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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 237
CCOHS Chemical Name: Hydrogen peroxide solutions 8% to less than 20%

Synonyms:
Dihydrogen dioxide
Hydrogen dioxide
Hydroperoxide
Hydrogen peroxide

Chemical Name French: Peroxyde d'hydrogène
Chemical Name Spanish: Peróxido de hidrógeno

Trade Name(s):
Albone
Kastone
Perone
Tysul

CAS Registry Number: 7722-84-1
UN/NA Number(s): 2984
RTECS Number(s): MX0890000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 231-765-0
Chemical Family: Inorganic peroxide / hydrogen oxide / hydrogen peroxide
Molecular Formula: H2-O2
Structural Formula: H-O-O-H

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid; nearly odourless and vapour is non-irritating except at high concentrations.

Odour Threshold:
Not available

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
All information given is for hydrogen peroxide solutions in water because this is the only form in which hydrogen peroxide is commercially available. Hydrogen peroxide is available in grades ranging from 3 to 90 wt.%. The most common industrial grades are 35, 50, 70 and 90 wt.%. Less concentrated solutions, such as 3-6%, are obtained by dilution of more concentrated ones, such as 35%, with water, usually with the addition of extra stabilizer.(4,19) Commercial solutions almost always contain very small amounts of impurities, such as iron or copper, which can cause decomposition. Therefore, stabilizers are often added to prevent decomposition into oxygen and water. Common stabilizers include sodium pyrophosphate and sodium stannate trihydrate, phosphoric or other mineral acids and organic stabilizers such as 8- hydroxyquinoline, pyridine carboxylic acids, tartaric and benzoic acids, acetanilide and acetophenetidin.(4,19,20)

Uses and Occurrences:
Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 12% are mainly used in hair care products. Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8-20% can be used as laboratory reagents.(4) Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 10-25% are used to purify drinking water; treat contaminated water supplies in hospitals; treat raw milk; sterilize spacecraft and disinfect contact lenses and acrylic resins sections of surgical implants. Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 15-35% are used to sterilize the contact surfaces of food packaging for non-refrigerated milk and fruit juices.(21)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid; nearly odourless. Will not burn. OXIDIZER. Prolonged contact with combustible materials may cause fire. EYE IRRITANT. Causes moderate to very severe eye irritation. Concentrated solutions could cause permanent effects, including blindness.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Hydrogen peroxide does not readily form a vapour at room temperature. If heated or misted, it is irritating to the nose, throat and respiratory tract, based on limited human and animal information.
Throat irritation has been reported in employees exposed to aerosol concentrations of 12 to 41 mg/m3.(1) No effect on airways resistance was observed in volunteers exposed to 0.3 mg/m3 of hydrogen peroxide aerosol for 5 minutes.(2) In volunteers exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours, the threshold for respiratory tract irritation was 10 mg/m3.(3)

Skin Contact:
Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% to less than 20% are non-irritating to very mild skin irritants based on animal information. Whitening or bleaching of the skin has been observed in humans.(4,5,6)

Eye Contact:
Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% are probably moderately to severely irritating, while solutions of 10% and higher should be considered corrosive to eyes based on animal information. Corrosive materials are capable of producing severe eye burns, and permanent injury, including blindness, depending on the concentration of the solutions and duration of contact. No human information was located for 8-20% hydrogen peroxide solutions. Direct contact with dilute solutions (up to 3%) has not resulted in permanent eye injury.(13)

Ingestion:
Case reports of non-occupational ingestion of hydrogen peroxide describe symptoms such as sharp pains in the abdomen, foaming at the mouth, vomiting, temporary unconsciousness and fever. Sensory and motor impairment have also been described. Hydrogen peroxide reacts in the stomach releasing large amounts of oxygen.(4,5) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

INHALATION EXPOSURE: No firm conclusions can be drawn from one case report. This report described reversible lung disease in an employee exposed to 12 to 41 mg/m3 of hydrogen peroxide aerosols for 1 year. This individual was also a heavy smoker which may have contributed to him developing lung disease. Six other employees similarly exposed did not show evidence of lung disease. All 7 employees reported eye and throat irritation and gradual bleaching of their hair since the machine which generated hydrogen peroxide was in use.(1)

SKIN SENSITIZATION: There is one occupational case report of a hairdresser who developed an intensely itchy rash. She later tested positive to a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, as well as nickel sulfate and 4-aminophenol. She had no previous history of allergies. This authors indicate that 156 other hairdressers tested negative to 3% hydrogen peroxide.(7) Negative results were also reported for hydrogen peroxide in another study of employees exposed to several chemicals in a hydrogen peroxide production unit.(8)

Carcinogenicity:

In a limited human population study, there was no indication of an increased risk of cancer due to hydrogen peroxide exposure. This study is limited by the small number of people studied and possibly low exposure levels.(35) Animal studies have shown that long-term oral administration of 0.1-0.15% hydrogen peroxide causes an inflammatory response in the gastro-duodenal tissue of mice. This inflammatory response may progress to carcinogenic changes.(4,9) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is inadequate evidence for the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide to humans. There is limited evidence of the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide in experimental animals.(35)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. No conclusions can be drawn based on the limited animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No conclusions can be drawn based on the limited animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
It is not possible to conclude that hydrogen peroxide is mutagenic. Positive results have been obtained in cultured humans cells.(35) Negative results have been obtained in relevant studies using live animals. Positive results have been obtained in short-term mutagenicity tests.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Increased airways resistance was observed in volunteers exposed to hydrogen peroxide and sulfur dioxide aerosols at the same time.(2) Exposure to hydrogen peroxide increased the toxicity of ozone in animals.(10)

Potential for Accumulation:
Some, hydrogen peroxide undergoes decomposition to oxygen and water when in contact with mammalian tissues, such as skin and the tongue, before absorption. In the body, hydrogen peroxide is readily metabolized to oxygen and water, by one route, or to water alone by another. It does not accumulate in the body.(4)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If symptoms persist, obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing before re-use or discard. Keep contaminated clothing under water in a closed container until it can be safely discarded.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 30 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If a contact lens is present, DO NOT delay irrigation or attempt to remove the lens until flushing is done. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, continue flushing during transport to emergency care facility. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its condition of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Does not burn, but is a weak oxidizing material and can slightly increase the burning rate of a fire.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Dilute hydrogen peroxide solutions are not shock sensitive.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Not sensitive.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Molecular oxygen.(19,20,22,23)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Does not burn. Hydrogen peroxide solutions, 8% to less than 20% are mild oxidizing agents. Some substances that do not normally burn in air will ignite or explode upon contact with hydrogen peroxide and a source of ignition. The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) lists hydrogen peroxide solutions (greater than 8% up to 27.5%) as a Class 1 oxidizer. A Class 1 oxidizer is an oxidizer whose primary hazard is that it slightly increases the burning rate but does not cause spontaneous ignition when it comes in contact with combustible materials.(23) Closed containers may rupture violently due to rapid decomposition, if exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time, or if contaminated with certain metals or dirt. Large amounts of oxygen gas may be released to form an oxygen-rich atmosphere. No part of a container should be subjected to a temperature higher than 49 deg C (120 deg F).(23)

Extinguishing Media:
Hydrogen peroxide does not burn. Use large quantities of water as fog to fight fires in which this material is involved.(24) Some chemical extinguishing agents may accelerate decomposition. Carbon dioxide or other extinguishing agents that smother flames are not effective in fires involving oxidizers.(23)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and decomposition products.
Move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk. Explosive decomposition may occur under fire conditions. Use caution since heat may cause rupture of containers and release large amounts of oxygen. Otherwise, apply water from as far a distance as possible, in flooding quantities as a spray or fog to keep fire-exposed containers or equipment cool and absorb heat, until well after the fire is out.
Remove all flammable and combustible materials from the vicinity, especially oil and grease. Do not direct water directly on leak as this may cause leak to increase. Stay away from ends of tanks, but realize that shrapnel may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tanks due to fire. In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated. Use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles.
Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 34.02

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.39 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.72 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -6.4 deg C (20.5 deg F) (10%) (19)
Boiling Point: 101.7 deg C (215 deg F) (10%) (19)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.03 (10%) at 25 deg F (water = 1) (19)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions.(4,19,20)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in many polar solvents, e.g. low molecular weight alcohols, glycols and ketones; insoluble in petroleum ether.(4,20,25)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.70 to -1.33 (estimated) (26)
pH Value: Slightly acid to litmus paper.
Vapour Density: 1.2 (air = 1)
Vapour Pressure: Not available
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not available
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
ACIDITY: Weak acid; pKa = 11.75 at 20 deg C (Ka = 1.78 X 10(-12) at 20 deg C).(19,20)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1.01 mPa.s (1.01 centipoise) at 20 deg C (10%). (4)
SURFACE TENSION: 73 mN/m (73 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (10%).(4)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Solutions which are completely free of contamination are relatively stable. Stability depends upon many factors including temperature, pH, and the presence of impurities. Alkaline solutions are less stable than acidic ones (the optimum pH is 3.5-4.5). It can decompose in sunlight. Hydrogen peroxide readily liberates oxygen, water and heat.(4,19)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% to less than 20% are mild oxidizing agents. More concentrated solutions (30% or greater) are strong oxidizing agents capable of reacting explosively with many substances. Some organic compounds form unstable peroxides. For a review of the many substances hydrogen peroxide can react with, consult references 24, 27 and 28. Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% to less than 20% may react with many of the same substances, but to a lesser degree.
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS (e.g. wood, paper, textiles, oil, grease) - may cause fire or explosion after prolonged contact.(19,22,24,27)
STRONG BASES (e.g potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide) - can explode violently.(19,24)
ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (e.g. carboxylic acids and anhydrides, nitrogen-containing bases, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, alcohols, charcoal, organic dust) - spontaneous combustion, violent decomposition and/or explosion may occur.(19,25,27,28)
METALS (powdered or metal surfaces), METAL OXIDES, METAL SULFIDES METAL SALTS, or IODATES - may cause violent decomposition.(19,24,27)
REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. metal hydrides) - may react violently.(22,28)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Oxygen

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures greater than 100 deg C, heat, open flames, contamination, depletion of stabilizers, pH greater than 4.5.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Hydrogen peroxide solutions (8% to less than 20%) are corrosive (corrosion rate greater than 1.27 mm/year) to carbon steel (types 1010, 1020,1075,1095 and 12L14), ductile cast iron, the nickel base alloy, Hastelloy B, copper, nickel-copper alloy, brass, cartridge brass, naval brass, bronze, aluminum bronze, naval bronze, and lead at room temperature.(29,38,39) Hydrogen peroxide solutions attack types 1010 and 1020 carbon steel at any concentration and temperature.(38) Hydrogen peroxide solutions (8% to less than 20%) are not corrosive (corrosion rate less than 0.5 mm/year) to stainless steel (e.g. types 303, 304, 316, 400 series, Carpenter 20Cb-3), aluminum (99.5%), certain aluminum alloys (types 1060, 3003, 5052, 6063 and aluminum-magnesium alloys), the nickel-base alloys, Monel and Hastelloy C, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(38,39,40) Both stainless steel and aluminum surfaces must be passivated (formation of a protective film by chemical treatment) before use.(19,20)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
The degree of hazard associated with hydrogen peroxide depends on concentration. May attack or ignite some forms of plastics, rubber, or coatings.(31)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 2000 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure; whole body exposure) (concentration not specified) (3)
NOTE: This value is not considered reliable since a whole body exposure was used and the study was poorly reported.

LD50 (oral, male rat): 1517 mg/kg (9.6% solution) (4,11)

Eye Irritation:

Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% are probably moderately to severely irritating, while solutions of 10% and higher may be corrosive to eyes.

Application of 0.1 mL of a 10% solution was extremely irritating in rabbits (average score at 24, 48 and 72 hours: 95/110; at 7 days: 41/110; study was ended on day 7).(12) Application of 10 microL of a 10% solution caused mild irritation in rabbits (maximum score 16/110), which reversed in 7 days. Application of 10 microL of a 15% solution caused moderate to severe irritation in rabbits (maximum score 58.3/110), which reversed in 21 days.(36) Other unpublished studies have shown irreversible corneal damage following the application of 10 and 12% in unwashed eyes.(4, unconfirmed) A drop of 5-30% solution caused severe damage, which was persistent when concentrations were greater than 10%.(13, unconfirmed) In an unpublished study, application of an 8% solution caused mild irritation to unwashed eyes (average score at 24, 48 and 72 hours 16/110) and severe irritation to washed eyes (average score at 24, 48 and 72 hours 77.7/110). Scores at 22 days were 2.5/110 for unwashed eyes and 16.0/110 for washed eyes.(4, unconfirmed)

Skin Irritation:

Hydrogen peroxide solutions of 8% to less than 20% are very mild skin irritants.

Application of a 10% and a 35% solution, to intact skin under a cover for 4 hours, caused almost no irritation and very mild irritation respectively in rabbits. The primary irritation index was 0.08/8 for the 10% solution and 1.6/8 for the 35% solution.(14) Moderate or severe irritation was caused by open application of 1 mL/kg of 15% hydrogen peroxide solution in water to rats and 30% solution to mice (duration of exposure and scoring information not provided).(37) In an unpublished study, application of 8% hydrogen peroxide solution, under a cover to intact skin for 24 hours, caused no irritation in rabbits (all scores for erythema and edema were 0/4).(4, unconfirmed)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Interpretation of the available inhalation exposure information is complicated because the form of hydrogen peroxide (vapour or aerosol) is not always specified. In general, studies have shown that airborne hydrogen peroxide is irritating to the respiratory tract. Symptoms have included nose irritation and discharge, fluid accumulation in the lungs and necrosis of bronchial tissue. Deaths have been reported.(4,15,16)

Ingestion:
Male mice showed a decrease in body weight and died within 2 weeks when their drinking water contained greater than 1% hydrogen peroxide. Significant decreases in body weight gain were observed after administration of 0.6% but not 0.3% for 3 weeks.(4,5) In another study, decreased fluid intake and body weight were observed in male rats exposed to 0.45% for 3 weeks.(17)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
There is no specific information available for vapours or aerosols generated from solutions of less than 20%. A study which examined rats exposed to 67 ppm (93 mg/m3) of an aerosol/vapour mixture generated from 90% hydrogen peroxide over a 7 week period showed irritation of the respiratory tract and lung congestion in all animals. In the same study, two dogs were exposed to 7 ppm (10 mg/m3) of an aerosol/vapour mixture generated from 90% hydrogen peroxide for 6 months. There were no signs of toxicity by 14 weeks except for bleaching and loss of hair. Autopsy showed signs of lung irritation, as well as loss of hair and thickening of the skin.(15)

Ingestion:
Several studies have investigated the effects of long-term oral administration of hydrogen peroxide. In general, decreases in body weight gain and biochemical changes have been observed with exposure to lower doses or with exposures of longer durations. Deaths have occurred in animals exposed to doses of 1.5% and higher for 8 weeks or longer. Liver damage and thickening of the stomach wall has been observed in mice administered 0.15% hydrogen peroxide (approximately 230 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for 16 weeks. This study continued for 35 weeks during which harmful changes in the kidneys, gastrointestinal tract and spleen were also observed.(4,5)

Skin Sensitization:
Negative results were obtained in guinea pigs exposed to 3 or 6% solutions.(4, unconfirmed)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is limited evidence of the carcinogenicity of hydrogen peroxide in experimental animals.(5,35) The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated hydrogen peroxide as an A3 (animal carcinogen).
Several studies have shown that long-term oral administration of 0.1-0.15% hydrogen peroxide causes an inflammatory response in the gastro-duodenal tissue of mice. This inflammatory response may progress to carcinogenic changes. In rats, hydrogen peroxide only induced benign tumours, not malignant tumours, even at nearly lethal concentrations (1-1.5%).(4,9) No neoplasms were observed in hamsters administered 0.75% hydrogen peroxide in dentrifice 5 times/week for 20 weeks. This study is limited by its short duration and the unknown effect of using dentrifice as the vehicle.(35) Hydrogen peroxide did not act as a tumour promoter when administered to rats or hamsters with a known carcinogen.(9,35)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No conclusions can be drawn based on the available information.
One historical study which lacks details reported that normal litters were born to 3 female rats exposed to 0.45% in drinking water for 5 months and then mated with unexposed males.(17) No conclusions can be drawn from another poorly conducted study (4, unconfirmed).

Reproductive Toxicity:
No conclusions can be drawn based on the limited information available.
Male mice were given 0.33% or 1.0% hydrogen peroxide solutions in place of drinking water. The mice were mated after days 7 and 28 or day 21 of exposure. No significant effects on fertility were observed. The concentration, morphology and motility of sperm of mice and rabbits receiving hydrogen peroxide in their drinking water over 3 and 6 weeks remained normal.(18) This study is limited by the small number of animals used and the fact that a control group was not used. Rats were orally administered doses of up to 50 mg/kg orally for 6 months. At the high dose, altered fertility cycles were observed in the females and decreased sperm mobility in males. Treated animals were mated. High dose females produced fewer litters.(4, unconfirmed) There is insufficient information available to evaluate this report.

Mutagenicity:
Negative results have been obtained in most studies using live animals. However, positive results have been obtained in host-mediated assays. In these studies, mutagenicity was observed in bacteria and tumour cells injected into live animals.(4,5,35)
Positive results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells, including human cells, and in bacteria and yeast.(4,5,35)
Negative results were obtained in fruit flies.(4,5,35)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Kaelin, R.M.. Diffuse interstitial lung disease associated with hydrogen peroxide inhalation in a dairy worker. American Review of Respiratory Diseases. Vol. 137, no. 5 (May 1988). p. 1233-1235
(2) Toyama, T., et al. Synergistic response to hydrogen peroxide aerosols and sulfur dioxide to pulmonary airway resistance. Industrial Health. Vol. 2 (1964). p. 35-4
(3) Kondrashov, V.A. Comparative toxicity of hydrogen peroxide vapour on inhalation and dermal exposure. English translation. Gigiena Truda i Professionalnye Zabolevaniya. Vol. 21, no. 10 (1977). p. 22-25. (HSE Translation No. 14391A)
(4) Hydrogen peroxide CAS No. 7722-84-1. Joint assessment of commodity chemicals no. 22. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Sept. 1992
(5) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Hydrogen peroxide. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans. Vol. 36. Allyl compounds, aldehydes, epoxides and peroxides. World Health Organization, Feb. 1985. p. 285-314
(6) Goette, D.K., et al. Skin blanching induced by hydrogen peroxide. Case reports. Southern Medical Journal. Vol. 70, no. 5 (May 1977). p. 620-622
(7) Aguirre, A., et al. Positive patch tests to hydrogen peroxide in 2 cases. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 30, no. 2 (Feb. 1994). p. 113
(8) Barsotti, M., et al. Symptoms of bronchial asthma and eczema in workers assigned to hydrogen peroxide production units. [English summary]. Medicina del Lavoro. Vol. 42, no. 2 (1951). p. 68
(9) Takahashi, M., et al. Effects of ethanol, potassium metabisulfite, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide on gastric carcinogenesis in rats after initiation with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Japanese Journal of Cancer Research. Vol. 77, no. 2 (Feb. 1986). p. 118-124
(10) Svirbely, J.L., et al. Enhanced toxicity of ozone-hydrogen peroxide mixture. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 22, no. 1 (Feb. 1961). p. 21-26
(11) RTECS database record for hydrogen peroxide, 8% to 20%. Last updated: 1997/10
(12) Weiner, M., et al. Eye irritation studies on three concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Journal of the American College of Toxicology. Part B (1990). p. 49-50
(13) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the Eye. 4th ed. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 791-797
(14) Aguinaldo, E.R., et al. Skin irritation studies with hydrogen peroxide. Abstract. Toxicologist. Vol. 12 (1992). p. 110
(15) Oberst, F.W., et al. Inhalation toxicity of ninety percent hydrogen peroxide vapor. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 10 (Oct. 1954). p. 319-327
(16) Punte, C.L., et al. The inhalation toxicity of aerosols of 90% hydrogen peroxide. Medical Laboratories Research Report No. 189. Chemical Corps Medical Laboratories. Army Chemical Center, Maryland, May 1953. (NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00068230)
(17) Hankin, L. Hydrogen peroxide ingestion and the growth of rats. Nature. No. 4647 (Nov. 22, 1958). p. 1453
(18) Wales, R.G., et al. The spermicidal activity of hydrogen peroxide in vitro and in vivo. Journal of Endocrinology. Vol. 18 (1959). p. 236-244
(19) Eul, W.E., et al. Hydrogen peroxide. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. John Wiley and Sons, 2005. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/kirk/kirk_search_fs.html> {Subscription required}
(20) Goor, G., et al. Hydrogen Peroxide. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 7th ed. John Wiley and Sons, 2005. Available at: <www.mrw.interscience.wiley.com/ueic/ueic_search_fs.html> {Subscription required}
(21) Block, S.S. Disinfectants and antiseptics. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 8. John Wiley and Sons, 1993. p. 255-256
(22) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991
(23) NFPA 430. Code for the storage of liquid and solid oxidizers. 1995 ed. National Protection Association, 1995. p. 430-1 to 430-16
(24) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 11th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1994
(25) HSDB database record for hydrogen peroxide. Last revision date: 97/05/01
(26) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 71, no. 6 (Dec. 1971). p. 555
(27) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995
(28) Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988
(29) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985
(30) Merrifield, R. Fire and explosion hazards associated with the storage and handling of hydrogen peroxide. Specialist Inspector Report no. 19. Health and Safety Executive, Technology Division, Oct. 1988
(31) Emergency action guide for hydrogen peroxide. Association of American Railroads, Jan. 1990
(32) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(33) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(34) European Communities (EC). Commission Directive 2004/73/EC. Apr 29, 2004
(35) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999
(36) Maurer, J.K., et al., Pathology of ocular irritation with bleaching agents in the rabbit low-volume eye test. Toxicologic Pathology. Vol. 29, no. 3 (May 2001). p. 308-319
(37) Sekizawa, J., et al. A simple method for screening assessment of skin and eye irritation. Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994). p. 25-35
(38) Pruett, K.M. Hydrogen peroxide. In: Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 170-181
(39) Schweitzer, P.A. Hydrogen peroxide. In: Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part B, E-O Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1553-1556
(40) Hydrogen peroxide. In: Handbook of corrosion. 2nd ed. Edited by B.D. Craig, et al. ASM International, 1997. p. 468-470

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-05-05

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS (proposed class) 1999-03-01
WHMIS (effects) 1999-03-01
WHMIS (disclosure list) 1999-03-01
Carcinogenicity 1999-12-01
Mutagenicity 1999-12-01
Emergency overview 2000-08-01
Acute exposure (ingestion) 2000-08-01
First aid (ingestion) 2000-08-01
ERPG 2001-03-01
WHMIS disclosure list 2003-07-09
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
EU classification 2004-11-18
EU risks 2004-11-18
EU safety 2004-11-18
EU comments 2004-11-18
Toxicological info 2006-03-27
Short-term skin contact 2006-03-27
Short-term eye contact 2006-03-27
Emergency overview 2006-03-27
Corrosivity to metals 2006-04-04
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-04-04
Bibliography 2006-04-04



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