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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 263
CCOHS Chemical Name: Hydrotreated kerosene

Synonyms:
Distillate fuel oils, light
Distillates (petroleum), hydrotreated light
Hydrotreated light distillate
Hydrotreated light petroleum distillate
Kerosene (non-specific name)
Kerosene (petroleum), hydrotreated
Turbo-fuel-A

Chemical Name French: Distillats légers (pétrole), hydrotraités
Chemical Name Spanish: Destilados (petróleo), fracción ligera tratada con hidrógeno
CAS Registry Number: 64742-47-8
UN/NA Number(s): 1223
RTECS Number(s): OA5504000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 265-149-8
Chemical Family: Mixed hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbons / petroleum hydrocarbon distillate
Molecular Formula: Complex mixture of C9-C16 hydrocarbons. See Composition/purity.
Structural Formula: Complex hydrocarbon mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild petroleum odour.(5,6)

Odour Threshold:
Not available for hydrotreated kerosene. 5517 mg/m3 (unspecified kerosene) (7)

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
The most important aspect of evaluating the toxicity of petroleum distillates is accurate definition of the material in question. The source of the crude petroleum, the boiling range of the distillate and all of the processing and refining steps influence the composition and toxicity of the resulting petroleum distillate. Hydrotreated light petroleum distillate (CAS 64742-47-8) is a fuel oil derived from straight run kerosene, which is a principle refinery process stream derived from crude petroleum oils by atmospheric distillation. Hydrotreatment saturates the olefins in the straight run kerosene by adding hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst at elevated temperature and pressure. The severity of hydrogenation ranges from mild (hydrofinishing) to severe (hydrocracking) and determines the degree of conversion of aromatic hydrocarbons and the opening of ring compounds. Hydrofinishing is used mainly for finishing solvent-extracted lubricating oils.(2) Petroleum crude oils are classed as "light" or "heavy" in relation to a standard viscosity of 20.5 mm2/s (20.5 centistokes) at 37.8 deg C. For hydrotreated light petroleum distillate, the carbon number ranges from 9 to 16 and the boiling range is 150-290 deg C (302-554 deg F).(2,8) The boiling range of kerosenes generally precludes the presence of substantial quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's).(2) The TSCA and EINECS inventories have adopted a system for defining refinery process streams based on the crude oil type, the viscosity and the process history. Each refinery stream is identified by a CAS Registry Number which identifies the last refinery process. Different materials may be given the same CAS Registry Number if the final treatment step is the same. Therefore, it is essential to consider the description and name of the material, the processing history and the CAS Registry Number for accurate definition of a material. Because the severity of hydrotreating is not defined by the CAS Registry Number, it is possible for the same CAS Registry Number to describe both mildly and severely hydrotreated kerosene, although these materials may have different properties and toxicity.

Uses and Occurrences:
The most important use of kerosenes is in blending aviation fuels. Hydrotreated kerosene is also used as a solvent and diluent in coatings, stains, glazes, paint strippers and thinners; in fuels, mineral oils, lubricants, electrical insulation oils; in the formulation of a wide range of products including automotive polishing materials, protective waxes, cleaning compositions, surfactants, dewatering and flocculating agents, water repellants, textile auxiliaries, textile inks, antifoam agents, defoamers, thickeners, adhesives, sealants, caulks, finishing compounds, PVC plasticizers, penetrants, compounding materials, rust inhibitors, and handcleaners; in leather finishing and treatment; in paper manufacturing; as a chemical feedstock; and as a carrier for pesticides and insecticides.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Clear, colourless liquid with a mild petroleum odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. May accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. May be a skin irritant. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Hydrotreated kerosene does not easily form a vapour. Therefore, inhalation exposure is unlikely to occur, unless this material is heated or misted. Exposures to high vapour or mist concentrations can cause central nervous system depression.(1) Symptoms of central nervous system (CNS) depression include dizziness, headache, nausea, fatigue, vomiting and incoordination. Severe exposures may result in unconsciousness and death. No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene, but these effects have been observed following exposure to related compounds.

Skin Contact:
Hydrotreated kerosene should be considered irritating to the skin, because other types of kerosene have produced moderate to severe skin irritation in animals and in humans. However, more refined forms of kerosene, like hydrotreated kerosene, are less irritating.(1) No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene.
Animal evidence indicates that kerosenes are only minimally absorbed through the skin and harmful effects are not expected by this route of exposure.

Eye Contact:
Hydrotreated kerosene is probably not an eye irritant, because other types of kerosene have not produced eye irritation in animal studies. No human information was located. No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene.

Ingestion:
In general, the oral toxicity of kerosenes is very low in animal studies. The accidental ingestion of kerosene, primarily in children, has been frequently reported in the literature. Often in these cases, the kerosene has been aspirated (inhaled into the lungs during ingestion or vomiting). Severe lung damage and deaths have resulted. Like other petroleum distillates, and based on its viscosity, it is expected that hydrotreated kerosene could also be easily aspirated. No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No specific human information was located for hydrotreated kerosene. Animal toxicity studies suggest low long-term toxicity.

Respiratory Sensitization:
No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene. No conclusions can be drawn from case reports in which 3 children and 1 adult developed asthma following prolonged exposure to kerosene spilled from home oil tanks.(14)

Skin:
In general, long-term skin contact with kerosenes has produced dermatitis (dry, red, scaly skin). More refined forms of kerosene, like hydrotreated kerosene, are less irritating than unrefined kerosenes.(1)

Carcinogenicity:

There is not enough information available to conclude that hydrotreated kerosene is carcinogenic. No human information was located. There is limited evidence for carcinogenicity of hydrotreated kerosene in experimental animals. The boiling range of kerosenes generally precludes the presence of significant concentrations of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's). The carcinogenicity of kerosene streams observed in animal studies is more likely a secondary effect of chronic skin irritation, rather than the presence of PAH's.(1,2,3,4)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

This IARC evaluation is for distillate light fuel oils (including kerosenes).(2)

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as an animal carcinogen (A3).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
No human information was located. In animal studies, other forms of kerosene have not produced effects on the offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No human or animal information was located .

Mutagenicity:
The available evidence does not indicate that hydrotreated kerosene is mutagenic.
No human information was located. Negative results were obtained in studies using live animals and in bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene. In one study, the use of an unspecified form of kerosene for cleaning used gasoline engine oil from the skin increased the skin absorption of the oil in mice, as measured by a significant increase in DNA adducts in the lungs.

Potential for Accumulation:
No specific information was located on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of hydrotreated kerosene.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with lukewarm, gently flowing water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Immediately obtain medical attention. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush chemical off the face. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Have victim rinse mouth with water again. Immediately obtain medical attention.

First Aid Comments:
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
No specific information located; 60-62 deg C (140-143.6 deg F) (closed cup) (typical values for kerosenes) (1)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
No specific information located; 230 deg C (446 deg F) (typical values for kerosenes) (1)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
In general, kerosenes have low electrical conductivities and therefore the liquid can accumulate static charge by flow, agitation or pouring. The warmed vapour can be ignited by an electrostatic discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
No specific information is available.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Thermal decomposition products are highly dependent on fire conditions. A complex mixture of airborne material will evolve during heating or burning. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, reactive hydrocarbons, as well unidentified organic compounds may be formed.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can release vapours that form explosive mixtures with air, at or above 60 deg C. Liquid can probably accumulate static charge by flow or agitation. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating, toxic and/or hazardous substances may be generated. Containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for sufficient time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank or container due to fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk. Protect personnel. Otherwise, cool fire-exposed containers, tanks or equipment by applying hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and a safe distance. Avoid getting water into containers because of the danger of boilover. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
In addition, water spray or fog can be used to absorb heat, keep fire-exposed containers cool and protect exposed material. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to disperse the vapours and protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow the fire to burn. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
This material is only slightly hazardous to health. However, toxic combustion and thermal decomposition products should be expected. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: Complex hydrocarbon mixture. Average: 191

Conversion Factor:
Not available (molecular weight variable)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available.
Boiling Point: 150-290 deg C (302-554 deg F) (8,18)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): No specific information located. 0.79-0.825 at 15 deg C (water = 1) (typical values for kerosenes) (1,18)
Solubility in Water: Practically insoluble (1.5 mg/100 mL at 20 deg C) (18)
Solubility in Other Liquids: No specific information located. Probably soluble in all proportions with other petroleum solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P (oct) = 3.3-6+ (straight-run and hydrodesulfurized kerosene) (calculated) (1,18); also reported as Log P (oct) = 3.4-8.7 (typical values for kerosenes) (calculated) (18)
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Kinematic: No specific information located. 1.1-2.5 mm2/s (1.1-2.5 centistokes) at 20 deg C (typical values for kerosenes) (1,18)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: No specific information located. 29.4-34.2 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (typical values for kerosenes) (calculated)
Vapour Density: 4.5-5 (air = 1) (typical values for some kerosenes and jet fuels)
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low (less than or equal to 0.06 kPa (0.45 mm Hg) at 20 deg C) (18); typical Reid vapour pressure: 1-21 kPa (7.5-157.5 mm Hg) at 37.8 deg C (18)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Less than or equal to 600 ppm (0.06%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Not available.
Henry's Law Constant: Not available.

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. calcium hypochlorite, nitric acid or peroxides) - may react violently or explosively, with increased risk of fire.(9)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, heat, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Specific information for hydrotreated kerosene was not located. Kerosene (type unspecified) is not corrosive to the common metals such as stainless steel (e.g. types 301, 304, 316, 347, 17-4PH, 400 series and Carpenter 20Cb 3), aluminum (e.g. types 3003, 5052, Cast B-356), carbon steel (e.g. types 1010 and 1020), cast iron (e.g. gray and ductile) high nickel cast iron (Ni-resist), high silicon cast iron, nickel, the nickel-base alloys, Monel, Hastelloy, Inconel, and Incoloy, copper, copper-nickel alloy, bronze, silicon bronze, aluminum bronze, brass, admiralty brass, naval brass, tantalum and titanium.(10,19)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No specific information about the effects of hydrotreated kerosene on plastics and elastomers was located. Kerosene (type unspecified, can attack some plastics, such as polyphenylene oxide (Noryl), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), cross-linked polyethylene (XPE), polystyrene (PS) and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) at room temperature (5,10); elastomers, such as ethylene propylene (EP), ethylene propylene diene ( Nordel (EPDM)), styrene butadiene (SBR), butyl rubber (isobutylene isoprene), isoprene, natural rubber, hard and soft rubber, Hypalon (chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM)), low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and silicone rubbers at room temperature (6,10); and coatings, such as coal tar epoxy (10). Kerosene (type unspecified) does not attack plastics, such as Teflon and other fluorocarbons, like ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (Tefzel), ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (Halar) and polyvinylidene (Kynar), polyvinylidene chloride (Saran), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), nylon, polybutylene and polyethylene terephthalate, ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMPE) and thermoset polyesters (bisphenol-A fumarate and isophthalic acid) at room temperature (5,10); elastomers, such as Viton A and other fluorocarbons, like Chemraz and Kalrez, nitrile Buna-N (NBR), fluorosilicone and chlorinated polyethylene (CM) (6,10); and coatings, such as epoxy (general purpose and chemical resistant), phenolic, polyester and vinyls (10).


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

No standard animal toxicity values were located for hydrotreated kerosene. Other kerosenes have low oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity in animal tests.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Long-term oral exposure to hydrotreated kerosene and long term inhalation exposure to other light petroleum distillate hydrocarbons has produced a specific type of kidney injury unique to male rats. This kidney injury has not been observed in female rats, other animal species or humans. Long-term dermal application of other types of kerosene has produced severe skin irritation and ulceration.

Ingestion:
Rats were given 0, 500, 2500 or 5000 mg/kg/day of a hydrotreated, light petroleum distillate (CAS No. 64742-47-8) for 13 weeks followed by a 4-week recovery period. There was a significant decrease in body weight at 2500 and 5000 mg/kg/day. Significant blood changes included an increase in platelet count in males at all doses and in females at 5000 mg/kg/day, signs of anemia in males at 2500 mg/kg/day and higher, and changes in blood chemistry at all doses. All of these effects reversed after 4 weeks recovery. Organ weight changes included an increase in relative kidney weight at 500 mg/kg/day and higher, an increase in relative liver weight at 2500 mg/kg/day and higher and an increase in adrenal gland weight at 2500 mg/kg/day and higher in females and at 500 mg/kg/day in males. Kidney changes characteristic of "hydrocarbon nephropathy" (hyaline droplets, tubular degeneration and regeneration, accumulation of granular casts) were seen in males at all doses. In both sexes, dose-related increases in central lobe liver cell size and stomach lining thickening were observed. The kidney and stomach changes were partially reversed and the liver changes completely reversed after 4 weeks recovery.(15)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is limited evidence for carcinogenicity of hydrotreated kerosene in experimental animals.(2)
Male mice were dosed twice weekly by application of 50 mg of hydrotreated kerosene until a papilloma greater than 1 mm3 appeared. The actual dose is approximately 1667 mg/kg/twice weekly or 476 mg/kg/day averaged over 7 days, based on an average mouse body weight of 0.3 kg. After 79 weeks, 24/38 mice exhibited skin tumours.(4) It is thought that the skin tumours may be secondary to severe skin irritation.(16)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
No specific information was located for hydrotreated kerosene. Other forms of kerosene have not produced effects on the offspring in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Mutagenicity:
The evidence available does not indicate that hydrotreated kerosene is mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in studies using live mice and in bacteria.
Negative results were obtained in mice orally administered 1000, 2500 or 5000 mg/kg of hydrotreated kerosene.(3)
Negative results (gene mutation) were obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation.(3,4)

Toxicological Synergisms:
The use of an unspecified form of kerosene for cleaning used gasoline engine oil from the skin increased the absorption of the oil through the skin of mice, as measured by a significant increase in DNA adducts in the lungs.(17)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) CONCAWE. Petroleum Products and Health Management Groups. Kerosines/jet fuels. Product Dossier No. 94/106. CONCAWE, Apr. 1995
(2) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Jet fuels. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 45. Occupational exposures in petroleum refining: crude oil and major petroleum fuels. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 203-218
(3) McKee, R.H., et al. Evaluation of the genetic toxicity of middle distillate fuels. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 23, no. 3 (1994). p. 234-238
(4) Blackburn, G.R., et al. Predicting carcinogenicity of petroleum distillation fractions using a modified Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Cell Biology and Toxicology. Vol. 2, no. 1 (Mar. 1986). p. 63-84
(5) Pruett, K.M. Kerosene. In: Chemical resistance guide for plastics: a guide to chemical resistance of engineering thermoplastics, fluoroplastics, fibers and thermoset resins. Compass Publications, 2000. p. 266-277
(6) Pruett, K.M. Kerosene. In: Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C-206 to C-211
(7) Ruth, J.H. Odor thresholds and irritation levels of several chemical substances: a review. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 47 (Mar. 1985). p. A 147
(8) European Communities. Commission Directive 94/69/EC. Dec. 19, 1994. Amended by Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(9) Pohanish, R.P., et al. Kerosene. In: Hazardous materials handbook. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. p. 964-965
(10) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Parts B, E-O. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 1653-1656
(11) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997. p. 184-185
(12) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Naphthas. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(13) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(14) Todd, G.R., et al. Asthma due to kerosene exposure: 3 case reports. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol. 13, no. 1 (2000). p. 23-25
(15) Exxon Biomedical Sciences Inc. Support: re-submission of revised 1991 study: 90-day subchronic oral toxicity study in rats with MRD-89-582, with attachment and cover letter dated 112701. Date produced: October 24, 1991.
Exxon-Mobil Chemical Co. EPA/OTS 89-020000037. NTIS/OTS0533670-2.
(16) Nessel, C.S. A comprehensive evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of middle distillate fuels. Drug Chemistry and Toxicology. Vol. 22, no. 1 (Feb. 1999). p. 165-180
(17) Lee, J.H., et al. Skin cleaning with kerosene facilitates passage of carcinogens to the lungs of animals treated with used gasoline engine oil. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 15, no. 4 (Apr. 2000). p. 362-369
(18) Distillates (petroleum), solvent-refined heavy paraffinic. In: IUCLID dataset. European Chemicals Bureau, Eurocommission, 2000. Available at: <ecb.jrc.it/IUCLID-Data-Sheet/64742478.pdf>
(19) Pruett, K.M. Kerosene. In: Chemical resistance guide to metals and alloys: a guide to chemical resistance of metals and alloys. Compass Publications, 1995. p. 182-193

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2006-02-08



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