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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 719
CCOHS Chemical Name: Furfuryl alcohol

Synonyms:
2-Furancarbinol
Furanol
2-Furanmethanol
Furfural alcohol
Furfuralcohol
2-Furfuryl alcohol
Furyl alcohol
2-Furylcarbinol
2-Furylmethanol
2-Hydroxymethylfuran

Chemical Name French: Alcool furfurylique
Chemical Name Spanish: Alcohol furfurílico
CAS Registry Number: 98-00-0
UN/NA Number(s): 2874
RTECS Number(s): LU9100000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 202-626-1
Chemical Family: Aromatic oxygen heterocyclic compound / oxygen heteroaromatic compound / five membered oxygen heterocyclic compound / heterocyclic substituted alcohol / furan substituted methanol
Molecular Formula: C5-H6-O2
Structural Formula: -CH=CH-O-C(-CH2OH)=CH- (-CH=CH-O-C=CH- = furan ring)

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless, pale yellow or amber liquid with faint, burning odour.(18,19) Slowly turns brown to dark red or black on exposure to air and light.(18)

Odour Threshold:
8 ppm (detection) (20)

Warning Properties:
POOR - odour threshold about the same magnitude as TLV.

Composition/Purity:
Furfuryl alcohol is available commercially in grades of 98-99%. May contain traces of furfural (0.7%), other organic compounds and water (0.3%).(21)

Uses and Occurrences:
Furfuryl alcohol is used as a monomer in the manufacture of furfuryl alcohol resins (furan resins). It is also used as a solvent for various cleaning and paint removing operations; as a solvent for dyes, resins and cellulose ethers and esters; as a reactive plasticizer for phenolic resins in the manufacture of cold-molded grinding wheels; for impregnating solutions and carbon binders; as a non-reactive diluent for epoxy resins; for oil-well sand consolidation; as a wetting agent; as a penetrant; in the production of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; and in chemical synthesis.(7,18,19,21,22)
Furfuryl alcohol has been detected in the mixture of volatiles from certain foods, e.g. cheese, roasted filberts, nectarines, and fried meats. It may also be released to the environment as a result of its manufacture and use.(19)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless, pale yellow or amber liquid with faint, burning odour. Slowly turns brown to dark red or black on exposure to air and light. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Violent, highly exothermic polymerization can occur in the presence of acids. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled, and harmful if absorbed through the skin or swallowed. Vapour is very irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. Mild central nervous system depressant. High concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, confusion and incoordination. EYE IRRITANT. Liquid causes severe eye irritation. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may cause aspiration (breathing) into the lungs.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Furfuryl alcohol is very toxic following inhalation exposure, based on animal evidence. Signs of severe irritation of the nose, throat and upper respiratory tract have been observed. Higher concentrations may produce signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression, such as headache, drowsiness, nausea and vomiting.
There is very little human information available. There is one report of respiratory tract irritation from exposure to unspecified levels of furfuryl alcohol (apparently less than 10-15 ppm).(16)

Skin Contact:
Furfuryl alcohol may produce mild skin irritation, based on very limited animal information. There is no human information available.
Furfuryl alcohol can be absorbed through the skin, possibly in toxic amounts, based on limited animal information and comparison to furfural (7). Significant skin absorption may result in symptoms of CNS depression, as described for inhalation.

Eye Contact:
The liquid can cause moderate to severe eye irritation, based on animal information.
Furfuryl alcohol vapour is irritating to the eyes. Exposure to 16 ppm furfuryl alcohol vapour may have caused tearing, while 11 ppm did not. The presence of low levels of formaldehyde (0.33 ppm) and possibly other chemicals, may have been a contributing factor.(15)

Ingestion:
Furfuryl alcohol is toxic following ingestion, based on animal information. High doses are expected to cause headache, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness and incoordination. In severe cases, unconsciousness and coma may occur.
In general, alcohols can be aspirated (breathed into the lungs) either during ingestion or vomiting. Aspiration may result in lung damage or potentially fatal pneumonia. Based on its viscosity, furfuryl alcohol may be aspirated. However, there are no reports of this occurring.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Furfuryl alcohol is a chronic toxicity hazard, based on animal information.

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Signs of severe respiratory irritation (nasal and respiratory lesions) have been observed in animals exposed to concentrations as low as 32 ppm for 2 years.
No conclusions can be drawn from a limited study in which 27 moulders and core makers were exposed to furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde. The group most highly exposed to furfuryl alcohol (Time Weighted Average exposure greater than 5.6 mg/m3) had a higher frequency of airways symptoms.(9)

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged contact can probably cause dermatitis (dry, cracked, thickened, reddened skin).

Kidneys/Urinary System:
Signs of kidney injury have been observed in animals exposed to concentrations as low as 32 ppm for 2 years.

Blood/Blood Forming System:
No conclusions can be drawn from a limited study in which 27 moulders and core makers were exposed to furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde. The group most highly exposed to furfuryl alcohol (Time Weighted Average exposure greater than 5.6 mg/m3) had a higher frequency of some minor blood effects (slightly lower red blood cell count and hematocrit).(9)

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. The conclusions of one animal study have demonstrated some evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats and mice.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not suggest that furfuryl alcohol is mutagenic. Negative results (sister-chromatid exchanges) have been obtained in cultured human white blood cells. Examination of white blood cells of people with occupational exposure did not reveal any mutagenic effects.(4) Negative results have been obtained in tests using live animals.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Alcohols may interact synergistically with chlorinated solvents (e.g. carbon tetrachloride), aromatic hydrocarbons (e.g. xylenes), or dithiocarbamates (e.g. disulfirams).

Potential for Accumulation:
Absorbed furfuryl alcohol is readily broken down and excreted. Studies with experimental animals indicate that furfuryl alcohol is absorbed following ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. It is metabolized first to furfural aldehyde and then to the corresponding acid, furoic acid, which is conjugated with glycine to form furoylglycine, condensed with acetic acid or broken down to carbon dioxide. The major route of excretion is in the urine with small amounts of metabolites excreted in the feces. Furoylglycine is the major urinary metabolite in rats, with furoic acid and furanacrylic acid as minor metabolites. No unchanged furfuryl alcohol was detected in the urine.(1,7)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 10 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. If signs of toxicity occur, obtain medical attention immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical resistant gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR), or if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Avoid mouth-to-mouth contact by using mouth guards or shields. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
65 deg C (149 deg F) (closed cup) (22,23,24); 75 deg C (167 deg F) (open cup) (25)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.8% (22)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
16.3% (22)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Reported values vary; MINIMUM: 391 deg C (735.8 deg F) (18,21,22); MAXIMUM: 491 deg C (915 deg F) (18)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Insufficient information is available to determine whether furfuryl alcohol can accumulate static charge. Furfuryl alcohol will probably not be ignited by a static charge since the flash point is relatively high.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Irritant gases, which may include unburned alcohol and toxic constituents.(18,26)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air, at, or above 65 deg C. During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Vapours from warmed liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(26) "Multipurpose " alcohol-resistant foams are recommended for use on flammable polar liquids, such as furfuryl alcohol. Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Furfuryl alcohol is hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 1 - Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures, or may react vigorously, but non-violently with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 98.10

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.00 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.250 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -14.6 deg C (5.7 deg F) (21,24,29)
Boiling Point: 170 deg C (338 deg F) (21,22,24)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.129 at 20 deg C (21,22,24); 1.126 at 25 deg C (calculated) (30) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions (21,22)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone and ethyl acetate.(22) Soluble in chloroform and benzene. Insoluble in petroleum hydrocarbons and most oils.(18,19)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.28 (31)
pH Value: Not available
Viscosity-Dynamic: 4.7 mPa.s (4.7 centipoises) at 20 deg C (23); 4.62 mPa.s (4.62 centipoises) at 25 deg C (22,24,30)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 4.16 mm2/s (4.16 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 4.10 mm2/s (4.10 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 39.5 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated) (33)
Surface Tension: Approximately 38 mN/m (approx. 38 centistokes) at 20-25 deg C (22,24,29,30)
Vapour Density: 3.37 (air = 1) (29)
Vapour Pressure: 0.05 kPa (0.4 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (32); 0.08 kPa (0.61 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (calculated from experimentally derived coefficients) (19,32)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 530 ppm (0.053%) at 20 deg C; 800 ppm (0.08%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.04 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (23)
Henry's Law Constant: 7.96 x 10(-3) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 7.86 x 10(-8) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (19); log H = -5.49 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

Other Physical Properties:
DIELECTRIC CONSTANT: 1.92 at 25 deg C (24,30)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Decomposition may occur on exposure to air, acid or heat. The rate of decomposition is a function of temperature and time of exposure and can be slowed by the addition of small amounts of base or storage under nitrogen.(21,22)

Hazardous Polymerization:
In the presence of acids, a highly exothermic (generation of a large amount of heat) polymerization can occur, which has resulted in violent explosions.(25,34)

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


MINERAL ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid), ORGANIC ACIDS (e.g. formic acid or cyanoacetic acid) or ACID CATALYSTS (e.g. Lewis acids, such as aluminum chloride or acyl halides) - violent, highly exothermic polymerization can occur.(25,34)
NITRIC ACID - may ignite spontaneously on contact.(25,34)
STRONG OXIDIZING MATERIALS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide (85%) or nitric acid-nitrogen tetroxide-sulfuric acid mixtures) - ignites immediately (within 1 second) on contact.(25,34)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Exposure to heat, open flames.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Furfuryl alcohol is not corrosive to the common metals, such as cast iron, steel, stainless steels, copper, brass and bronze, nickel and its alloys, tantalum, titanium and zirconium up to 93 deg C (200 deg F). It is corrosive to aluminum at 93 deg C, but not at normal temperatures (38 deg C and below).(35)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Furfuryl alcohol attacks polyethylene and fiberglass, fluorine rubber and styrene-acrylonitrile. It may attack natural rubber above 21 deg C.(36) It also dissolves epoxy resins.(21,22)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (male rat): 233 ppm (4-hour exposure) (10)
LC50 (rat): 296 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 592 ppm (1-hour exposure) (2)

LD50 (oral, rat): 132 mg/kg (1,14)
LD50 (oral, rat): 275 mg/kg (12)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 657 mg/kg (1,15 citing unpublished information); 400 mg/kg (8, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Furfuryl alcohol is a moderate to severe irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted furfuryl alcohol produced moderate irritation in rabbits (scored 44/110).(17) In another study, application of 0.05 mL of undiluted furfuryl alcohol caused inflammation, clouding of the cornea and eyelid swelling in rabbits with healing taking several weeks. Application of 0.02 mL produced the same, but less severe effects. Recovery occurred after 2-8 days.(15 citing unpublished information)

Skin Irritation:

No results from standard tests were located. Repeated application has generally produced mild effects.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation of 16- 250 ppm for 2 weeks has produced signs of irritation (shortness of breath, nose and eye discharge and nasal and respiratory lesions), with deaths at 250 ppm. Historical reports indicate that skin absorption can also lead to deaths.

Inhalation:
Mice and rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 16, 31, 63, 125 or 250 ppm for 2 weeks. At 250 ppm, all animals died within the first 4 days of exposure. Shortness of breath, reduced activity and discharge from the nose and eyes were observed at 63, 125 or 250 ppm. All exposed animals had nasal and respiratory lesions (tissue death and degeneration), the severity of these lesions generally increased with increasing concentration.(5,7) Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from several unpublished historical reports. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) effects (initial excitement, and drowsiness) were observed in animals exposed to lethal concentrations.(1,14,15)

Skin Contact:
One report describes tissue death (necrosis) in guinea pigs following daily application of a 50% solution of furfuryl alcohol for 12 days.(13) There are no further details available. Similar effects have not been observed in other studies following skin application.(15) Application of 100 mg/day to rabbits for 4 weeks caused only a slight redness.(1 citing unpublished information) Historical reports have described deaths following skin absorption.(15)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation of furfuryl alcohol is severely irritating at relatively low concentrations. Nasal and respiratory lesions were observed in rats and mice exposed to concentrations as low as 2-32 ppm for 13 weeks. Clouding of the cornea was observed in female mice exposed to 32 ppm for 2 years. Kidney injury has been observed in rats and male mice exposed to 32 ppm for 2 year.

Inhalation:
In a 13-week inhalation study, mice and rats were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 32 ppm. There were no deaths. Lesions of the nasal cavity (inflammation, tissue death and degeneration) occurred at all concentrations in both species. Respiratory lesions were observed in mice at all concentrations and in rats at 8 ppm and above. There was no evidence of lung injury.(5,7) Inhalation exposure to 50 ppm or 100 ppm for 4-16 weeks caused a loss of weight and biochemical changes that indicate some neurotoxicity (glial cell degeneration and demyelination) in rats. No neurotoxic effects or weight loss were found at 25 ppm.(3) Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, 8 or 32 ppm for 2 years. All male rats exposed to 32 ppm died by week 99. All exposed animals had significantly increased incidences of nasal lesions. Kidney injury (nephropathy) was observed in high dose rats and male mice. Clouding of the cornea was observed in high dose female mice.(7)

Ingestion:
In a 13-week oral study, 0, 38, 75, 150 or 300 mg/kg in corn oil was administered to rats and 0, 38, 75, 150, 300 or 600 mg/kg in corn oil was administered to mice. All rats receiving 150 or 300 mg/kg died and significant mortality was observed in mice receiving 300 or 600 mg/kg. Mean absolute liver and kidney weights of rats receiving 75 mg/kg were significantly greater than controls. No significant organ weight changes were observed in mice. Mild liver and kidney lesions were observed in rats receiving 75 mg/kg and above. More severe lesions, including tissue death, were observed in mice exposed to 300 mg/kg and above.(7 citing an unpublished report)

Skin Sensitization:
No conclusions can be drawn based on the limited information available.
In poorly described studies, furfuryl alcohol has produced signs of sensitization in guinea pigs.(1,13)

Carcinogenicity:
One study has shown some evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats and male mice.
Rats and mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 2, 8 or 32 ppm for 105 weeks. There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male rats (increased incidence of combined neoplasms of the nose) and there was inconclusive evidence of carcinogenic activity in female rats (marginally increased incidence of neoplasms of the nose and renal tubules). There was some evidence of carcinogenic activity in male mice (increased incidences of renal tubule neoplasms) and no evidence of carcinogenic activity in female mice.(7)

Mutagenicity:
The available information does not suggest that furfuryl alcohol is mutagenic.
Negative results (sister chromatid exchanges, chromosomal aberrations, or micronuclei) were observed in the bone marrow cells of male mice (route of exposure not specified).(7)
Positive and negative results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.(1,7)
Negative results (sex-linked recessive lethal and sex-chromosome loss tests) have been obtained in fruit flies.(1)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Lington, A.W. et al. Alcohols: furfuryl alcohol. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John D. Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 2719-2722
(2) Terrill, J.B., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of furan, 2-methyl furan, furfuryl alcohol, and furfural in the rat. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 50 (May 1989). p. A-359-361
(3) Savolainen, H., et al. Neurotoxicity of furfuryl alcohol vapor in prolonged inhalation exposure. Environmental Research. Vol. 31, no. 2 (1983). p. 420-427
(4) Gomez-Arroyo, S., et al. In vitro and occupational induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes with furfuryl alcohol and furfural. Mutation Research. Vol. 156 (1985). p. 233-238
(5) Irwin, R.D., et al. Toxicity of furfuryl alcohol to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed by inhalation. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 17, no. 3 (1997). p. 159-169
(6) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Furfuryl alcohol}. Last updated: 1999-07. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html>
(7) US National Toxicology Program (NTP). NTP technical report on the toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of furfuryl alcohol (CAS No. 98-00-0) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies). NTP TR 482. (NIH Publication No. 99-3972). US Department of Health and Human Services, Feb. 1999
(8) Deichmann, W.B., et al. Furfuryl alcohol. In: Toxicology of drugs and chemicals. Academic Press, 1969. p. 280-281
(9) Ahman, M., et al. Hematological parameters and immunoglobulins in foundry workers exposed to furan resin sand. Occupational Hygiene. Vol. 1 (1994). p. 47-54
(10) Jacobson, K.H., et al. The toxicology of an aniline- furfuryl alcohol-hydrazine vapor mixture. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 19 (Apr. 1958). p. 91-100
(11) Boyland, E. Experiments on the chemotherapy of cancer. 4. Further experiments with aldehydes and their derivatives. Biochemical Journal. Vol. 34 (1940). p. 1196-1201
(12) Gajewski, J., et al. Studies on furan compounds: toxicity and pharmacological action of furfuryl alcohols. Abstract. Federation Proceedings. Vol. 8 (Mar. 1949). p. 294
(13) Chernousov, A.D. The allergenic properties of furanic compounds. Gig. Sanit. Vol. 39, no. 6 (1974). p. 28-32 (English Translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 0093067)
(14) Prince, A.J. Toxicity of furfuryl alcohol and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. Unpublished report submitted to NIOSH by The Quaker Oats Co, Apr. 1978. (NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00093069)
(15) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to furfuryl alcohol. US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Mar. 1979
(16) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Furfuryl alcohol. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 5th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1986. p. 281
(17) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). Eye irritation Reference Chemicals Data Bank. 2nd ed. Technical Report No. 48 (2). ECETOC, June 1998
(18) Emergency action guide for furfuryl alcohol. Association of American Railroads, Mar. 1995
(19) US National Library of Medicine. Furfuryl alcohol. Last revision date: 2000-06-12. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html>
(20) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 20, 60
(21) McKillip W.J., et al. Furan and derivatives: furfuryl alcohol. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th rev. ed. Vol. A12. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1989. p. 125-127, 131-132
(22) McKillip, W.J., et al. Furan derivatives: furfuryl alcohol. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 3rd ed. Vol. 11. John Wiley and Sons, 1980. p. 510-516, 524-527
(23) Stoye, D. Solvents. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 479, 484, 489
(24) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.216, 5.109
(25) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 491 (furfuryl alcohol; alcohols)
(26) Furfuryl alcohol. In: Sigma-Aldrich Fine Chemicals: technical library [online]. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Available at: <www.sigma-aldrich.com/saws.nsf/Technical+Library?OpenFrameset> (Password required)
(27) Furfuryl alcohol. In: NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(28) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(29) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk- Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 536- 537, 550, 562
(30) Riddick, J.A., et al. Organic solvents: physical properties and methods of purification. Techniques of organic chemistry. Vol. II. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, 1996. p. 691-692
(31) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo [online]. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/interkow/kowdemo.htm>
(32) Syracuse Research Corporation. Environmental Fate Database: CHEMFATE Chemical Search [online]. Available at: <esc-plaza.syrres.com/efdb/Chemfate.htm>
(33) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard practice for conversion of kinematic viscosity to Saybolt Universal viscosity or to Saybolt Furol viscosity. ASTM Designation: D 2161 -93 (Reapproved 1999). American Society for Testing and Materials, 1999
(34) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(35) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 62-1 to 63-1
(36) Corrosion data survey: nonmetals section. 5th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1983. p. 18
(37) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(38) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Furfuryl alcohol. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2003-03-27

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2003-04-16
NFPA (health) 2003-04-16
Personal hygiene 2003-05-05
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-22
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-22
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-22
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-08
Bibliography 2004-04-08



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