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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 422
CCOHS Chemical Name: Formaldehyde gas

Synonyms:
Aldéhyde formique
Formic aldehyde
Methanal
Methyl aldehyde
Methylene oxide
Oxomethane
Formaldehyde (non-specific name)
Methaldehyde
Oxymethylene

Chemical Name French: Gaz de formaldéhyde
Chemical Name Spanish: Gas del formaldehido
CAS Registry Number: 50-00-0
RTECS Number(s): LP8925000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 200-001-8
Chemical Family: Aliphatic aldehyde / saturated aliphatic aldehyde / saturated aliphatic monoaldehyde / alkanal / methanal
Molecular Formula: C-H2-O
Structural Formula: H-C(=O)-H

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless gas with a pungent, suffocating odour.(1,7)

Odour Threshold:
The odour threshold varies between individuals and a wide range of values are reported. A reliable source reports odour recognition at 0.027-1.9 ppm.(12)

Warning Properties:
POOR - odour may not be detectable at the TLV.

Composition/Purity:
Formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature and pressure, but it is not commercially available as a gas. Formaldehyde is normally produced, sold and transported as water solutions with concentrations ranging from 25-56 wt% formaldehyde.(1) The predominant grade sold is 37% by weight, known as formalin. Methanol is generally added as a stabilizer to prevent polymerization of the formaldehyde. Formaldehyde is also available in solid form as the cyclic trimer, trioxane, and its polymer, paraformaldehyde.(7) Formaldehyde gas can be regenerated from dry paraformaldehyde or formaldehyde solutions by heating.(43) This CHEMINFO profile reviews the hazards and control measures for formaldehyde gas. Consult the CHEMINFO profile for "Formaldehyde solutions" for a review of the hazards and control measures for the solutions.

Uses and Occurrences:
Formaldehyde gas is used as a fumigant and disinfectant in hospital wards, dwellings, ships, storage houses, sickroom utensils clothing and linen; as a sanitizer, fungicide, and microbicide; to decontaminate animal facilities and laboratory facilities; for quarantine use in a poultry health laboratory for preservation of bacterial cultures; in the manufacture of synthetic resins; in paper treatment; in wool and nylon treatment; and in stabilizing synthetic wools.(70,77) It has a potential use for decontamination and elimination of anthrax spores.(77)
Formaldehyde gas is released into the environment from both natural and man-made processes. Formaldehyde is produced industrially in large quantities. The release of formaldehyde gas can occur at any stage during the production, use, storage, transport or disposal of products with residual formaldehyde.(45) The most important man-made environmental source of formaldehyde gas is automotive exhaust from engines not fitted with catalytic converters. Other important outdoor sources include power plants, oil refineries, agricultural burns and waste incinerators. The principle sources of formaldehyde in indoor environments include tobacco smoke, off-gassing from building materials, furniture, carpets, drapes, fabrics, and consumer products, tobacco smoke, wood-burning stoves, open fireplaces, furnaces, gas burners and ovens, kerosene heaters, coatings and wood preservatives, disinfectants and sterilizing agents.(44,45)
It is formed in large quantities in the troposphere by the oxidation of hydrocarbons. Formaldehyde gas is a product of the incomplete combustion of organic material. It is released during biomass combustion, such as forest and brush fires. It is an important metabolic product in plants and animals, including humans. It is also a natural component in fruits, vegetables, meats and fish.(1,7,44)
Consult the CHEMINFO profile for "Formaldehyde solutions" for information on the uses of formaldehyde solutions.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless gas with a pungent, suffocating odour. EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS. Forms explosive mixtures with air over a wide concentration range. During a fire, extremely flammable hydrogen gas and other irritating and/or toxic gases may be generated. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled. Gas is severely irritating to the eyes and upper respiratory tract and may be irritating to the skin in high concentrations. May damage the lining of the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract. Causes lung injury-effects may be delayed. CANCER HAZARD - can cause cancer. POSSIBLE MUTAGEN - May cause genetic damage, based on animal information.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Formaldehyde gas is extremely irritating and very toxic if inhaled, posing a very serious inhalation hazard.
The odour of formaldehyde can be recognized at concentrations as low as 0.03-1.9 ppm. Formaldehyde causes mild to moderate irritation of the nose and throat at 0.3-3 ppm.(3,43,59) Up to 20% of the population are more responsive and may react acutely to formaldehyde at very low concentrations (0.25 ppm).(4) Exposure to 10 ppm causes severe irritation of the upper respiratory tract, with a burning sensation of the nose and throat.(5) Other effects include coughing, choking and vomiting. Exposure to 50 ppm or higher may lead to inflammation of the lung (pneumonitis) or to a potentially fatal accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema).(60,61) Symptoms of pulmonary edema (chest pain and shortness of breath) can be delayed for up to 24 or 48 hours after exposure.
In a study of funeral home employees, exposure to 0.25-1.77 ppm formaldehyde produced nose irritation, sneezing, coughing, and headaches in an unspecified number of embalmers.(62) Thirty-three volunteers exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 ppm formaldehyde (generated from heating paraformaldehyde) for 90 minutes experienced irritation of the nose and throat at all concentrations, with severity increasing with concentration.(63) In a study of 23 students exposed to 0.02 to 2.7 ppm (cited as 0.02 to 3.3 mg/m3) and phenol from cadavers, most experienced nose and throat irritation, headache, dizziness, and cough. Of 12 who had post-exposure testing, one showed a significant decrease in pulmonary function. The effects were attributed to the formaldehyde exposure.(55)
No case reports of death from inhalation exposure to formaldehyde were located, but deaths have been observed in animal studies following exposure to concentrations that would produce intolerable irritation.

Skin Contact:
Formaldehyde gas is expected to be irritating to the skin, if high enough concentrations are achieved. Any skin contact will also involve significant inhalation exposure. See "Inhalation" above.

Eye Contact:
Formaldehyde gas is very irritating to the eyes. The threshold for mild eye irritation may be as low as 0.01 ppm. Although, continued exposure may result in some acclimatization.(5) Twelve volunteers exposed for 5 minutes to formaldehyde (composition not specified), mixed with other non-irritating pollutants, could detect and react to 0.01 ppm, with 0.2 ppm causing light to medium eye irritation, and 0.6 ppm causing medium to severe irritation.(51) Exposure to 1 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde) for 6 minutes caused slight to moderate eye irritation in 27 volunteers.(42) Thirty-three volunteers exposed to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 ppm formaldehyde vapour (generated from heating paraformaldehyde) for 90 minutes experienced irritation of the eyes at all concentrations, with severity increasing with concentration.(63)

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Only very limited information is available on the potential effects from long-term occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Mixed exposures and/or low numbers of workers studied limit most of the available studies.

Occupational exposure studies indicate that formaldehyde exposure causes temporary reversible decreases in lung function but no long-term effects. There is sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans. There is limited evidence for cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and strong but not sufficient evidence for leukemia (see "CARCINOGENICITY" below for more information). Formaldehyde is not a respiratory sensitizer, but can bring on the symptoms of asthma in susceptible individuals, probably due to irritation of the airways. Human and animal studies demonstrate that formaldehyde solutions cause skin sensitization. However, there is insufficient information available to conclude that formaldehyde gas causes skin sensitization.
Nervous system effects have been reported in studies of histology or anatomy technicians exposed to formaldehyde. However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from these studies because of limitations such as concurrent exposures to other chemicals.

Nervous System:
Firm conclusions cannot be drawn about the potential nervous system effects of formaldehyde. Neurological impairment was reported in two studies of workers (usually histology and anatomy technicians) exposed to formaldehyde. In all cases, there was concurrent exposure to other solvents including phenol, xylene, chloroform and ethanol. A third study did not show any significant neurological effects in a large group of histology and anatomy technicians.
In a study of 305 female histology technicians, there was a significant correlation between self-reported hours of formaldehyde exposure and decreased performance in 6/10 neurobehavioural tests. The age range was 23-78 years (mean age 40), with average employment of 17 years. Specific exposure information was not available, but sampling conducted in 10 laboratories showed current concentrations of formaldehyde ranging from 0.2-1.9 ppm in tissue-dissecting areas, with a peak of 5 ppm in samples taken 14 inches from exposed formalin-fixed tissues. There were concurrent exposures to other chemicals including xylene, toluene and chloroform.(41) In a follow-up to this study, 318 histology technicians who were exposed to formaldehyde and to combinations of other solvents including xylene, ethanol and chloroform were evaluated for neurobehavioural effects over a 4-year period. No significant changes were noted.(40)
In a limited study, 3 anatomy technicians exposed to estimated concentrations of 0.1-5.8 ppm formaldehyde for 16-30 years, and 1 manufacturing worker exposed to unspecified concentrations of formaldehyde for 14 years were studied. In all cases, there was concurrent exposure to other chemicals. Two workers reported short-term, high-level formaldehyde exposure. Extensive neurobehavioural impairment was observed in all 4 workers and 2 had seizures, effects that were still present 4-7 years after exposure.(39) This study is limited by the very small number of workers evaluated and the concurrent exposure to other chemicals.

Lungs/Respiratory System:
Occupational exposure studies indicate that formaldehyde exposure causes temporary, reversible decreases in lung function, but no long-term effects. Formaldehyde is considered a probable respiratory carcinogen (see Carcinogenicity below).
Several studies have evaluated lung function in formaldehyde-exposed particle-board and plywood workers, workers using acid-hardening paints, embalmers, urea-formaldehyde resin producers, medical students and anatomy and histology workers. Exposures to formaldehyde ranged from less than 0.02 ppm to greater than 5 ppm and there were often concurrent exposures to other substances. In most of the studies, exposure caused temporary reversible decreases in lung function, but no long-term effects.(19)
In a study of 109 workers exposed to time-weighted-average concentrations of 0.17-2.93 ppm (average 0.69 ppm) formaldehyde for up to 20 years, there were no significant differences in lung function measured at the beginning of the shift compared to 254 controls. These measurements were thought to reflect the lack of any chronic effects from long-term formaldehyde exposure.(38)
In a study of 47 carpentry workers exposed to 0.04-1.62 ppm (average 0.42 ppm) for an average of 5.9 years, there was no significant difference in lung function measured Monday morning before work compared to 20 controls.(37)

Respiratory Sensitization:
There is very little convincing evidence that formaldehyde can induce asthma, given the small number of reported cases in relation to the large number of workers potentially exposed to formaldehyde. Only a very few of the reported cases have proven positive in well-conducted bronchial challenge tests. There is generally little correspondence between the presence of formaldehyde-specific antibodies and the occurrence of asthmatic symptoms in exposed people. However, the evidence indicates that formaldehyde can bring on the symptoms of asthma in susceptible individuals, probably through irritation of the airways.(34)

Skin Sensitization:
There is insufficient information available to conclude that formaldehyde gas causes skin sensitization. Formaldehyde solutions are well known to cause occupational skin sensitization. See the CHEMINFO profile on "formaldehyde solutions" for additional information.

Carcinogenicity:

Formaldehyde is carcinogenic to humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has concluded there is sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans. There is limited evidence for cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and "strong but not sufficient evidence" for leukemia.(17) There are many human population studies on the increase of respiratory cancers in people occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. These studies have been extensively reviewed elsewhere and are not reviewed here.(3,4,5,19,43,44,45)
Excess numbers of nasopharyngeal cancers were associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde in 2/6 cohort studies, 3/4 case-control studies, and in meta-analyses. In addition, 2/6 case-control studies indicated a positive association between occupational exposure to formaldehyde and cancer of the nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses, while 3 were negative and 1 was weakly positive. Cohort studies of embalmers and other professionals who use formaldehyde showed some excess risk for brain cancer. However, this risk did not increase with exposure. There was no increase in risk found for other types of cancer.(14,19) Some large scale, well-conducted studies have found an association between formaldehyde exposure and leukemia, while others have not.(78)
In a recent meta-analysis of the incidence of pancreatic cancer in 14 epidemiology studies, a small but consistent increase was found in studies of embalmers, anatomists and pathologists, but not in industrial workers, who had higher average and peak exposures. The increased incidence may be due to better diagnosis in the first group or to exposures to chemicals other than formaldehyde.(22)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as a suspected human carcinogen (A2).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has listed this chemical as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.

This chemical is regulated by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as a carcinogen.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
The available human and animal evidence does not suggest that formaldehyde is a developmental toxin.
There are several human population studies of adverse pregnancy outcomes in women occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Studies that found significantly higher rates of miscarriages in women occupationally exposed to formaldehyde are all limited by self-reporting of exposures and by the low number of women studied. The larger studies and those that determined formaldehyde exposure by evaluation of work task, have not shown an increased risk of miscarriage. No significant association between formaldehyde exposure and low birth weights (less than 2500 g) was found in 3 human population studies.(47)
There are many animal studies that have examined the potential developmental toxicity of formaldehyde. Many of these studies have limitations such as low animal numbers, lack of detailed information on methods, and lack of information on maternal toxicity. Well-conducted animal studies do not show developmental effects in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is insufficient evidence to determine if formaldehyde causes reproductive toxicity.
In a retrospective study of women wood workers, 288 were not exposed to formaldehyde and 235 were subdivided into 119 low, 77 medium and 39 high formaldehyde exposure. Assignment to an exposure category was based on self-reporting verified with measured concentrations from own or a comparable workplace. In the high exposure group, formaldehyde exposure was associated with a longer time to pregnancy and an increased risk for endometriosis.(21) However, firm conclusions cannot be drawn from this study due to limitations such as self-reporting bias, the relatively small number of women studied and concurrent exposures to other potentially harmful chemicals.
In a study, which is not available in English, menstrual irregularities and higher infertility were reported in female workers exposed to formaldehyde, based on self-reporting and examinations.(5,47-unconfirmed) This study is limited by poorly reported methods, self-reporting biases, no accounting for confounding factors and no definition of infertility.
In a Finnish study of the effects of the father's occupation on the rate of miscarriage, formaldehyde exposure was not associated with an increase in miscarriages.(20)
Despite limitations, the few animal studies available do not suggest that formaldehyde exposure will affect fertility.

Mutagenicity:
Formaldehyde is considered mutagenic, based on positive results (e.g. chromosomal aberrations in lung cells) observed in studies with live animals. In occupational exposure studies, which are limited by such problems as low numbers of workers studied and mixed exposures, both positive and negative results (micronuclei, sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes or cheek and nose cells) and a negative result (abnormal sperm) were obtained.(10,19,44,46) However, positive results (SCEs in lymphocytes, DNA-protein crosslinks in lymphocytes) were obtained in 2 reasonably well-conducted studies.(10,11)
SCE rates in lymphocytes were studied in 142 hospital workers, 90 of who were exposed to formaldehyde (average exposure period 15.4 years) and 52 who were not exposed. Adjustments were made for age, sex, smoking habits, education years and origin. The average number of SCEs per chromosome and the average proportion of cells with a high number of SCEs (more than 8) were both significantly higher in exposed than in non-exposed workers. These 2 variables were also higher in workers with more than 15 years exposure in comparison to those with less than 15 years (significance not reported).(10) In a study of 186 hospital workers exposed to formaldehyde for an average of 16 years and 213 unexposed workers, there was a significantly increase in DNA-protein crosslinks in the lymphocytes of the exposed group. Adjustment was made for age, gender, smoking, education level and origin.(11)

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Several animal studies have exposed animals to formaldehyde in combination with other carcinogens. In some of these studies, formaldehyde enhanced the effect of other carcinogens, causing more tumours or faster tumour growth.(19) Animal studies also suggest that formaldehyde may facilitate respiratory sensitization to other allergens.

Potential for Accumulation:
Formaldehyde does not accumulate. It is a normal intermediate metabolite and is found in all cells. It is very reactive and readily bonds to proteins and nucleic acids. It has a half-life in the blood of about 90 seconds and is rapidly metabolized to formic acid (which is excreted in the urine), converted to carbon dioxide (which is exhaled), or used to synthesize proteins and nucleic acids.(44,47)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is very toxic and extremely flammable. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment, use the buddy system; remove any sources of ignition). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. DO NOT allow victim to move about unnecessarily. Symptoms of pulmonary edema can be delayed up to 48 hours after exposure. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
If irritation occurs, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Note: Any skin contact will also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Eye Contact:
If irritation occurs, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Note: Any eye contact will also involve significant inhalation exposure.

Ingestion:
Ingestion is not an applicable route of exposure for gases.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
-19 deg C (-2.2 deg F) (closed cup) (9)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
7% (16)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
73% (16)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
300 deg C (572 deg F) (16); also reported as 424-430 deg C (795-806 deg F) (7,16)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Formaldehyde gas will not accumulate static charge. Mixtures of formaldehyde gas and air at concentrations in the flammable range can be ignited by a static discharge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not applicable. Gas.

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formic acid, methanol and other toxic, irritating and/or flammable chemicals may be formed in a fire. Formaldehyde decomposes into methanol and carbon monoxide at temperatures above 150 deg C.(7,44) Above 350 deg C, it tends to decompose into carbon monoxide and hydrogen.(1,7)

Fire Hazard Summary:
EXTREMELY FLAMMABLE GAS. Forms explosive mixtures with air over a wide concentration range. During a fire, extremely flammable hydrogen gas and other irritating and/or toxic gases may be generated. Heat from a fire can cause a rapid build-up of pressure inside containers, which may cause explosive rupture and a sudden release of large amounts of extremely flammable and very toxic gases.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog. Foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Extreme caution is required in a fire situation. Evacuate all personnel from the fire area. Decomposition may occur under fire conditions and may rupture vessels and containers releasing very toxic and flammable gases. Fight fire from a protected location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid extremely hazardous gas and decomposition products. Wear full protective suit if exposure is possible. See advice in Protection of Firefighters.
For fires involving flammable gases, the best procedure is to stop the flow of gas before attempting to extinguish the fire. It is extremely dangerous to extinguish the fire while allowing continued flow of the gas. The gas could form an explosive mixture with air and reignite, which may cause far more damage than if the original fire had been allowed to burn. If a fire occurs at valves or other leaks in formaldehyde process vessels or piping, cool and shut down the process if possible, before extinguishing the fire. If it is not possible to stop the flow of gas and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, allow the fire to continue burning while protecting exposed materials with water spray, to prevent ignition of other combustible materials.
Gas clouds may be controlled by water spray or fog. The resulting water solutions of formaldehyde may be flammable and very toxic. Dike fire control water for appropriate disposal.
Isolate containers exposed to heat, but not directly involved in the fire and protect personnel. Fire-exposed containers, vessels or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn.
After the fire has been extinguished, toxic atmospheres may remain. Before entering such an area, especially confined areas, check the atmosphere with an appropriate monitoring device while wearing full protective suit.
For Fire Fighting Instructions for formaldehyde solutions, consult the CHEMINFO review of formaldehyde solutions.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Formaldehyde gas and its thermal decomposition products are inhalation and skin contact/absorption hazards. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical protective suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 4 - Will rapidly or completely vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal ambient temperature, or readily disperse in air and burn readily.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 30.03

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 1.23 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.82 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Gas
Melting Point: -118 deg C (-180.4 deg F) (1,7); also reported as -92 deg C (-133.6 deg F) (13,65)
Boiling Point: -19 to -19.5 deg C (-2.2 to -3.1 deg F) (1,13)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): Not applicable (gas)
Solubility in Water: Very soluble (40 g/100 mL at 20 deg C; 55 g/100 mL at 25 deg C) (66)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in acetone and diethyl ether; soluble in ethanol and methanol.(65)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.35 (experimental) (67)
pH Value: Not applicable to gas; 2.5-3.5 (30-55% formaldehyde, 0.5-12% methanol) (7)
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable (gas).
Surface Tension: Not applicable (gas).
Vapour Density: 1.04 (air = 1) (calculated)
Vapour Pressure: 518.7 kPa (3890 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (68)
Vapour Pressure at 50 deg C: Approximately 1034 pKa (7757 mm Hg or 10.2 atm; cited as 150 psi) (69)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable (gas).
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable (gas).
Henry's Law Constant: 3.40 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 3.36 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (66,68); log H = -4.86 (dimensionless constant; calculated); also reported as 1.69 x 10(-2) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 1.67 x 10(-7) atm.m3/mol) at 20 deg C (66); log H = -5.16 (dimensionless constant; calculated)
Critical Temperature: 135 deg C (275 deg F) (13)
Critical Pressure: 6584.5 kPa (65 atm) (66); 6740.4 kPa (66.5 atm; cited as 684 psia) (69)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Unstable at room temperature, but the polymerization reaction that occurs is not hazardous. Formaldehyde gas is relatively stable at 80-100 deg C. It can be oxidized slowly in air to produce formic acid (43) and in sunlight to form carbon dioxide.(44) Formaldehyde gas can react with water in the air to form formic acid and methanol.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Formaldehyde gas polymerizes slowly to the trimer, trioxane, and paraformaldehyde at temperatures below 80 deg C. Polymerization is accelerated by traces of polar impurities, such as water, methanol, acids (e.g. formic acid), and alkalis.(7,70) This polymerization reaction is not hazardous.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate) - may react violently, with the risk of fire and explosion.(8,9,70)
STRONG BASES (e.g. alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide) - reaction produces extremely flammable hydrogen gas, which may ignite. This reaction may lead to possible pressurization in closed containers, which may rupture.(9)
PHENOL - runaway reactions have occurred during production of phenol-formaldehyde resins.(9)
ACRYLONITRILE - a violently exothermic and runaway reaction may result from the reaction between acrylonitrile and formaldehyde (as paraformaldehyde or trioxane) in the presence of strong acids (e.g. sulfuric acid) or acetic anhydride.(9)
PERFORMIC ACID - formaldehyde reacts violently with 90% performic acid.(9)
HYDROCHLORIC ACID - form highly toxic bis(chloromethyl)ether.(8,70)
ANILINE and PERCHLORIC ACID - aniline treated with perchloric acid, then formaldehyde gives a resinous condensation product, which burns with explosive violence.(16)
MAGNESIUM CARBONATE HYDROXIDE - reaction may release carbon dioxide gas, which may rupture containers.(9)
UREA - may react vigorously to form urea-formaldehyde polymer.(8)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Formic acid, methanol

Conditions to Avoid:
Open flames, sparks, electrostatic discharge, heat, hot surfaces and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No specific information is available. Pure, dry formaldehyde gas is not expected to be corrosive to the common metals.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No specific information is available. Pure, dry formaldehyde gas is not expected to attack most plastics and elastomers.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (male mouse): 368 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 454 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure; source not specified) (6)
LC50 (rat): 287 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1 mg/L (30-minute exposure; generated from 35.5% solution, methanol content not specified) (25)

Eye Irritation:

Formaldehyde gas is very irritating to the eyes.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Formaldehyde is a very severe irritant to the upper respiratory tract and eyes. Several studies demonstrate that formaldehyde causes damage to the lining of the nasal cavity in rats exposed to concentrations generally greater than 2-6 ppm.(43)

Inhalation:
Male rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10 or 15 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde, 95% purity) for 1, 4 or 9 days (6 hr/d). A dose-dependent increase in lesions in the nasal passages was seen at 10 ppm and higher. There was a significant increase in cell proliferation in the nasal cavity at 6, 10 and 15 ppm for all exposure times.(27) Similar lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tract of male monkeys exposed to 6 ppm formaldehyde (generated from paraformaldehyde) for 5 days (6 hr/d). Lesions were most severe in the nasal cavity and were minimal in the lower airways. Mild tearing and redness of the eyes was observed during exposures.(26) In male rats and mice exposed to formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde) the 10-minute RD50 (the dose resulting in a decrease in the respiratory rate by 50%) was 4.9 ppm for mice and 31.7 ppm for rats. The RD50 is an indicator of sensory irritation (irritation to the eyes and nose). People exposed to the RD50 would experience intolerable burning of the eyes, nose and throat. Pre-treatment with 2, 6 or 15 ppm formaldehyde for 4 days (6 hr/d) did not significantly affect these values.(23) Increased airway resistance and hyperreactivity of the lungs has been observed in guinea pigs exposed to low concentrations. Increased airways resistance was observed following exposure to as low as 0.3 ppm formaldehyde (generated from 37% solution, methanol content not specified) for 1 hour.(29) Male guinea pigs were exposed to 0.86, 3.4, 9.4 or 31.1 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating purified-grade paraformaldehyde) for 2 hours or 0.11, 0.31, 0.59, or 1.05 ppm for 8 hours. Pulmonary resistance and hyperreactivity were significantly increased following exposure to 9.4 ppm for 2 hours, but not to 3.4 ppm or lower. With 8-hour exposures, 1.0 ppm produced pulmonary resistance and hyperreactivity.(30) Lung injury has been observed at much higher concentrations. A single 6-hour exposure of male rats to 145 ppm formaldehyde (generated from a 20% water solution of formalin; formaldehyde content not specified; 10% methanol) produced severe injury to the nasal cavity, trachea and lungs.(31) Male rats exposed to 128 or 295 ppm formaldehyde (generated from a 12 or 24% water solution of formalin; formaldehyde content not specified; 10% methanol) for 6 hours showed bloody nasal discharge and fluid accumulation in the lungs (pulmonary edema).(32) Exposure to 15 ppm (cited as 19 mg/m3) formaldehyde (source not specified) for 10 hours caused deaths in guinea pigs (8/20), mice (17/50) and rabbits (3/5). Most deaths occurred after, not during, exposure. Autopsy showed severe lung damage and enlargement of the liver.(24)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Several inhalation studies demonstrate that formaldehyde damages the lining of the nasal cavity and the upper respiratory tract in rats exposed to concentrations generally greater than 2 ppm.(4,43,45) Similar lesions were observed in the upper respiratory tracts of male monkeys exposed to 6 ppm formaldehyde (generated from paraformaldehyde) for 6 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). Lesions were most severe in the nasal cavity and were minimal in the lower airways. Mild tearing and redness of the eyes was observed during the exposures.(26)

Inhalation:
Male rats were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10 or 15 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde, 95% purity) for 6 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). A dose-dependent increase in lesions in the nasal passages was seen at 6 ppm and higher. There was a significant increase in cell proliferation in the nasal cavity at 6 ppm and higher.(27) Rats were exposed to 0, 1, 10 or 20 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde, 97-99% purity) for 13 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). At 20 ppm, there were uncoordinated movements during the first 30 minutes of each exposure and a significant decrease in body weight. There were also significant increases in plasma enzymes, which may have indicated liver effects or may have resulted from the decreased growth. At 10 and 20 ppm, there was dose-related damage to the lining of the nasal cavity.(35) Male rats were exposed to 0, 0.1, 1.0 or 10 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde, 97-99% purity) for 13 or 52 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). A significant decrease in body weight gain was seen at 10 ppm, starting after 2 weeks exposure. Severe damage to the nasal passages was noted at 10 ppm, but not at 1 ppm, for both 13- and 52-week exposures.(36) Mice were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 10, 20 or 40 ppm formaldehyde (generated from a 9.2% water solution of formaldehyde) for 13 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). At 20 and 40 ppm there was a marked loss of body weight (significance not reported), and signs of laboured breathing, listlessness, hunched posture and loss of coordination. Harmful effects on the nasal cavity were seen at 10 ppm and higher. Damage to the trachea and larynx were seen at 20 and 40 ppm and lung lesions were noted in some animals at 40 ppm.(33)

Skin Sensitization:
Dehaired male guinea pigs (4/group) were exposed to 6 ppm (Group I) or 10 ppm (Group II) airborne formaldehyde for 5 days (6 hr/d). Unshaven male guinea pigs (4/group) were also exposed to 10 ppm (Group III) airborne formaldehyde for 5 days (8 hr/d). Dermal sensitization was evaluated on days 9 and 31. Skin testing was perfomed by topical application of 2% formaldehyde. No sensitization reactions were observed in Groups I or II. Mild reactions were seen at 24 hours in 2/4 animals in Group III.(77) This study is limited by the small number of animals.

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in animals.(19)
Animal studies on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde have been extensively reviewed elsewhere.(3,5,19,43,44,45) Formaldehyde has been tested for carcinogenicity by inhalation in mice, rats and hamsters, by ingestion in rats, by skin application in mice, and by subcutaneous injection in rats and hamsters. In rat inhalation studies, there was an increase in squamous cell carcinomas in the nasal cavity at exposure levels of 5.6 ppm and higher. The concentrations of formaldehyde that cause nasal tumours also cause degeneration, inflammation, and tissue death (necrosis) of the lining of the nasal cavity. It is believed that these changes play a role in the induction of the tumours.(36) Similar effects were not observed in hamsters. Studies in mice either showed no effect or were inadequate for evaluation.(19) In rats receiving formaldehyde in drinking water, tumours in the digestive tract and/or leukemia were caused in 2/4 studies. The studies with skin or subcutaneous exposure are considered inadequate for evaluation.(19)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
The available evidence does not indicate that formaldehyde is a developmental toxin. Numerous studies have evaluated the potential developmental toxicity of formaldehyde with inhalation, ingestion or skin contact with rats, mice, rabbits and beagle dogs.(43,44,46,47,48) Many of the studies have design limitations, such as low animal numbers, lack of detailed information on methods, and lack of information on maternal toxicity. Well-conducted studies do not show fetal effects in the absence of maternal toxicity.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 2, 5, or 10 ppm formaldehyde (source not specified) from days 6-15 of pregnancy (6 hr/d). No maternal or fetal deaths occurred. At 10 ppm, there was significantly decreased food consumption and weight gain in the mothers, but no evidence of any developmental effects.(50) Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 5, 10, 20 or 40 ppm formaldehyde (generated from 37% water solution of formaldehyde with 10% methanol) from days 6-20 of pregnancy (6 hr/d). There was a decrease in body weight gain in mothers, which was slight at 20 ppm and significant at 40 ppm. No significant effects were observed on implantation, fetal loss, resorptions or the number of live fetuses/litter. There was a dose-related decrease in fetal body weight, which was significant at 40 ppm for females and at 20 ppm for males. There were no significant increases in skeletal or soft tissue malformations. A methanol control was not included in this study.(49) This study suggests that slight fetotoxicity (slightly reduced fetal weight) may occur in the absence of maternal toxicity at 20 ppm formaldehyde, but the presence of methanol, which is fetotoxic and teratogenic, may have influenced the results. Teratogenic and embryotoxic effects were not observed, even with the presence of methanol.

Reproductive Toxicity:
The few limited reproductive toxicity studies available are reviewed elsewhere.(43,44,46,47) Limitations include the use of a small number of animals and only one exposure group, as well as the fact that exposures were mostly to chemicals that release formaldehyde in the body, rather than formaldehyde itself. However, in general, these studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure will not affect fertility.

Mutagenicity:
Formaldehyde is considered mutagenic, based on a positive result (chromosomal aberrations in lung cells) observed in male rats exposed by inhalation to 95% pure formaldehyde. A positive result (DNA-protein crosslinks) was also obtained in rats exposed by inhalation to 95% pure formaldehyde. Positive results were obtained in most studies using cultured mammalian cells, mostly without metabolic activation. Both positive and negative results were obtained in bacteria. Positive results for a wide range of genetic tests were obtained in studies using fruit flies.
The numerous in vivo studies available for formaldehyde are reviewed elsewhere.(19,43,44,56) Many studies involved exposure to formaldehyde with methanol as a stabilizer, or the purity of the formaldehyde was not specified. In some cases, the route of exposure used was not relevant to occupational exposures (e.g. intraperitoneal injection). The following studies are well conducted, with exposures to relatively pure formaldehyde. These studies demonstrate that formaldehyde is mutagenic to the somatic cells of live animals. There is insufficient information available to conclude that formaldehyde is mutagenic to germs cells. The induction of chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow and lung cells was studied in male rats exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.5, 3.0 or 15 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde; 95% purity) for 1 or 8 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). Negative results were obtained for bone marrow. Positive results were obtained for lung cells (a dose-related increase after 1 and 8 week exposures, with statistical significance at 15 ppm).(52) A positive result (DNA-protein crosslinks) was obtained in rats exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0, 0.7, 2,6 or 15 ppm formaldehyde (generated by heating paraformaldehyde, 95% purity) for 12 weeks (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk). There was a dose-related increase in DNA-protein crosslinks in nasal mucosal cells, which was significant at 6 ppm.(53) Positive results (sperm shape abnormality, chromosome aberrations, bone marrow micronucleus) have also been obtained in studies using formaldehyde with methanol present or purity not specified.
Positive results (gene mutation, DNA damage, DNA repair, sister chromatid exchanges, chromosome aberrations) were obtained in many tests using cultured human and other mammalian cells. Most tests were done without metabolic activation.(19,43,46,56) Both positive and negative (gene mutation) results were obtained in bacteria, with and without metabolic activation. In general, the presence of metabolic activation decreased the mutagenic activity.(5,19,46,56) Positive results were also obtained in tests using yeast.(19,46,56) The purity of the formaldehyde and presence of methanol was not addressed in the reviews of these studies. However, even in studies where methanol is present, the positive findings are believed to be caused by formaldehyde.
Most studies with fruit flies (Drosophila) have shown positive results for a wide range of genetic tests.(5,19,56) The purity of the formaldehyde and presence of methanol was not addressed in the reviews of these studies.

Toxicological Synergisms:
Several studies have exposed animals to formaldehyde in combination with other carcinogens. In some of these studies, formaldehyde enhanced the effect of the other carcinogens, causing more tumours or faster tumour growth.(19) In two studies, inhalation exposure to formaldehyde significantly enhance respiratory sensitization to a known allergen (ovalbumin) in guinea pigs and mice.(57,58)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
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(2) Wibowo, A. 132. Formaldehyde. The Nordic Expert Group for Criteria Documentation of Health Risks from Chemicals and The Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards. Arbete Och Halsa. Vol. 11 (2003)
(3) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Formaldehyde. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 29. Some industrial chemicals and dyestuffs. World Health Organization, 1982. p. 345-389
(4) American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Formaldehyde. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances. 7th ed. ACGIH, 2001
(5) Fielder, R.J., et al. Toxicity review 2: Formaldehyde. Health and Safety Executive, 1981. p. 1-18
(6) Safronov, G.A., et al. Comparative acute inhalation toxicity of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones according to exposure time. Current Toxicology. Vol. 1, no. 1 (1993). p. 47-51
(7) Reuss, G., et al. Formaldehyde. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 11. VCH Publishers, 1988. p. 619-651
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(9) Urben, P.G., ed. Bretherick's reactive chemical hazards database. [CD-ROM]. 6th ed. Version 3.0. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1999
(10) Shaham, J., et al. Sister chromatid exchange in pathology staff occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Mutation Research. Vol. 514, no. 1 (Feb. 2002). p. 115-123
(11) Shaham, J., et al. DNA-protein crosslinks and p53 protein expression in relation to occupational exposure to formaldehyde. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 60 (2003). p. 403-409
(12) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 20, 60
(13) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 15th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1999. p. 1.228, 6.150
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(17) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans. Press Release No. 153. World Health Organization, June 15, 2004. Available on the World Wide Web: <www.iarc.fr/pageroot/PRELEASES/pr153a.html>
(18) European Communities. Commission Directive 96/54/EC. July 30, 1996
(19) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Formaldehyde. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 62. Wood dust and formaldehyde. World Health Organization, 1995. p. 217-362
(20) Lindbohm, M.-L., et al. Effects of paternal occupational exposure on spontaneous abortion. American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 81, no. 8 (Aug. 1991). p. 1029-1033
(21) Taskinen, H., et al. Reduced fertility among female wood workers exposed to formaldehyde. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 36 (1999). p. 206-212
(22) Collins, J.J., et al. Review and meta-analysis of formaldehyde exposure and pancreatic cancer. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 39, no. 3 (Mar. 2001). p. 336-345
(23) Chang, J.C.F., et al. Effect of single or repeated formaldehyde exposure on minute volume of B6C3F1 mice and F-344 rats. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 61, no. 3 (1981). p. 451-459
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(26) Monticello, T.M., et al. Effects of formaldehyde gas on the respiratory tract of Rhesus monkeys, pathology and cell proliferation. American Journal of Pathology. Vol. 134, no. 3 (Mar. 1989). p. 515-527
(27) Monticello, T.M., et al. Regional increases in rat nasal epithelial cell proliferation following acute and subchronic inhalation of formaldehyde. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 111 (1991). p. 409-421
(28) Skin and respiratory sensitizers : reference chemicals databank. Technical Report No. 77. ECETOC, 1999. p. 65-66
(29) Amdur, M.O. The response of guinea pigs to inhalation of formaldehyde and formic acid alone and with a sodium chloride aerosol. International Journal of Air Pollution. Vol. 3, no. 4 (1960). p. 201-220
(30) Swiecichowski, A.L., et al. Formaldehyde-induced airway hyperreactivity in vivo and ex vivo in guinea pigs. Environmental Research. Vol. 61, no, 2 (1993). p. 185-199
(31) Kamata, E., et al. Effects of formaldehyde vapor on the nasal cavity and lungs of F-344 rats. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology. Vol. 15, no. 1 (1996). p. 1-8
(32) Kamata, E., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity study of formaldehyde in rats: effect of vapor on the pulmonary surfactant. Pharmacometrics. Vol. 51, no. 1 (1996). p. 33-37
(33) Maronpot, R.R., et al. Toxicity of formaldehyde vapor in B6C3F1 mice exposed for 13 weeks. Toxicology. Vol. 41 (1986). p. 253-266
(34) Asthmagen? Critical assessments of the evidence for agents implicated in occupational asthma. HSE Books, 1997, reprinted with amendments 1998, 2001
(35) Woutersen, R.A., et al. Subchronic (13-week) inhalation toxicity study of formaldehyde in rats. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 71, no. 1 (1987). p. 43-49
(36) Appelman, L.M., et al. One-year inhalation toxicity study of formaldehyde in male rats with a damage or undamaged nasal mucosa. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 8, no. 2 (1988). p. 85-90
(37) Alexandersson, R., et al. Exposure to formaldehyde : effects on pulmonary function. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 37, no. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1982). p. 279-284
(38) Horvath, E.P., et al. Effects of formaldehyde on the mucous membranes and lungs. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 259, no. 5 (Feb. 1988). p. 701-707
(39) Kilburn, K.H. Neurobehavioral impairment and seizures from formaldehyde. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 49, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 1994). p. 37-44
(40) Kilburn, K.H., et al. Neurobehavioral effects of formaldehyde and solvents on histology technicians: Repeated testing across time. Environmental Research. Vol. 58 (1992). p. 134-146
(41) Kilburn, K.H., et al. Formaldehyde impairs memory, equilibrium, and dexterity in histology technicians: effects which persist for days after exposure. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 42, no. 2 (Mar./Apr. 1987). p. 117-120
(42) Bender, J.R., et al. Eye irritation response to humans of formaldehyde. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 44, no. 6 (June 1983). p. 463-465
(43) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological profile for formaldehyde. US Department of Health and Human Services, July 1999
(44) International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Formaldehyde. Environmental Health Criteria 89. World Health Organization, 1989
(45) International Programme on Chemical Safety. Formaldehyde. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document (CICAD) 40. World Health Organization. 2002
(46) Feinman, S.E. Formaldehyde genotoxicity and teratogenicity. In: Formaldehyde Sensitivity and Toxicity. Edited by S.E. Feinman. CRC Press, 1988. p. 167-178
(47) Collins, J.J., et al. A review of adverse pregnancy outcomes and formaldehyde exposure in human and animal studies. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 34 (2001). p. 17-34
(48) Thrasher, J.D., et al. Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 56, no. 4 (July/Aug. 2001). p. 300-311
(49) Saillenfait, A.M. The effects of maternally inhaled formaldehyde on embryonal and foetal development in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 27, no. 8 (1989). p. 545-548
(50) Martin, W.J. A teratology study of inhaled formaldehyde in the rat. Reproductive Toxicology. Vol. 4, no. 3 (1990). p. 237-239
(51) Schuck, E.A., et al. Eye irritation responses at low concentrations of irritants. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 13, no. 5 (Nov. 1966). p. 570-575
(52) Dallas, C.E., et al. Cytogenetic analysis of pulmonary lavage and bone marrow cells of rats after repeated formaldehyde inhalation. Journal of Applied Toxicology. Vol. 12, no. 3 (1992). p. 199-203
(53) Casanova, M., et al. DNA-protein cross-links and cell replication at specific sites in the nose of F344 rats exposed subchronically to formaldehyde. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 23 (1994). p. 525-536
(54) Stott, W.T., et al. Kinetic interaction of chemical mutagens with mouse sperm in vivo as it relates to animal mutagenic effects. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 55 (1980). p. 411-416
(55) Gunter, B.J., et al. Health hazard Evaluation Report HETA 82-045-1108, University of Colorado Medical School, Denver, Colorado. NIOSH Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance Branch, 1982
(56) Ma, T-H., et al. Review of the genotoxicity of formaldehyde. Mutation Research. Vol. 196 (1988). p. 37-59
(57) Riedel, F., et al. Formaldehyde exposure enhances inhalative allergic sensitization in the guinea pig. Allergy. Vol. 51, no. 2 (1996). p. 94-99
(58) Tarkowski, M., et al. Increased IgE antiovalbumin level in mice exposed to formaldehyde. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. Vol. 106, no. 4 (1995). p. 422-424
(59) Bardana, Jr., E.J., et al. Formaldehyde : an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous and immunologic effects. Annals of Allergy. Vol. 66, no. 6 (June 1991). p. 441-452
(60) Solomons, K., et al. Formaldehyde toxicity. Part I. Occupational exposure and a report of 5 cases. South African Medical Journal. Vol. 66, no. 3 (July 1984). p. 101-102
(61) Solomons, K., et al. Formaldehyde toxicity. Part II: Review of acute and chronic effects on health. South African Medical Journal. Vol. 66, no. 3 (July 1984). p. 103-106
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(63) Cain, W.S., et al. Irritation and odor from formaldehyde: chamber studies. In: Proceedings of the ASHRAE Conference: IAQ 86, Managing indoor air for health and energy conservation, Atlanta, Georgia. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers Inc., 1986. p. 126-137
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(67) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(68) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(69) Gallant, R.W. Physical properties of hydrocarbons: part 24: C1-C4 aldehydes. Hydrocarbon Process. Vol. 47, no. 5 (May 1968). p. 151-160
(70) Walker, J.F. Formaldehyde. 3rd ed. American Chemical Society Monograph Series. Reinhold Publishing Publishing Corporation, 1964
(71) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Formaldehyde in Workplace Atmospheres. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(72) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Acrolein and/or Formaldehyde. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(73) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Formaldehyde. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available from World Wide Web: <http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
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(77) Lee, H.K., et al. Induction of formaldehyde sensitivity in guinea pigs. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 75 (1984). p. 147-155
(78) Hauptmann, M., et al. Mortality from lymphohematopoietic malignancies among workers in formaldehyde industries. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Vol. 95, no. 21 (Nov. 5, 2003). p. 1615-1623

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-07-08

Revision Indicators:
Short-term skin contact 2004-08-24
Long-term exposure 2004-08-24
Carcinogenicity 2004-08-24
WHMIS detailed classification 2004-08-24
WHMIS health effects 2004-08-24
Emergency overview 2004-08-24
Toxicological info 2004-09-02
Handling 2004-10-07
Bibliography 2005-02-02



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