours, produced moderate irritation in rabbits (score 3.4/8).(12) In an unpublished study, application of Jet A-1 for 4 hours caused mild irritation.(3, unconfirmed) No further information was provided.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of 6400 mg/kg/day (cited as 8 mL/kg) to rabbits for 2 weeks resulted in severe skin damage at the treatment sites with depression and weight loss associated with reduced food intake. Deaths were also observed at this dose. Liver, kidney and bladder effects were considered to be secondary to the severe skin irritancy.(3,14)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

In general, male rats with long-term inhalation or oral exposure to hydrocarbon fuels develop a dose-related kidney injury that is not observed in females, controls or mice.(15) There is no specific information on this effect for Jet A. Long-term dermal exposures to Jet A have produced severe irritation at the site of application, but no other toxicity.

Skin Contact:
Dermal application of 25 mg shale- or petroleum-derived Jet A to mice three times/week for 2 years produced irritation at days 10-15. Generally, inflammation appeared after the sixth month of treatment. Tissue death occurred shortly before the end of the first year.(16) Application of Jet A to the clipped skin of mice twice/week for 13 weeks resulted in irritation which was concentration and time dependent. The most marked effects, moderate inflammatory and proliferative changes with some ulceration, were observed with undiluted jet fuel applied for 13 weeks. No other significant toxic effects were observed.(17)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results have been obtained in guinea pigs for both shale- and petroleum-derived Jet A.(3,12-14)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of jet fuels in animals.(9)
A long-term skin painting study with mice exposed to shale- or petroleum- derived Jet A showed an increase in skin tumours.(16) These tumours may have been related to severe irritation at the test site rather than true carcinogenicity. A standard skin painting study with Jet A produced irritation and increased incidence of skin tumours in mice (44%). However, with an intermittent schedule of painting that allowed healing to occur, there was only a 2% tumour incidence.(19)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No harmful effects were observed in the offspring when rats were exposed by inhalation to 100 or 400 ppm Jet A on days 6-15 of pregnancy. Eye irritation was observed in the mothers.(18)

Mutagenicity:
Positive results were obtained in rat bone marrow cells following inhalation of 100 ppm for 20 days or 400 ppm for 5 days.(20) This study has been criticized and the results are considered invalid due to technical errors.(22) Negative results were obtained in a dominant lethal assay.(3,21)
Negative results were also obtained in cultured mammalian cells without activation, but positive results were obtained with activation. Negative results have been obtained in bacteria.(3,20,21)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel: an investigation on occupational exposed workers with special reference to the nervous system. In: Adverse effects of environmental chemicals and psychotropic drugs: neurophysiological and behaviour tests. Vol. 2. Edited by H. J. Zimmerman. Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1978. p. 149-155
(2) Lombardi, A.R., et al. Health hazards encountered in repair of jet aircraft fuel cells. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 164, no. 5 (June 1, 1957). p. 531-533
(3) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product dossier no. 94/106. CONCAWE, Apr. 1995
(4) Knave, B., et al. Long-term exposure to jet fuel. II. Cross-sectional epidemiologic investigation on occupationally exposed industrial workers with special reference to the nervous system. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Mar. 1978). p. 19-45
(5) Bergholtz, L.M., et al. Audiological findings in solvent exposed workers. Acta Otolaryngologica. Suppl. 412 (1984). p. 109-110
(6) Smith, L.B., et al. Effect of chronic low-level exposure to jet fuel on postural balance of US Air Force Personnel. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 7 (July 1997). p. 623-632
(7) Barregard, L., et al. Polyneuropathy possibly caused by 30 years of low exposure to n-hexane. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (June 1991). p. 205-207
(8) Dossing, M., et al. Jet fuel and liver function. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environmental and Health. Vol. 11, no. 6 (Dec. 1985). p. 433- 437
(9) International Agency for Research on Cancer. Jet fuel. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining: crude oil and major petroleum fuels. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 203-218
(10) Selden, A., et al. Mortality and cancer morbidity after exposure to military aircraft fuel. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 62, no. 8 (Aug. 1991). p. 789-794
(11) Siemiatycki, J., et al. Associations between several sites of cancer and twelve petroleum-derived liquids: results from a case-referent study in Montreal. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 13, no. 6 (Dec. 1987). p. 493-504
(12) Clark, C.R., et al. Comparative acute toxicity of shale and petroleum derived distillates. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 5, no. 6 (Dec. 1989). p. 1005-1016
(13) The American Petroleum Institute. Jet Fuel A. Journal of American College of Toxicology. Part B, Vol. 1 (1990). p. 30
(14) Beck, L.S., et al. The acute toxicology of selected petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 1-16
(15) Bruner, R. Pathologic findings in laboratory animals exposed to hydrocarbon fuels of military interest. In: Advances in modern experimental toxicology. Vol. 7. Renal effects of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by M. Mehlman. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 133-140
(16) Clark, C.R., et al. Comparative dermal carcinogenesis of shale and petroleum-derived distillates. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 4, no. 1 (Mar. 1988). p. 11-22
(17) Freeman, J.J., et al. A 90-day toxicity study of the effects of petroleum middle distillates on the skin of C3H mice. Toxicology and Industrial Health. Vol. 6, no. 3/4 (May 1990). p. 475-491
(18) Beliles, R.P., et al. Inhalation teratology of jet fuel A, fuel oil and petroleum naphtha in rats. The Toxicology of Petroleum Hydrocarbons. Symposium proceedings. Edited by H.N. MacFarland, et al. American Petroleum Institute, 1982. p. 233-238
(19) Freeman, J.J., et al. Evaluation of the contribution of chronic skin irritation and selected compositional parameters to the tumorigenicity of petroleum middle distillates in mouse skin. Toxicology. Vol. 81, no. 2 (July 28, 1993). p. 103-112
(20) Conaway, C.C., et al. Mutagenicity evaluation of petroleum hydrocarbons. In: Advances in modern environmental toxicology. Vol. 6. Applied toxicology of petroleum hydrocarbons. Edited by H.N MacFarland, et al. Princeton Scientific Publishers, Inc., 1984. p. 89-107
(21) National Toxicology Program. NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis of marine diesel fuel and JP-5 navy fuel (CAS 8008-20-6) in B6C3F1 mice (dermal studies). NTP TR 310. US Department of Health and Human Services, Sept. 1986
(22) CanTox Inc. PACE WHMIS classification guidelines: guideline revisions, documentation and update. Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment (PACE), Jan. 1990
(23) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (Mar. 1985). p. A 147
(24) Strauss, K.H. Aviation turbine fuels. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 3. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1985. p. 201-212
(25) Dukek, W.G. Aviation and other gas turbine fuels. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 3. John Wiley and Sons, 1992. p. 788-812
(26) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for occupational Safety and Health, June 1997.
(27) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(28) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Rapid guide to chemical incompatibilities. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1997. p. 465
(29) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994
(30) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. Sept. 30, 1996
(31) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(32) Monteiro-Riviere, N., et al. Effects of short-term high-dose and low-dose dermal exposure to Jet A, JP-8 and JP-8 + 100 jet fuels. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 21, no. 6 (Nov. 2001). p. 485-494

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-12-30

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-02-01
TDG 2002-05-29
TLV-TWA 2003-05-22
TLV basis 2003-05-22
TLV comments 2003-05-22
TLV proposed changes 2003-05-22
Carcinogenicity 2003-05-26
Boiling point 2004-02-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-13
Bibliography 2006-03-23
Toxicological info 2006-04-04
Short-term skin contact 2006-04-04
WHMIS health effects 2006-04-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-04-04
WHMIS proposed classification 2006-04-04
Emergency overview 2006-04-04
First aid skin 2006-04-04
UN/NA No 2006-04-04
Handling 2006-04-04
Skin protection 2006-04-04



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