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CHEMINFO Record Number: 466
CCOHS Chemical Name: Formic acid

Aminic acid
Formylic acid
Hydrogen carboxylic acid
Methanoic acid
Acide formique

Chemical Name French: Acide formique
Chemical Name Spanish: Acido fórmico
CAS Registry Number: 64-18-6
UN/NA Number(s): 1779
RTECS Number(s): LQ4900000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-579-1
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic carboxylic acid / saturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid / alkanoic acid
Molecular Formula: C-H2-O2
Structural Formula: H-C(=O)-OH


Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid that may fume, with an intense, pungent, penetrating odour.(18,19) Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture from the air) (pure liquid).(20)

Odour Threshold:
Reported values vary widely and are not reliable; 13-340 ppm (detection) (21); 11-13 ppm (recognition) (21); 20 ppm (100% recognition (22)

Warning Properties:
POOR - reported odour thresholds are unreliable and above the TLV

Commercially available as concentrated solutions in water (85, 90 and 95 wt% acid) and in purer grades (98% and greater than 99 wt%). The major impurity is acetic acid (up to 0.8%). Water stabilizes the acid.(18,20)

Uses and Occurrences:
The major use of formic acid is as a silage additive. It is also used as an animal feed additive, an acidulant in the dyeing of both natural and synthetic fibres, in tanning of leather, for coagulating latex in the production of rubber and certain rubber chemicals, in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and crop protection agents, as an intermediate in the production of formate esters for flavour and fragrance applications, in the synthesis of aspartame, the manufacture of plastics, to neutralize alkaline solutions and facilitate rinsing during laundering; additive for cleaning agents; desulfurisation of flue gas; as a food preservative, fumigant, a decalcifying agent for processing animal bones, a catalyst in hydrocarbon-formaldehyde resins and phenolic resins, plasticizer for vinyl resins, brewing antiseptic; in the electroplating industry; in oil well acidizing.(1,18,20)
Formic acid occurs naturally in the defensive secretions of some insects, particularly of ants (20), and is a natural constituent of some fruits, nuts and dairy products.(1)


Colourless liquid that may fume, with an intense, pungent, penetrating odour. Hygroscopic. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Decomposes at high temperatures forming flammable hydrogen and carbon monoxide gases and toxic formaldehyde gas. Harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Can cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. Corrosive to the eyes and skin. Can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness, or permanent scarring of the skin.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Formic acid easily forms high vapour concentrations posing a significant inhalation hazard, especially in poorly ventilated areas. Vapour or mist can cause tearing of the eyes, runny nose, coughing, sore throat, bronchitis and shortness of breath, which can be severe depending on the airborne concentration.(1) Exposure to high concentration may cause a life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Symptoms of pulmonary edema, such as shortness of breath, may not appear for several hours after exposure and are aggravated by physical exertion.
One historical case report describes an accident where hot formic acid was splashed on a worker's face and neck and resulted in difficult breathing, difficult swallowing, inability to speak and death 6 hours later.(2, unconfirmed) It is possible that the worker inhaled formic acid vapours at the time of the accident.
Reversible kidney effects (increased ammonia and calcium in the urine) were observed in farmers following inhalation of 3.9 ppm (7.3 mg/m3) (8- hour average) formic acid during silage-making.(3)

Skin Contact:
Contact with undiluted acid caused stinging pain after 5 minutes, some redness and swelling, and tissue destruction (corrosive effects) over the next 24 hours. The skin damage required 6 weeks to heal.(4) Another case of deep skin burns and one of immediate skin reddening have also been reported.(2, unconfirmed, 5) Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent scarring.

Eye Contact:
Mists or splashes of pure acid or dilute solutions can cause severe damage to eye tissues, based on animal and human information. The vapour can cause eye irritation, which may be severe depending upon the airborne concentration.
Accidents involving eye contact with concentrated formic acid solutions (80%) have produced corrosive injury, including irreversible damage to the cornea in a few cases.(6,7) Depending on the concentration of the solution and the degree of exposure, corrosive materials can cause permanent eye damage, including blindness.

Formic acid is a natural component of some fruits, nuts and dairy products.(1) Based on animal information and unconfirmed human information, single large doses or repeated small doses may cause kidney damage.(2, unconfirmed) There are no further details available. Overdoses or accidental ingestion can cause corrosive effects on the esophagus, vomiting and stomach and chest pain as well as more serious effects, including death if the dose is large or the solution is highly concentrated.(5,8,9)
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

INGESTION: No harmful effects were observed following ingestion of 0.5 g of formic acid (diluted with water) daily for 4 weeks.(10, unconfirmed) Based on animal and unconfirmed human information, single large doses or repeated small doses may cause kidney damage.(2, unconfirmed) There are no further details available. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

RESPIRATORY SENSITIZATION: There is one case report of an asthmatic farmer who experienced a typical asthma-like reaction while inhaling formic acid. However, no specific allergy to formic acid has been described in the literature.(7) Formic acid was probably not the cause of sensitization.


There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

There is no human or animal in vivo information available. Positive and negative results have been obtained in a number of short-term in vitro tests.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Formate is a normal constituent of metabolism. It is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, intact skin and urinary bladder. Part is oxidized to water and carbon dioxide, which is eliminated very quickly in the breath, and part is excreted unchanged in the urine. Bicarbonate may also be excreted in the urine. The amounts of unchanged formic acid excreted depend on a number of factors, including species, dose and route of administration.(1,2,11)


Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue; e.g., wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system. Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact with this chemical. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary keep emergency vehicle waiting. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g., watchbands, belts). Transport victim to an emergency care facility immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep the emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the non-affected eye or onto the face. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If milk is available, it may be administered AFTER the water has been given. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth and repeat the administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.

Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.

All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.


Flash Point:
46.5 deg C (115.7 deg F) (100%) (closed cup) (19); 58 deg C (136.4 deg F) (90%) (closed cup) (20)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
12% (100%) (20); 18% (90%) (19)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
38% (100%) (20); 57% (90%) (19)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
480 deg C (896 deg F) (100%) (19,20); 434 deg C (813 deg F) (90%) (23)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Moderately stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Specific information is not available. Will not accumulate static discharge. The electrical conductivity of formic acid (6.08 x 10(9) pS/m at 25 deg C) is high.(20)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide and water are produced at temperatures up to 150 deg C. At higher temperatures carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen gas are produced. Formaldehyde is produced at 300-400 deg C.(19)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 46.5 deg C (100% formic acid). Decomposes at high temperatures, or reacts with some metals to form flammable hydrogen gas. Vapours from heated liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in an explosion and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, "alcohol resistant" foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(23,24)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Formic acid and its decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.


NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.


Molecular Weight: 46.03

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.88 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.532 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: 8.4 deg C (47.12 deg F) (100%) (18,19,22); -6.7 to -5 deg C (20 to 23 deg F) (90%) (19,25)
Boiling Point: 100.8 deg C (213.4 deg F) (100%) (1,20); 105 deg C (221 deg F) (90%) (19);107.6 deg C (225.7 deg F) (77.6% - azeotrope) (20)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.220 (100%) (18,20,22); 1.204 (90%) (20) at 20 deg C (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions (1,18)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in acetone, ethanol, methanol, diethyl ether, glycerol and ethyl acetate (18,26);
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.54 (measured); 0.39 to -1.55 (calculated) (22,27)
pH Value: 2.38 (0.1M solution) (calculated)
Vapour Density: 1.59 (air = 1) (19)
Vapour Pressure: 4.47 kPa (33.5 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (20,24)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 44100 ppm (4.4%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 2.1 (butyl acetate = 1) (26)
Critical Temperature: 314.9 deg C (588 deg K or 598.7 deg F) (26)

Other Physical Properties:
ACIDITY: Moderately strong acid; pKa = 3.75 at 20 deg C (28)
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1.804 mPa.s (1.804 centipoises) (20,28) at 20 deg C; 1.607 mPa.s (1.607 centipoises) at 25 deg C (26)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 1.48 mm2/s (1.48 centistokes) at 20 deg C; 1.32 mm2/s (1.32 centistokes) at 25 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 37.67 mN/m (37.67 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (18,20)
NOTE: The physical properties of formic acid depend upon the strength of the solution.


Moderately stable. Formic acid can decompose slowly during storage to produce toxic, flammable carbon monoxide gas.(18,19)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

CATALYSTS (e.g. palladium-carbon, nickel) or FINELY POWDERED METALS - react vigorously producing flammable hydrogen gas.(24,29)
OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chromic acid, nitric acid, peroxides, permanganates) - may explode violently.(23,24,29)
STRONG BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react violently.(24,25)
CONCENTRATED SULFURIC ACID or PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE - react violently, producing heat and carbon monoxide gas.(24,25,29)
NITROMETHANE - mixture may react explosively if shocked.(29)
FURFURYL ALCOHOL or SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE - may react violently and explosively.(23,24,29)
THALLIUM NITRATE TRIHYDRATE - a violent reaction occurred when a small amount of vanillin was added to thallium nitrate trihydrate in 90% formic acid.(23,29)
ALUMINUM - May react with incandescence.(29)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 46.5 deg C, open flames, storage for 6 months or more at 25 to 30 deg C.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Corrosive to steel, cast iron and lead, and aluminum at 38-93 deg C. Stainless steel grades 304, 316 and 321 are suitable for 85% solutions at low temperatures. For higher concentrations, austenitic steel (iron, chromium, nickel and molybdenum) (grade 316) is used.(18,30)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Formic acid, particularly at higher concentrations and temperatures, can decompose slowly during storage to produce carbon monoxide gas. Concentrated formic acid (98-100%) has a high potential for decomposition to carbon monoxide when stored for 6 months or more at 25 to 30 deg C. This can lead to a build-up in pressure, and full, unvented containers of pure acid may burst from accumulated pressure.(18,29)
Certain plastic materials, such as polyfluoroethylene, are resistant to formic acid, while others such as polyamides dissolve in the acid. Polyethylene and polypropylene can be used for 85% formic acid at low temperatures.(18,19,20)


LC50 (rat): 2000 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 15000 mg/m3 (15-minute exposure) (12, unconfirmed)
LC50 (mouse): 825 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 6200 mg/m3 (15-minute exposure) (12, unconfirmed)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1100 mg/kg (12, unconfirmed)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 700 mg/kg (12, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

A corrosive effect (local opacity) was observed in rabbits following application of either a 10% solution for five minutes (volume unspecified) or pure formic acid for an unspecified duration.(6)

Skin Irritation:

There is one unconfirmed report of mild irritation in rabbits following administration of 610 mg formic acid using a non-occlusive dressing.(12)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Rapid, shallow and laboured breathing was observed in guinea pigs following inhalation of 42.5 ppm for 1 hour.(13) Evidence of tissue death and inflammation in the respiratory tract and nose were observed in rats and mice following inhalation of 62.5 ppm or higher for 2 weeks, but not in those exposed to 31 ppm. Deaths occurred in rats and mice exposed to 500 ppm and in one mouse exposed to 250 ppm.(11) Two studies have shown changes in brain, liver and kidney enzyme levels in rats following inhalation of 20 ppm for 3 days to 3 weeks.(14,15)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

No significant systemic effects were observed following exposure of rats and mice to 0, 8, 16, 32, 64 or 128 ppm for 13 weeks. Evidence of tissue death (necrosis) in the nose was observed in mice exposed to 64 or 128 ppm.(11)

Skin Contact:
No harmful effects were observed following daily dermal application of 8% formic acid in water onto mouse ears for up to 50 days.(1, unconfirmed)

No toxic effects were observed in rats fed 0.01% to 0.25% formic acid in drinking water for 2 to 4 months. Effects on appetite and growth were observed in rats fed 0.5% in drinking water.(5,21, unconfirmed) Kidney damage (degree unspecified) was observed in rabbits following continued oral administration of formic acid.(10, unconfirmed) Dose and duration of exposure information is not available.


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Katz, G.V., et al. Aliphatic carboxylic acids. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th edition. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. Volume II. Toxicology. Part E. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 3525, 3527-3532
(2) von Oettingen, W.F. The aliphatic acids and their esters: toxicity and potential dangers. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 20 (December, 1959). p. 81-95
(3) Liesivuori, J., et al. Kinetics and renal effects of formic acid in occupationally exposed farmers. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 66, no. 7 (August, 1992). p. 522-524
(4) Oettel, H. Effect of organic liquids on the skin. Archiv fuer Experimentelle Pathologie. Vol. 83 (1936). p. 641-696. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00071872)
(5) Verstraete, A.G. et al. Formic acid poisoning: case report and in vitro study of the hemolytic activity. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Vol. 7, no. 3 (May, 1989). p. 286-290
(6) Grant, W.M., et al. Toxicology of the eye. 4th edition. Charles C. Thomas, 1993. p. 714-715
(7) Liesivuori, J., et al. Farmers' exposure to formic acid vapour in silage making. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. Vol. 27, no. 3 (1983). p. 327-329
(8) v. Muhlendahl, K.E., et al. Local injuries by accidental ingestion of corrosive substances by children. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 39 (1978). p. 299-314
(9) Moore, D.F., et al. Folinic acid and enhanced renal elimination in formic acid intoxication. Journal of Toxicology, Clinical Toxicology. Vol. 32, no. 2 (1994). p. 199-204
(10) Henson, E.V. Toxicology of the Fatty Acids. Journal of Occupational Medicine. Vol. 1 (June, 1959). p. 339-345
(11) Thompson, M. NTP technical report on toxicity studies of formic acid (CAS no: 64-18-6) administered by inhalation to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Technical report series number 19. National Toxicology Program, U.S Department of Health and Human Services, July, 1992
(12) RTECS record for formic acid. Last updated: 9607
(13) Amdur, M.O. The response of guinea pigs to inhalation of formaldehyde and formic acid alone and with a sodium chloride aerosol. International Journal of Air Pollution. Vol. 3, no. 4 (1960). p. 201-220
(14) Savolainen, H., et al. Glial cell effects of subacute formic acid vapour exposure. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. Vol. 47, no. 3 (1980). p. 239-240
(15) Zitting, A., et al. Biochemical effects of subacute formic acid vapor exposure. Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology. Vol. 27, no. 1 (January, 1980). p. 157-162
(16) Sipi, P., et al. Sister-chromatid exchanges induced by vinyl esters and respective carboxylic acids in cultured human lymphocytes. Mutation Research. Vol. 279, no. 2 (May, 1992). p. 75-82
(17) Morita, T., et al. Evaluation of clastogenicity of formic acid, acetic acid and lactic acid on cultured mammalian cells. Mutation Research. Vol. 240, no. 3 (March, 1990). p. 195-202
(18) Drury, D.J. Formic acid and derivatives: formic acid. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th edition. Volume 11. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 951-958
(19) Acide formique (fiche toxicologique no. 149). INRS Cahiers de notes documentaires no. 129, 4e trimestre, 1987. p. 687-691
(20) Reutemann, W., et al. Formic acid. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised edition. Volume A 12. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1989. p. 13-33
(21) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 20, 60
(22) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996. p. 30, 1024-1026
(23) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325; NFPA 49; NFPA 491
(24) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Volume 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 1735B
(25) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1994. p. 148-149
(26) HSDB record for formic acid. Last revision date: 96/05/17
(27) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 71, no. 6 (December, 1971). p. 556
(28) Weast, R.C., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. 66th edition. CRC Press, 1985-1986. p. C-279, D-162, F-34, F-40
(29) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th edition. Volume 1. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1995. p. 169-171
(30) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th edition. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 60-15 to 61-15
(31) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. September 1, 1993
(32) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(33) Sekizawa, J., et al. A simple method for screening assessment of skin and eye irritation. Journal of Toxicological Sciences. Vol. 19, no. 1 (1994). p. 25-35

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 1997-04-30

Revision Indicators:
US transport 1998-03-01
Resistance of materials 1998-04-01
Bibliography 1998-04-01
Emergency overview 2000-08-01
Acute exposure (ingestion) 2000-08-01
First aid (ingestion) 2000-08-01
TDG 2002-05-29
Bibliography 2003-04-16
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-04
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-04
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-05
Bibliography 2004-04-05
Bibliography 2006-03-30

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