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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 442
CCOHS Chemical Name: Ethylene glycol diacetate

Synonyms:
1,2-Diacetoxyethane
1,2-Ethanediol diacetate
Ethylene acetate
Ethylene diacetate
Ethylene diethanoate
Glycol diacetate
Ethylene glycol acetate (non-specific name)

Chemical Name French: Diacétate d'éthylène glycol
CAS Registry Number: 111-55-7
RTECS Number(s): KW4025000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-881-1
Chemical Family: Aliphatic polyhydric alcohol carboxylic ester / aliphatic dihydric alcohol carboxylic ester / alkane diol carboxylic ester / alkane diol dicarboxylic ester / glycol ester / glycol diester / ethylene glycol diester / glycol acetate / glycol diacetate
Molecular Formula: C6-H10-O4
Structural Formula: CH3-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH2-O-C(=O)-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a slight, ethyl acetate or fruity, acid odour.(6,9)

Odour Threshold:
0.093 ppm (absolute perception limit); 0.312 ppm (50% and 100% recognition) (9)

Warning Properties:
GOOD.

Composition/Purity:
Ethylene glycol diacetate is available in grades with purity of 98%.(6)

Uses and Occurrences:
Ethylene glycol diacetate is used as a solvent for cellulose esters, cellulose ethers, oils, resins, lacquers, natural products and printing inks; as a perfume fixative; and as a nondiscoloring plasticizer for ethyl and benzyl cellulose.(6,9,10)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a slight, ethyl acetate or fruity, acid odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 88 deg C (191 deg F). Generally has low toxicity.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Ethylene glycol diacetate does not readily form a vapour at room temperature. Therefore, it must be heated or misted before inhalation exposure would occur. It is unlikely to produce harmful effects, other than irritation, if inhaled. A closely related chemical, ethylene glycol, is irritating to the nose and throat. There is no specific information available.

Skin Contact:
Ethylene glycol diacetate is probably not irritating or a mild irritant, based on limited information for the closely related chemical ethylene glycol monoacetate.
It may be absorbed through the skin, but it is unlikely that harmful effects would occur.

Eye Contact:
Ethylene glycol diacetate is probably not irritating or a mild eye irritant, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
Ethylene glycol diactetate is not expected to be toxic if ingested, based on animal toxicity values. Any harmful effects observed following the ingestion are believed to result from the formation of ethylene glycol in the body.(5) Ethylene glycol can be toxic to humans following ingestion and there have been many non-occupational cases of fatal or near-fatal poisoning from drinking it, either accidentally or intentionally. For additional information on the effects of ethylene glycol, refer to the CHEMINFO review. There is no human information available for ethylene glycol diacetate. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There is no human information available for ethylene glycol diacetate.

Kidneys/Urinary System:
Ethylene glycol diacetate ingestion caused kidney stone formation and kidney damage in animals following ingestion of very large doses. These observations are considered to have little or no relevance to occupational settings because of the large doses used and the fact that ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Probably does not accumulate. Ethylene glycol diacetate is readily broken down in the body to ethylene glycol and acetic acid.(5)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in stomach. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
88 deg C (191 deg F) (closed cup) (11,13,14)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.6% (11,13,14)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
8.4% (11,13,14)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
482 deg C (900 deg F) (11,13,14)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Ethylene glycol diacetate probably will not accumulate static charge, since esters generally have high electrical conductivities. Mixtures of ethylene glycol diacetate vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range will not be ignited by a static discharge, since it has a moderately high flash point.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available

Minimum Ignition Energy:
Not available

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion may produce irritating fumes and acrid smoke.(6)

Fire Hazard Summary:
COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above 88 deg C (191 deg F). During a fire, irritating/toxic smoke and fumes may be generated. Closed containers may rupture violently and suddenly release large amounts of product when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient period of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, appropriate foam, water spray or fog.(15) Special "alcohol-resistant fire fighting foams" are recommended for use with any polar liquid that is soluble in water, such as ethylene glycol diacetate.(11) Fire fighting foam manufacturers should be consulted for recommendations regarding types of foams and application rates.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks involved in fire, but be aware that flying material (shrapnel) from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Cooling should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can be used to dilute spills to nonflammable mixtures and flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible, withdraw from fire area. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank. Tanks or drums should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire, until they have been completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Ethylene glycol diacetate is slightly hazardous to health. Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 146.14

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -31 deg C (-23.8 deg F) (14,16,17)
Boiling Point: 190-191 deg C (374-375.8 deg F) (13,14,16,18)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.1043 at 20 deg C (13,14,18); 1.099 at 25 deg C (18) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (16.4 g/100 mL at 20 deg C (6); 17.8 g/100 mL at 25 deg C (6,19))
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether (13); soluble in benzene (10)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.40 (estimated) (20)
Viscosity-Dynamic: 2.9 mPa.s (2.9 centipoises) at 20 deg C (18)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 2.63 mm2/s (2.63 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 34.7 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: Not available
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: 0.010 kPa (0.0774 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (19); Also reported as 0.03 kPa (0.225 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (18)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 100 ppm (0.01%) at 25 deg C;approximately 300 ppm (0.03%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.026 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (18)
Henry's Law Constant: 8.51 X 10(-3) Pa.m3/mol (cited as 8.4 X 10(-8) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (19); log H = -5.46 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. May slowly hydrolyze to ethylene glycol and acetic acid in the presence of water.(16)

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chromium trioxide, calcium hypochlorite, nitric acid, potassium permanganate, peroxides) - react violently. Can increase the risk of fire and explosion.(6,15)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and STRONG BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide) - reaction may be vigorous. Decomposition can occur.(15)
STRONG REDUCING AGENTS (e.g. metal hydrides, such as lithium aluminum hydride) - reaction may be vigorous. Decomposition can occur.(15)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Ethylene glycol, acetic acid.

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat (temperatures greater than 88 deg C).

Corrosivity to Metals:
Based on comparison to related compounds, ethylene glycol diacetate is not expected to be corrosive to the common metals, such as steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, brass, bronze, nickel, tantalum and titanium.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Based on comparison to related compounds, ethylene glycol diacetate may attack chloroprene, polyurethane, chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSM), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Teflon, Viton A and other fluorocarbons, are probably resistant to ethylene glycol diacetate.


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 6860 mg/kg (cited as 6.86 gm/kg) (1)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): 4940 mg/kg (cited as 4.94 gm/kg) (1)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 9400 mg/kg, cited as 8480 microL/kg (12, unconfirmed)

Eye Irritation:

Ethylene glycol diacetate is not irritating or a mild irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted ethylene glycol diacetate caused no or mild injury in rabbits (scored 0-1 where 5 is severe injury; graded 1/10).(2)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Female rats were fed 5% ethylene glycol diacetate (approximately 6000 mg/kg/day) in their drinking water for up to 37 days. Eight of 10 animals died and all of those examined showed kidney damage and deposits of calcium oxalate crystals in the kidneys. Male rats fed 1% ethylene glycol diacetate (approximate dose 1200 mg/kg/day) in drinking water for 110 days and then 3% (approximate dose 3600 mg/kg/day) for 20 days had occasional kidney stone formation.(4) Rats were exposed to 1, 3 and 5% ethylene glycol diacetate in drinking water for 7 to 130 days duration. Reported doses are 1200, 3600 and 6000 mg/kg/day. The minimal dose required to produce kidney damage was 6000 mg/kg/day for 7 days.(3) Mice fed 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day ethylene glycol diacetate for 5 weeks did not develop testicular atrophy.(7)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Smyth, Jr., H.F., et al. The single dose toxicity of some glycol derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 6 (June 1941). p. 259-268
(2) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(3) Kesten, H.D., et al. Pathologic effects of certain glycols and related compounds. Archives of Pathology. Vol. 27 (1939). p. 447-465
(4) Mulinos, M.G., et al. The metabolism and toxicology of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol diacetate. American Journal of Pharmacy. Vol. 115, no. 2 (Feb. 1943). p. 51-63
(5) Gosselin, R.E. et al. Clinical toxicology of commercial products. 5th ed. Williams and Wilkins, 1984. p. III-172-III-179
(6) US National Library of Medicine. Ethylene glycol diacetate. Last revision date: 2002-05-13. In: Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB). CHEMpendium. [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/chempendium/search.html> {Subscription required}
(7) Nagano, K., et al. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 75-84
(8) von Oettingen, W.F. The aliphatic acids and their esters: toxicity and potential dangers. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 (Jan. 1960). p. 28-65
(9) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 4th ed. Vol. 2. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2001. p. 1199-1200
(10) Lewis, Sr., R.J., ed. Ethylene glycol diacetate. Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. [CD-ROM]. 14th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 2002
(11) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(12) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Ethylene glycol, diacetate. Last updated: 2000-07. In: Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS(R)). [CD-ROM]. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS). Also available at: <ccinfoweb.ccohs.ca/rtecs/search.html> {Subscription required}
(13) Lide, D.R., ed. Handbook of chemistry and physics. [CD-ROM]. Chapman and Hall/CRCnetBASE 1999
(14) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.217, 5.143
(15) Ethylene glycol diacetate. Sigma-Aldrich Website. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation. MSDS. Date updated: 2002-10. Available at: <www.sigmaaldrich.com/suite7/homepage/New_Site_Redirect.html> (Password required)
(16) Tau, K. D, et al. Esters, organic. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 781-812
(17) Rebsdat, S., et al. Ethylene glycol: derivatives. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 10. VCH Publishers, 1987. p. 108-111
(18) Riddick, J.A., et al. Organic Solvents: physical properties and methods of purification. Techniques of chemistry. Vol. II. 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, 1986. p. 394
(19) Syracuse Research Corporation. The Physical Properties Database (PHYSPROP). Interactive PhysProp Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <syrres.com/esc/physdemo.htm>
(20) Syracuse Research Corporation. Interactive LogKow (KowWin) Database Demo. Date unknown. Available at: <syrres.com/esc/kowdemo.htm>
(21) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Hydrocarbons, BP 36-126 deg C. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113 (Aug. 1994). Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2005-01-06



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