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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 22
CCOHS Chemical Name: Isophorone

Synonyms:
Isoacetophorone
Alpha-isophorone
3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one
3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one
1,1,3-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-5-one
3,5,5-Trimethyl-2-cyclohexenone
Isoforone
3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-enone

Chemical Name French: Isophorone
Chemical Name Spanish: Isoforona
CAS Registry Number: 78-59-1
RTECS Number(s): GW7700000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 201-126-0
Chemical Family: Unsaturated alicyclic ketone / cyclic alkenone / cyclic alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone / trimethylcyclohexenone
Molecular Formula: C9-H14-O
Structural Formula: (CH3)2-C6H5(=0)-(CH3) (C6H5 cyclohexene ring)

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless to light yellow liquid with a peppermint- or camphor-like odour.(8,9,24)

Odour Threshold:
0.19 ppm (detection); 0.53 ppm (recognition) (25)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 10-times the odour threshold.

Composition/Purity:
Commercial isophorone may contain 2-5% of the relate chemical form (isomer), beta-isophorone, and traces of mesitylene, mesityl oxide, phorone and xylitones.(20)

Uses and Occurrences:
Isophorone is used as a high boiling and low evaporative solvent. It is used as a solvent for natural and synthetic resins, polymers, lacquers, plastics, waxes, fats and oils, gums, cellulose derivatives and printing inks and adhesives for plastics; solvent for coating systems for metal cans, nitrocellulose finishes and metal paints; high-boiling solvent for physically- and oven-drying paints; solvent for emulsifiable concentrates of insecticides and herbicides. Also used for synthesis of compounds and products including solvents, plasticizers, diamines, diisocyanates, dicarboxylic acids, amines and glycols.(20,21,22)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless to light yellow liquid with a peppermint- or camphor-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Irritating to eyes and respiratory tract. Mild central nervous system depressant. High concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Isophorone is not very volatile and exposure to high vapour concentrations would not likely occur unless isophorone is misted or heated. In one study, volunteers reported that exposure to 10-25 ppm for 15 minutes was irritating to the nose and throat.(1) In another study, volunteers reported irritation of the nose and throat after a few minutes exposure to 40 and 85 ppm. Symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression (nausea, headache, dizziness, faintness, a feeling of drunkenness and/or suffocation) were reported following exposure to 200 and 400 ppm for a few minutes.(2) This concentration is very high and would not normally be encountered in a typical work environment. There are no reports of harmful effects occurring following occupational exposure to isophorone.

Skin Contact:
Isophorone is probably not irritating to the skin, based on animal evidence. There is no human information available.

Eye Contact:
Isophorone is probably a moderate to severe eye irritant, based on animal evidence and limited human information. One report, which provides few details, indicates that isophorone caused corneal burns in humans with prompt healing in 48 hours with treatment.(3) Volunteers have reported that exposure to 10-25 ppm vapour for 15 minutes or to 40 and 85 ppm for a few minutes was irritating to the eyes.(1,2)

Ingestion:
There are no reports of ingestion of isophorone. It can probably cause irritation of the mouth and throat and symptoms of CNS depression, as described in "Inhalation" above.
Although there are no case reports, if ingested, isophorone can probably be aspirated into the lungs, based on the physical properties (viscosity and surface tension) and the fact that some ketones have been shown to be readily aspirated. Aspiration is the inhalation of a material into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting. This may result in severe lung irritation, significant damage to the lung tissues (edema), and, in some cases, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest and death. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are no confirmed reports of health effects developing after long-term occupational exposure to isophorone. However, chronic toxicity has been observed in animals following long-term inhalation exposure and so isophorone is considered a chronic toxicity hazard. Severe kidney and/or lung injury was see in rats exposed to 50 ppm and higher.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. One animal study showed an increase in kidney neoplasms in male rats. This type of tumour appears to be specific to male rats and is not relevant to humans.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Isophorone was not teratogenic or embryotoxic in mice or rats, even at exposures which were harmful to the mothers. Fetotoxicity was observed in mice in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No reproductive effects were observed in one limited animal study.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results were obtained in in vivo tests with mice. Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and negative results have been obtained in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Following oral administration to rats, isophorone increased the effects of tetrachloroethylene, propylene glycol, and morpholine, compared to predicted effects.(6) Another rat study showed that administration of isophorone with propylene oxide resulted in effects greater than predicted.(7)

Potential for Accumulation:
Does not accumulate. Isophorone is absorbed by the oral, dermal and inhalation routes of exposure and distributed rapidly in the body. Two studies, with rats and rabbits exposed orally, have shown that the majority (93%) is eliminated, unchanged or as metabolites, in expired air, urine and feces within 24 hours after dosing.(5,8)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness or is unconscious or convulsing. Rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs. (240 to 300 ml) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
84 deg C (184 deg F) (closed cup) (23)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.8% (23)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
3.8% (23)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
460 deg C (860 deg F) (22)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Information not available. Probably not sensitive. Stable compound.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available. Isophorone will probably not accumulate static charge. The electrical conductivity of ketones is high.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 84 deg C. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Use flooding quantities of water as spray or fog, carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol" foam or polymer foam.(23,24)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Isophorone is hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 138.21

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.64 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.177 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: FREEZING POINT: -8.1 deg C (17.4 deg F) (5,21)
Boiling Point: 215 deg C (419 deg F) (5,8,21)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.922 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (8)
Solubility in Water: Moderately soluble (1.2 g/100 mL at 20 deg C) (5,8)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, esters, ketones and chlorinated hydrocarbons.(8)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.67 (8)
pH Value: Not available. Probably practically neutral.
Vapour Density: 4.77 (air = 1) (20)
Vapour Pressure: 0.04 kPa (0.3 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (5,8,22); 0.059 kPa (0.44 mm Hg) at 25 deg C.(20)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 395 ppm (0.04%) at 20 deg C; 579 ppm (0.06%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.023 (butyl acetate = 1); 330 (diethyl ether = 1) (22)
Critical Temperature: Not available.

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 2.6 mPa.S (2.6 centipoises) at 20 deg C (8,21,22)
SURFACE TENSION: 30-32 mN/m (30-32 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (8,21)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. It may discolour and form residues on prolonged storage.(8,21)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Will not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. nitric acid, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, perchloric acid) - violent reaction. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(20,23,24)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid), STRONG ALKALIS (e.g. sodium hydroxide) or AMINES- reaction may be vigorous or violent.(23,24,26))

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive to steel, stainless steel, cast iron, aluminum, copper and its alloys or nickel and its alloys.(27)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 1238 ppm (4-hour exposure) (5, unconfirmed)
NOTE: The saturated vapour concentration is 600 ppm at 25 deg C. The validity of this LC50 is questionable and may have involved aerosol and vapour exposures.

LD50 (oral, rat): 1500 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed); 2150 mg/kg (cited as 2.33 mL/kg (7)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 2000 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 1200 mg/kg (9, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted isophorone produced moderate irritation in rabbits with cloudiness of the cornea (a score of 20/100).(10) In another study, application of 0.1 mL caused moderate to severe irritation in rabbits with cloudiness of the cornea.(9) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted isophorone cause severe eye injury in rabbits (graded 4/10; scored over 5 where 5 is severe injury).(11)

Skin Irritation:

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted isophorone (under cover for 24 hours) produced slight redness in rabbits which rapidly disappeared after contact.(10) In another study, no irritation was observed in rabbits following application of 0.5 mL of undiluted isophorone (under cover or partial cover for 1 or 4 hours).(12) In a lethal dose study, application of an unspecified amount for 24 hours under cover produced redness in rabbits followed by scarring after several days. Skin damage was still evident after 14 days.(9) This study is not relevant to the evaluation of skin irritancy.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Guinea pigs and rats were exposed by inhalation to 300-4600 ppm for various times. Irritation of eyes and nose with central nervous system (CNS) depression (instability, respiratory difficulty or irregularity, unconsciousness and death) was observed with increasing exposure. In guinea pigs, the vapour was irritating to the eyes at 800 ppm with corneal clouding and tissue death at 840 ppm for 4 hours or more. Recovery was very rapid once exposure stopped. No guinea pigs died after an 8-hour exposure to saturated air (approximately 450-500 ppm at 23 deg C). Rats experienced similar effects, but were more susceptible (effects were observed in 2/3 the time). Rats died after 4 hours at 1840 ppm. Autopsy of rats that died during exposure, included bleeding of the lungs and congestion of the stomach and liver.(2) There is some doubt as to whether the concentrations described in this study could actually have been achieved using the method described by the authors.(9) It is therefore, not possible to draw any conclusions from this experiment regarding the dose/effect relationship. The RD50 (decrease in the respiratory rate by 50%) in mice exposed for 15 minutes was 27.8 ppm. The RD50 is an indicator of sensory irritation (irritation to the eyes and nose). This value indicates that isophorone is very irritating, and an uncomfortable but a tolerable level for humans is probably 3 ppm.(13) Mice were exposed to 89-137 ppm for 4 hours. The mice exhibited dose-response behavioural changes (reduced periods of immobility during a "despair swimming test"). This test shows early signs of CNS depression.(14)

Ingestion:
Rats and mice were orally administered 125-2000 mg/kg for 16 days. At 2000 mg/kg, 4/5 female rats, 1/5 male rats and 5/5 male mice died. No symptoms other than lack of energy were noted and no treatment-related effects were observed at autopsy.(15)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats and guinea pigs were exposed by inhalation to 25-500 ppm for 6 weeks. Nine of 20 animals died at 500 ppm while 3/18 died at 200 ppm and 2/16 died at 100 ppm. Animals that died during exposure had severe kidney injury (at 50 ppm and higher) and/or lung injury. Poor growth was exhibited at 100 ppm and higher. Nose and eye irritation, blood cell changes and protein in the urine were detected at 500 ppm.(16)

Skin Contact:
Daily dermal application of 0.1 mL or 0.2 mL (under cover) to rats for 8 weeks produced redness and scabs at the site of application. A reduction in weight gain was noted in females, but the dose level(s) at which this occurred was not given.(9)

Ingestion:
Rats and mice were orally administered 62.5-1000 mg/kg for 13 weeks. At 1000 mg/kg, 1/10 female rats, 3/10 female mice and 1/10 male mice died. No treatment-related effects were observed during autopsy, but reduced body weights was observed in male mice in the 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg groups.(15) In another study, no significant effects were observed in rats fed diets containing 750, 1500 or 3000 ppm for 90 days. The only statistically significant effect was a reduction in weight gain in male rats at 3000 ppm.(9)

Skin Sensitization:
Isophorone showed no sensitizing potential in 2 tests using guinea pigs.(9)

Carcinogenicity:
Rats and mice were orally administered 0, 250 or 500 mg/kg for 2 years. A significant increase in proliferative kidney lesions (hyperplasia, tubular cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas) was observed in male rats. In high-dose male mice, a significant increase in liver neoplasms (adenomas and carcinomas) and mesenchymal tumors was observed. There were no statistically significant effects observed in females of either species. This study provides evidence of kidney carcinogenicity in male rats. However, this type of cancer appears to be specific to male rats and is not relevant to human exposures. The evidence for carcinogenicity in male mice is inconclusive because of the high incidence of this type of tumour in historical controls.(5,9,15)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Teratogenic, embryotoxic and fetotoxic effects were not seen in rats or mice exposed by inhalation, even at maternally toxic doses. Rats and mice were exposed to 0, 25, 50 or 115 ppm during days 6-15 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity was observed in rats at all concentrations and in mice exposed to the high dose. No embryotoxic, teratogenic or fetotoxic effects were observed in mice. No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were observed in rats. Non-statistically significant fetotoxicity (growth retardation) was observed in the high-dose group.(5,9)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Rats of both sexes were exposed to 500 ppm for 3 months prior to mating. No reproductive toxicity was observed.(9)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results were obtained in one in vivo test where mice were orally administered 450, 900 or 1800 mg/kg and in another test where mice were injected with approximately 500 mg/kg (cited as 0.54 mL/kg).(9)
Positive results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells (mouse lymphoma cells, Chinese hamster ovary cells, male rat hepatocytes), without metabolic activation.(5,9,17,18) Negative results have been obtained in similar mammalian cell tests, both with and without metabolic activation.(5,9,19) Negative results have been obtained in several strains of Salmonella typhimurium, both with and without metabolic activation.(9)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Silverman, L., et al. Further studies on sensory response to certain industrial solvent vapors. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 28, no. 6 (November, 1946). p. 262-266
(2) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Acute response of guinea pigs and rats to inhalation of the vapors of isophorone. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 10 (December, 1940). p. 477-483
(3) McLaughlin, R.S. Chemical burns of the human cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29, no. 11 (November, 1946). p. 1355-1362
(4) Isophorone. In: Documentation of Threshold Limit Values and biological exposure indices. 6th edition. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 819-821
(5) Toxicological profile for isophorone. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Public Health Service, December, 1989.
(6) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. An exploration of joint toxic action: twenty-seven industrial chemicals intubated in rats in all possible pairs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 14 (1969). p. 340-347
(7) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. An exploration of joint toxic action. II. Equitoxic versus equivolume mixtures. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 17, no. 2 (1970). p. 498-503
(8) Isophorone. Environmental Health Criteria 174. World Health Organization, 1995.
(9) Isophorone: CAS 78-59-1. ECETOC joint assessment of commodity chemicals report, number 10. European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, September, 1989.
(10) Truhaut, R., et al. Toxicity study of an industrial solvent: isophorone: its irritating effect on the skin and mucous membranes. Journal European de Toxicologie. Vol. 5, no. 1 (1972). p. 31-37. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00100022)
(11) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372.
(12) Potokar, M., et al. Studies on the design of animal tests for the corrosiveness of industrial chemicals. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 6 (1985). p. 615-617
(13) De Ceaurriz, J.C., et al. Sensory irritation caused by various industrial airborne chemicals. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 9, no. 2 (1981). p. 137-143
(14) De Ceaurriz, J.C., et al. Quantitative evaluation of sensory irritating and neurobehavioural properties of aliphatic ketones in mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 7 (July, 1984). p. 545-549
(15) Bucher, J.R., et al. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of isophorone in F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice. Toxicology. Vol. 39, no. 2 (1986). p. 207-219
(16) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. Response of guinea pigs and rats to repeated inhalation of vapors of mesityl oxide and isophorone. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 24, no. 3 (March, 1942). p. 46-50
(17) McGregor, D.B., et al. Responses of the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 12, no. 1 (1988). p. 85-154
(18) Selden, J.R., et al. Validation of a flow cytometric in vitro DNA repair (UDS) assay in rat hepatocytes. Mutation Research. DNA Repair. Vol. 315, no. 2 (1994). p. 147-167
(19) O'Donoghue, J.L., et al. Mutagenicity studies on ketone solvents: methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, and isophorone. Mutation Research. Vol. 206, no. 2 (October, 1988). p. 149-161
(20) HSDB record for isophorone. Last revision date: 96/03/01
(21) Braithwaite, J. Ketones. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th edition. Volume 14. John Wiley and Sons, 1995. p. 978-
(22) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 437-505
(23) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491 (ketones)
(24) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Volume 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 2027C
(25) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 21, 64
(26) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 178-179
(27) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 74-1 to 75-1
(28) European Communities. Commission Directive 98/98/EC. December 15, 1998
(29) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(30) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Organic Vapors. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(31) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Isophorone. In: OSHA Chemical Sampling Information. Revision Date: May 17, 2000. Available at: <www.osha.gov/dts/chemicalsampling/data/CH_248000.html>
(32) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Isophorone. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-09-24

Revision Indicators:
TLV-C 1998-06-01
TLV comments 1998-06-01
EU Class 2000-04-01
EU Risk 2000-04-01
EU Safety 2000-04-01
EU comments 2000-04-01
Skin protection 2001-01-01
Chronic exposure 2001-01-01
Handling 2001-01-01
Storage 2001-01-01
Emergency overview 2001-01-01
Acute exposure (inhalation) 2001-01-01
WHMIS (detailed class) 2001-01-01
WHMIS (effects) 2001-01-01
WHMIS (proposed class) 2001-01-01
Carcinogenicity 2001-01-01
Toxicological info 2001-01-01
NFPA (reactivity) 2003-04-16
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-04
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-04
Bibliography 2005-03-08
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-08
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-14
Synonyms 2006-01-30



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