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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 247
CCOHS Chemical Name: Ethyl acrylate

Synonyms:
Acrylic acid, ethyl ester
Ethoxycarbonylethylene
Ethyl acrylic ester
Ethyl propenoate
Ethyl 2-propenoate
2-Propenoic acid, ethyl ester

Chemical Name French: Acrylate d'éthyle
Chemical Name Spanish: Acrilato de etilo
CAS Registry Number: 140-88-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1917
RTECS Number(s): AT0700000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 205-438-8
Chemical Family: Aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / unsaturated aliphatic carboxylic acid ester / monounsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid ester / alkyl alkenoate / acrylic acid ester / acrylate / ethyl ester
Molecular Formula: C5-H8-O2
Structural Formula: CH2=CH-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a pungent, acrid, slightly nauseating, penetrating odour, like hot plastic (25,26); lachrymator (vapour irritates the eyes and causes tears).(27)

Odour Threshold:
A range of values has been reported: 0.2 to 1.3 ppb (0.0002 to 0.0013 ppm). Acceptable values are 0.24 ppb (00024 ppm) (detection) and 0.37 ppb (00037 ppm) (recognition).(28)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - the TLV is more than 10 times the reported odour threshold values. It also has a very unpleasant odour.

Composition/Purity:
Ethyl acrylate is normally available in 99% or greater purity. It usually contains trace amounts of an inhibitor (hydroquinone (15-20 or 1000 ppm), hydroquinone monomethyl ether (10-20 or 200 ppm) or phenothiazine) to prevent premature polymerization. Grades containing little or no inhibitor are available. Impurities may include water, and acrylic acid.(1,26,29,30)

Uses and Occurrences:
Ethyl acrylate is predominantly used to manufacture acrylic emulsion polymers and solution polymers. It is also used as a chemical intermediate for chemical synthesis. Historically, it was used as a fragrance and flavouring agent.(1,26,29,30,31)
Ethyl acrylate is a volatile component of some foods (pineapples, passion fruit, raspberries and Beaufort cheese). It may be released into the environment in the air or wastewater, during its production and use.(1,10)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a pungent, acrid, slightly nauseating, penetrating odour, like hot plastic. Lachrymator. FLAMMABLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Vapour is heavier than air and may spread long distances. Distant ignition and flash back are possible. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and/or spread fire. DANGEROUSLY REACTIVE. Both inhibited and uninhibited liquid can polymerize explosively if exposed to heat. Vapour or uninhibited liquid may also polymerize explosively if exposed to sunlight (ultraviolet light) or incompatible materials. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated. VERY TOXIC. May be fatal if inhaled. The vapour is extremely irritating to the eyes and respiratory tract. May cause lung injury--effects may be delayed. CORROSIVE to the eyes and skin. May cause blindness and permanent scarring. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause allergic skin reaction. SUSPECT CANCER HAZARD - may cause cancer.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Ethyl acrylate readily forms extremely high vapour concentrations and is very toxic by inhalation. It has a pungent, acrid, unpleasant odour at very low concentrations (0.24 to 0.37 ppb). Inhalation can cause severe irritation of the nose, throat and upper respiratory system. Animal studies indicate that injury is generally limited to the upper respiratory tract (nose, throat and bronchial tubes). However, in severe cases, lung injury has been observed. Therefore, severe occupational exposures may produce a potentially life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema), shock, and death due to respiratory failure. Symptoms of pulmonary edema, such as shortness of breath, may not appear until several hours after exposure.
In an unconfirmed report, prolonged exposure at 50-75 ppm has been reported to cause drowsiness, headache and nausea.(1)

Skin Contact:
Brief exposures are expected to produce minimal or no irritation. However, corrosive effects (severe irritation, blistering and tissue death) could result if ethyl acrylate is trapped on the skin, e.g. under clothing or watchbands or in a shoe or boot. These conclusions are based on animal information and limited human information. Ethyl acrylate reacts with moisture to form acrylic acid, a corrosive material. Solutions of 1 and 5% in olive oil were not irritating to human skin.(1)
Ethyl acrylate can cause allergic skin reactions. Refer to "Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure" for additional information.
Low absorption is expected following skin contact, based on animal studies.

Eye Contact:
Direct contact is expected to cause corrosive injury, based on animal information. Depending on the degree of exposure and the duration of contact, permanent damage including blindness could result. There is no human information available.
The vapour is severely irritating to the eyes, causing tearing. There is no human information available, but these effects have been observed in animals.

Ingestion:
There is no human information available. Animal information indicates that ethyl acrylate is toxic following ingestion. Ethyl acrylate reacts with moisture in the tissues to form corrosive acrylic acid and ethanol. Symptoms following ingestion would include irritation of the mouth, throat and stomach. Other symptoms may include diarrhea and abdominal pain.
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Lungs/Respiratory System:
There is no reliable human information is available, but based on animal studies, repeated exposure to high vapour concentrations (above 25 ppm) may cause redness and irritation of the nose, and throat.

Skin Sensitization:
Ethyl acrylate is a skin sensitizer, based on limited human information, animal information and comparison to other closely related acrylates (methyl and n-butyl). Once a person is sensitized to a material, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This can spread from the hands or arms to other parts of the body.
Six employees exposed to acrylates in ultraviolet curing inks developed severe skin reactions (itching, face and eye irritation and dermatitis). One of the six (Case 6) had atopic dermatitis as a child. The symptoms started in 3 patients 3-4 weeks after they started working with ultraviolet curing inks. Two patients had worked for 6 months and one case for 8 months. Patch testing showed that one individual (Case 1), with no predisposition to allergies noted, reacted to ethyl acrylate.(2)
There are 4 other occupational case reports of individuals showing a positive patch test to ethyl acrylate.(3,4,5) Previous history of allergies was not discussed for any of these cases. In three other occupational cases located, the affected individuals were predisposed to developing allergies.(6,7) In an unpublished report, 4% ethyl acrylate in petrolatum produced a sensitization reaction in 10/24 volunteers in a maximization test.(8)
Cross-sensitization to other acrylate compounds may occur.(1)

Eyes/Vision:
There is no reliable human information is available, but based on animal studies, repeated exposure to high vapour concentrations (above 25 ppm) may cause redness and irritation of the eyes.

Carcinogenicity:

Ethyl acrylate is possibly carcinogenic to humans, based on animal information. Results of an occupational human population study which showed an increased incidence of cancer (colon or rectum) cannot be applied to ethyl acrylate specifically as there were multiple exposures.(9) The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is no epidemiological information relevant to the carcinogenicity assessment of ethyl acrylate. There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethyl acrylate to experimental animals.(10)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has designated this chemical as not classifiable as a human carcinogen (A4).

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. In one animal inhalation study, no significant effects were observed in the offspring of rats, even in the presence of maternal toxicity.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. The available animal information indicates that ethyl acrylate is not mutagenic.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Ethyl acrylate does not accumulate in the body. Ethyl acrylate is readily absorbed following ingestion or inhalation, and distributed mainly to the forestomach, glandular stomach, intestines, liver and kidneys. Absorption through the skin is significantly lower. It is primarily metabolized to ethanol and acrylic acid, both of which are further metabolized to carbon dioxide, which is excreted in exhaled air. In a second, minor pathway, ethyl acrylate is conjugated with glutathione, followed by excretion of mercapturic acid derivatives in the urine.(1)

Health Comments:
Inhibitors may have toxic effects which should be considered.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
This chemical is flammable, very toxic and a suspect carcinogen. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. remove any sources of ignition, wear appropriate protective equipment, use the "buddy" system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is difficult, oxygen may be beneficial if administered by trained personnel, preferably on a doctor's advice. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. Flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). If irritation persists, repeat flushing. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Immediately transport victim to an emergency care facility. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 20-30 minutes, by the clock, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Neutral saline solution may be used as soon as it is available. DO NOT INTERRUPT FLUSHING. If necessary, keep emergency vehicle waiting. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. If irritation persists, repeat flushing. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, or is unconscious or convulsing. Have victim rinse mouth thoroughly with water. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, repeat administration of water. Quickly transport victim to an emergency care facility.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures.
Some recommendations in the above sections may be considered medical acts in some jurisdictions. These recommendations should be reviewed with a doctor and appropriate delegation of authority obtained, as required.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
8-9 deg C (46.4-48 deg F) (closed cup) (1,25,30,32). Also reported as 16 deg C (60 deg F) (closed cup) (27)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.4% (33); 1.8% (1,25,27,30)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
12.1% (1,27); 14% (33)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
355 deg C (671 deg F) (1,30); 372 deg C (702 deg F) (33)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
No reports found of explosions caused by mechanical impact.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
There is no specific information available. Mixtures of ethyl acrylate vapour and air at concentrations in the flammable range may be ignited by a static charge of sufficient energy.

Electrical Conductivity:
Not available.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and other irritant gases, which may include unburned ethyl acrylate and other toxic constituents.(25,27)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Flammable and dangerously reactive liquid. Material will readily ignite at room temperature. Hazardous polymerization may occur under fire conditions. Ethyl acrylate may polymerize explosively when heated. Ethyl acrylate vapours may form polymers in vents and flame arresters, resulting in blockage of vents and/or the rupture of closed containers. Vapour is heavier than air and can travel a considerable distance to a source of ignition and flash back to a leak or open container. Liquid can float on water and may travel to distant locations and spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Vapour can accumulate in confined spaces posing a toxicity and flammability/explosion hazard.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol-resistant foam or water spray.(1,33) Water may be ineffective, since it may not cool ethyl acrylate below its flash point.(33) Carbon dioxide or dry chemical powder may be used on small fires.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Use extreme caution since explosive polymerization may occur under fire conditions and may rupture containers. Fight fire from a protected, explosion-resistant location or maximum possible distance. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Water can extinguish the fire if used under favourable conditions and when hose streams are applied by experienced firefighters trained in fighting all types of flammable liquid fires.(33)
If fire occurs in the vicinity of ethyl acrylate, use unmanned monitors and hoseholders to keep cooling streams of water on fire-exposed containers, tanks or pipelines until well after the fire is out, in order to protect their contents from the danger of polymerization. This should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
In an advanced or massive fire, the area should be evacuated; use unmanned hoseholders or monitor nozzles. If this is is not possible, withdraw from fire area and do not attempt to fight the fire.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray to cool and disperse the vapours. Water spray may also be used to dilute spills to non-flammable mixtures and to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Tanks, drums or other containers should not be approached directly after they have been involved in a fire or heated by exposure, until they have completely cooled down.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
Ethyl acrylate is very toxic and a suspected human carcinogen. Do not enter fire area without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. A full-body encapsulating chemical resistant suit with positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 3 - Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 3 - Liquids and solids that can be ignited under almost all ambient temperature conditions.
NFPA - Instability: 2 - Undergoes violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures, or reacts violently with water, or may form explosive mixtures with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 100.13

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 4.09 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.245 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -71.2 deg C (-96.2 deg F) (34); -72 deg C (-97.6 deg F) (1,30)
Boiling Point: 99.5-100 deg C (211-212 deg F) (1,30,31,34)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.923 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (25,29,30,31)
Solubility in Water: Slightly to moderately soluble (1.5-2 g/100 mL at 25 deg C).(1,30)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol and diethyl ether; soluble in chloroform.(10)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 1.18 (1); log P(oct) = 1.32 (35)
pH Value: Not available
Viscosity-Dynamic: 0.69 mPa.s (0.69 centipoise) at 20 deg C (30); 0.55 mPa.s (0.55 centipoise) at 25 deg C (1)
Viscosity-Kinematic: 0.75 mm2/s (0.75 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Saybolt Universal Viscosity: 28.2 Saybolt Universal Seconds at 37.8 deg C (100 deg F) (calculated)
Surface Tension: 25.2 mN/m (25.2 dynes/cm) at 20 deg C (1)
Vapour Density: 3.45 at 20 deg C (air = 1) (31)
Vapour Pressure: 3.93 kPa (29.5 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (25,29,30); 5.15 kPa (38.6 mm Hg) at 25 deg C (calculated) (36)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Approximately 38800 ppm (3.88%) at 20 deg C; approximately 50800 ppm (5.08%) at 25 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 3.3 (n-butyl acetate = 1) (26)
Henry's Law Constant: 39.82 Pa.m3/mol (cited as 3.93 x 10(-4) atm.m3/mol) at 25 deg C (estimated) (44); log H = -1.79 (dimensionless constant; calculated)

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Liquid ethyl acrylate is stable in the presence of an inhibitor, if kept at normal temperatures. The vapour may polymerize explosively.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Acrylic monomers can polymerize violently, unless stabilized. Phenolic inhibitors (hydroquinone and hydroquinone methyl ether) are only effective in the presence of oxygen.(37) Uninhibited ethyl acrylate or material that is depleted of inhibitor can polymerize violently when exposed to elevated temperatures, light (ultraviolet or sunlight), or in the presence of incompatible materials that act as catalysts (e.g. metals or peroxides).(1,30,37) Even inhibited ethyl acrylate can polymerize when moderately heated. Moisture may cause rust-initiated polymerization.(29) Hazardous polymerization can also occur in the vapour phase.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


PEROXIDES, CATALYTIC METALS (e.g. copper or iron), AZO-COMPOUNDS, and MOISTURE - can initiate violent or explosive polymerization.(1,29,32)
STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. chlorine, nitrates or perchlorates) - may react violently. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(1,27,32,38) May cause violent or explosion polymerization.(1,33)
STRONG ACIDS (e.g. chlorosulfonic acid) - may react to produce heat and pressure.(33) May initiate violent or explosive polymerization.
STRONG BASES (e.g. alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide, or ammonium hydroxide) - may react violently.(33) Can extract the phenolic inhibitor (e.g. hydroquinone or hydroquinone methyl ether).(29) May initiate violent or explosive polymerization.(1)
AMINES (e.g. 2-aminoethanol, ethylene diamine or ethyleneimine) - may react violently.(38) May initiate violent or explosive polymerization.

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, sparks, open flames, other ignition sources, sunlight, low inhibitor concentration, oxygen-free atmospheres, oxygen depletion, storage at temperatures above 10 deg C , moisture, contamination.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Ethyl acrylate is not corrosive to the common metals. Stainless steels, carbon steel, cast iron, aluminum, copper, brass, naval bronze, aluminum bronze, silicon bronze, nickel and its alloys, tantalum, titanium and zirconium have good resistance (less than 20 mils (505 um)/year).(39,40)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
Ethyl acrylate is not corrosive to most plastics and elastomers.(39) However, it can attack some plastics (e.g. ABS, PVC, CPVC and bisphenol A and isophthalic polyesters, and Epoxy at high temperatures), elastomers (e.g. Butyl GR, Viton A, isoprene, neoprene, natural rubber, and nitrile Buna A), and coatings (e.g. coal tar epoxy, epoxy polyamide, polyester and vinyls).(39)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Phenolic inhibitors (hydroquinone and hydroquinone methyl ether) are only effective in the presence of oxygen.(37) Therefore, ethyl acrylate must be stored under air, rather than under an inert atmosphere. However, the oxygen concentration must be kept low (6 to 8 vol%) to prevent the formation of a flammable mixture.(1,29,30) Care must be taken to prevent contamination, since contaminants can render the inhibitor ineffective or promote polymerization.(1)
Storage temperatures must be kept low to prevent formation of peroxides and other products.(1,29)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 1414 ppm (4-hour exposure) (12)
LC50 (rat): 2180 ppm (4-hour exposure) (13)

LD50 (oral, rat): 1020 mg/kg (14)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 1800 mg/kg; cited as 1.95 mL/kg (14)

Eye Irritation:

Direct application of the undiluted liquid is corrosive.

Application of 0.5 mL produced severe cornea tissue death in rabbits, while 0.1 mL produced moderate tissue death.(14)

Skin Irritation:

Single uncovered applications caused minimal or no irritation, while covered or partially covered applications produced severe irritation and corrosive effects.

Application of 0.5 mL of undiluted ethyl acrylate for 1 or 4 hours, with partial or complete covering, produced irritation (redness and swelling) in rabbits after 1 hour and corrosion after 4 hours.(15) A single application of 0.01 mL (uncovered) produced either minor irritation or no reaction in rabbits.(14) Unpublished reports confirm these observations.(1) Repeated dermal applications (3-38 applications in 1 day) of extremely large doses, 5400-69100 mg/kg (covered), produced intense swelling and inflammation in rabbits. Lethal doses (over 40700 mg/kg) caused almost complete destruction of the outer layer of skin. Lower doses repeated on a second day caused the skin to become progressively worse, but all cases returned to normal within a week after application.(16)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Changes due to irritation and inflammation have been shown for all routes of exposure at the point of contact, in all species evaluated. Inhalation causes damage and congestion in the nasal passages and lungs; oral exposure to the stomach and intestinal tract; and dermal exposure to the skin. The severity of the changes are related to dose, and frequency and duration of contact. Generalized swelling and related effects were often also seen in heart, lungs and kidneys.

Inhalation:
Single inhalation exposures at up to 3000 ppm produced irritation of the eyes, nose and respiratory tract in rats. Death was due to heart and lung failure.(13) Monkeys with single exposure of 75 ppm for 3 or 6 hours showed corrosive injury to the lining of the nose.(17) Rats and rabbits exposed to 70, 300 or 540 ppm for 19 or 30 days had high mortality at 300 or 540 ppm, with fluid accumulation and swelling in the lungs, kidneys and liver. Lung irritation may have increased susceptibility to pneumonia. Rabbits had higher mortality with the same dose. There were only minor effects in rats exposed at 70 ppm (increased kidney weight).(14) The RD50, the concentration which produces a 50% reduction in the respiratory rate of male mice after approximately 5 minutes, is 315 ppm.(18) Exposure to this concentration is expected to produce intolerable eye, nose and throat irritation (sensory irritation) in humans.

Skin Contact:
In rabbits, repeated dermal application over 1-2 days caused deaths at extremely high doses (49900 and 69100 mg/kg), severe skin damage at the point of contact, as well as swelling and congestion of gastrointestinal system, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys. Animals receiving lower doses had no significant abnormalities when examined up to 3 months later.(16)

Ingestion:
Single oral exposure of rabbits at lethal doses (420-1000 mg/kg) produced reduced body temperature, labored breathing and bluish colouring of the skin before death. There was swelling of the stomach and upper intestinal tract, heart, liver, brain and kidneys. Animals surviving exposure 120-280 mg/kg showed slight to moderate liver and kidney changes 2 months later. Repeated doses (31.5 mg/kg for 5 weeks) produced no effects other than minor growth and weight changes.(16) Following 2-4 consecutive daily oral doses, there was dose- related injury to the forestomach.(19)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Studies have shown no systemic effects in rats following exposure by inhalation (75 ppm for 2 years) or ingestion in drinking water (2000 ppm for 2 years). Irritation of the nasal passages was noted in the inhalation study at both 25 and 75 ppm, but this effect was not observed at 5 ppm. In a limited study, deaths have been observed with repeated 7-hour exposures to 272 ppm. In a well-conducted study, reversible changes were observed in rats and mice exposed to up to 225 ppm for 6 months.

Inhalation:
Rats exposed to 110 ppm for approximately 6 weeks showed no differences from controls regarding body or organ weights, or blood chemistry.(13) In a limited study (small numbers of animals/group), rabbits, guinea pigs, rabbits and monkeys were exposed by inhalation to up to 1204 ppm and durations up to 6 months. Inhalation of 74.5 ppm or less for up to 6 months produced no effects for rabbits, guinea pigs and rats. There were also no effects for monkeys exposed to 26.2 ppm. Deaths were observed in rabbits (4/4 animals) and guinea pigs (1/2 animals) exposed to 272 ppm for up 28 7-hour exposures. Effects seen in animals that died from exposure at this and higher concentrations were congestion of lungs (with bronchopneumonia in some cases), heart, liver, kidneys, brain and spinal cord. Animals that survived showed no effects when examined 2 months later.(16) A well conducted study exposing rats and mice to 0, 25 or 75 ppm for 2 years showed only changes in the lining of the nose (in the olfactory region) and reduced weight gain in high exposure groups. There were no other treatment- related differences. Groups exposed to 225 ppm for 6 months, and then observed without further exposure to the end of the study, showed that the effects on the nasal lining were not reversible. A follow-up study, with exposure to 5 ppm for 24 months in both rats and mice, showed no changes in the nasal lining.(20)

Ingestion:
Female rats were exposed to approximately 0, 1, 10 and 230 mg/kg/day (cited as 0, 6, 60 and 2000 ppm) in drinking water for 2 years. Male rats were exposed to approximately 0, 1, 10 and 180 mg/kg/day (cited as 0, 6, 60 and 2000 ppm). Although body weight and fluid consumption were reduced at the highest exposures, blood chemistry was normal and no other changes were noted in any body tissues. In a parallel study, no effects were observed in dogs exposed to approximately 0, 0.25, 2 and 25 mg/kg/day (the equivalent of 0, 10, 100 and 1000 ppm) in their diet for 2 years.(21) Rats and mice with oral exposure to 100 or 200 mg/kg for 2 years by single daily dosing in corn oil showed both benign and malignant tumors of the forestomach. There was no other evidence of toxicity.(1)

Skin Sensitization:
In a study reported by abstract, positive skin sensitization results were obtained in a modified Buehler protocol. The challenge test with 0.4% ethyl acrylate in acetone produced positive results in 15/20 guinea pigs.(24) Positive results (SI: 5.01) were obtained in a Local Lymph Node Assay using female mice exposed to 50% ethyl acrylate. Exposure to 25% ethyl acrylate produced an SI of 2.65 (SI greater than equal to 3.0 is a positive response).(11)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded there is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethyl acrylate to experimental animals. Oral exposure of rats and mice has produced dose-related increases in forestomach cancer. No increase in cancer was observed in mice and rats exposed by inhalation and in mice exposed by skin application.(10)
Rats and mice were orally exposed to 100 or 200 mg/kg in corn oil for 103 weeks. Both benign and malignant tumors of the forestomach were observed at the site of chemical deposition.(1) Negative results have been obtained in other ingestion studies using rats and dogs.(21) An inhalation study exposing rats and mice to 0, 25 or 75 ppm for 2 years showed no increase in any tumor that was considered to be treatment- related.(20) Mice exposed by dermal application of approximately 2300 mg/kg/week, 3 times/week for their lifetimes showed no skin tumors, despite skin changes being observed (dermatitis, fibrosis, necrosis and thickening). No other treatment-related tumors were observed.(22)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
In one inhalation study, no significant effects have been observed in the offspring of rats, even in the presence of maternal toxicity.
Rats were exposed by inhalation to 0, 50 or 150 ppm ethyl acrylate on days 6-15 of pregnancy. No harmful effects were observed in the mothers or offspring at 50 ppm. Maternal toxicity (e.g. decreased body weight) was evident at 150 ppm. At this concentration, a slight, but not statistically significant, increase in malformed fetuses was observed.(23) No conclusions can be drawn from one limited study where ethyl acrylate was administered to rats orally.(1)

Mutagenicity:
The available information indicates that ethyl acrylate is not mutagenic.
Negative results have been obtained in all of the studies using live animals (rats and mice) with relevant routes of exposure (ingestion and skin application).(1,10)
Both positive and negative results have been reported for in studies using cultured mammalian cells.(10) Negative results have been obtained in studies using bacteria.(1,10)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Ethyl acrylate: CAS no. 141-88-5. Joint Assessment of Commodity Chemicals No. 28. European Community for Ecotoxicity and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC), Sept., 1994
(2) Bjorkner, B., et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from acrylates in ultraviolet curing inks. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 6 (1980). p. 415- 419
(3) Fregert, S. Allergic contact dermatitis from ethylacrylate in a window sealant. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 4 (1978). p. 56
(4) Condé-Salazar, L., et al. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from anaerobic acrylic sealants. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 18 (1988). p. 129-132
(5) Jacobs, M.C., et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from cyanoacrylate? Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 33 (1995). p. 71
(6) Kanerva, L., et al. Sensitization to patch test acrylates. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 18, no. 1 (1988). p. 10-15
(7) Kanerva, L., et al. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis caused by photobonded sculptured nails and a review of (meth)acrylates in nail cosmetics. American Journal of Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 7, no. 2 (June 1996). p. 109-115
(8) Opdyke, D.L.J. Ethyl acrylate. Fragrance raw materials monographs. Food and Cosmetics Toxicology. Vol. 13, suppl. (1975). p. 801-802
(9) Walker, A.M., et al. Mortality from cancer of the colon or rectum among workers exposed to ethyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. Vol. 17 (1991). p. 7-19
(10) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Ethyl acrylate. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. World Health Organization, 1999. p. 1447-1457
(11) Warbick, E.V., et al. Preliminary assessment of the skin sensitizing activity of selected rodent carcinogens using the local lymph node assay. Toxicology. Vol. 163 (2001). p. 63-69
(12) Ethyl acrylate. Range finding toxicity studies. Special report 34-47. Edited by C.S. Weil. Union Carbide, 1971
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2003-03-24

Revision Indicators:
WHMIS classification comments 2003-05-24
PEL transitional comments 2004-01-09
PEL-TWA final 2004-01-09
PEL-STEL final 2004-01-09
Toxicological info 2004-02-09
Long-term exposure 2004-02-09
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-04
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-04
Bibliography 2006-01-04



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