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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 740
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Ethoxyethanol

Synonyms:
Cellosolve
Cellosolve solvent
Ethyl glycol
Ethyl Cellosolve
Ethylene glycol ethyl ether
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether
EGEE
EGMEE
2-EE
Glycol ether EE
Glycol monoethyl ether

Chemical Name French: Éther monoéthylique de l'éthylène glycol
Chemical Name Spanish: 2-Etoxietanol

Trade Name(s):
Dowanol EE
Ektasolve EE

CAS Registry Number: 110-80-5
UN/NA Number(s): 1171
RTECS Number(s): KK8050000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-804-1
Chemical Family: Aliphatic ether alcohol / alkoxy ethanol / aliphatic glycol ether / aliphatic glycol monoether / ethylene glycol ether / ethylene glycol monoether
Molecular Formula: C4-H10-O2
Structural Formula: CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH2-OH

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid (46); mild pleasant, sweetish, ethereal odour (47)

Odour Threshold:
A range of values has been reported. 0.3-24 ppm (detection); 0.54-79 ppm (recognition). Geometric mean odour threshold: 2.7 ppm (detection), 6.5 ppm (recognition) (48)

Warning Properties:
POOR - odour threshold values vary from about being equal to, to being higher than the TLV.

Uses and Occurrences:
2-Ethoxyethanol is used mainly as a chemical intermediate for 2- ethoxyethyl acetate and as a solvent, with particular applications for epoxy and other coatings, nitrocellulose, natural and synthetic resins, lacquers, lacquer thinners, dopes, printing inks, duplicating fluids, and adhesives. Used in dyeing and printing of textiles; in dye baths; for formulating varnish removers and cleaning solutions; in products for the treatment of leather; finishing leather with water pigments and dye solutions; to increase stability of emulsions; mutual solvent for formulation of soluble oils; anti- icing additive for aviation fuels.(7,42,44)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a mild, pleasant, sweetish, ethereal odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. TOXIC. Harmful if inhaled or swallowed. Central nervous system depressant. High vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, vomiting, drowsiness, incoordination and confusion. Extremely high concentrations could result in unconsciousness and death. Causes eye irritation. SUSPECT REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may cause harmful reproductive effects in men and may be harmful to the unborn, based on animal data.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Animal information indicates that 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) could cause central nervous system (CNS) depression at very high exposure levels. Symptoms of central nervous system depression include headache, nausea, dizziness and vomiting. Extremely high concentrations could result in unconsciousness and death. There is no human information available.

Skin Contact:
2-EE is probably a mild skin irritant, based on animal information.
In a study using human volunteers, 2-EE vapour and liquid were readily absorbed through the skin.(56)

Eye Contact:
2-EE is probably a moderate eye irritant, based on animal information. There is no human information available.

Ingestion:
There are no reports of occupational ingestion of 2-EE. Non-occupational accidental ingestion of approximately 40 mL 2-EE caused central nervous system (CNS) effects such as weakness, restlessness and unconsciousness in a woman. Initial observations were swelling in the lungs, rapid breathing, rapid heart beat and muscle spasms. Metabolic acidosis was present. Reversible kidney insufficiency and liver damage occurred during the second and third weeks respectively. The woman reported persistent insomnia, fatigue and paresthesia of the extremities.(8) Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are no confirmed effects of long-term occupational exposure to 2- EE.

BLOOD EFFECTS: Blood effects, such as bone marrow injury and anemia, have been observed in workers exposed to many chemicals, including 2-EE, for several years.(9,10,11) No conclusions can be drawn from these studies because of factors such as multiple exposures, lack of exposure data, lack of a dose-response relationships, small population size, and lack of a comparison group.

IMMUNE SYSTEM EFFECTS: Changes in peripheral blood lymphocytes similar to those found in immunodeficiency and immunogenic forms of aplastic anemia were observed in a small group of workers exposed to organic solvents, including 2-EE.(23) No conclusions can be drawn from this study because the significance of the changes is not known and the study is limited by factors such as multiple concurrent exposures, lack of exposure data and a very small study population size.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no animal or human information available regarding the potential carcinogenicity of 2-EE.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Animal information has conclusively shown that 2-EE causes fetotoxicity, embryotoxicity and teratogenicity at doses which are not harmful to the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Animal information has conclusively shown that 2-EE causes harmful effects to male fertility. Three epidemiological studies have not conclusively proven that 2-EE causes reproductive effects in man, but their results are compatible with the animal information.(28) Observed effects have included an increased prevalence of oligospermia (low sperm count) and azoospermia (absence of sperm).(28,33,34) These studies are limited because of factors such as small study population size, simultaneous exposure to many other chemicals, lack of detailed exposure information and lack of data to support a dose-response relationship.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. In vitro mammalian cell tests have been positive while other short-term tests have been negative.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
Combined exposure to ethanol and 2-EE during pregnancy has resulted in enhanced neurochemical and behavioural effects of 2-EE in rat pups.(35)

Potential for Accumulation:
2-EE is readily absorbed through the lungs, skin and gastrointestinal tract. In laboratory animals, 2-EE is metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid (EAA) (the major metabolite) and 2-ethoxyacetyl glycine and/or ethylene glycol and excreted mainly in the urine (76 to 86% of administered dose). Some 2-EE is excreted as CO2 in the expired air. In humans, the main metabolite was EAA, which was excreted in the urine. However, it was still detectable 12 days after exposure stopped. The retention or accumulation of EAA or other metabolites of 2-EE may be toxicologically significant.(2,7)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective clothing, use the buddy system). Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing is stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration (AR) or, if the heart is stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or is convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240-300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water to dilute material in the stomach. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin AR or CPR immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures expect minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
43 deg C (110 deg F) (closed cup) (45); 44 deg C (111 deg F) (closed cup) (7,42)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.7% at 93 deg C (45)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
15.6% at 93 deg C (45)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
235 deg C (455 deg F) (45)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available. Probably will not accumulate static discharge. The electrical conductivity of glycol ethers is high.

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 43 deg C. Some glycol ethers can form heat sensitive peroxides which could explode in a fire. The rate and extent of this reaction for 2-ethoxyethanol is not known. Can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a flammability and toxicity hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.(47)

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol or polymer foam.(46)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
2-Ethoxyethanol is hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective equipment (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 90.12

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 3.68 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.272 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -70 deg C (-94 deg F) (pour point) (42,47,49); -90 deg C (-130 deg F) (46,50)
Boiling Point: 135 deg C (275 deg F) (2,7,46)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.93 at 20 deg C (water=1) (7)
Solubility in Water: Soluble in all proportions (42,49)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions with ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone and liquid esters (42)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = -0.54 (51)
pH Value: Not available. Probably neutral.
Vapour Density: 3.1 (air=1) (46)
Vapour Pressure: 0.51 kPa (3.8 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (7,46)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 5000 ppm (0.5%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: Low evaporation rate (44) Approximately 0.4 (n-butyl acetate=1).
Critical Temperature: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 2.1 mPa.s (2.1 centipoises) at 20 deg C (49)
SURFACE TENSION: 28.2 mN/m (- 28.2 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (44)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


AIR AND LIGHT - May form explosive peroxides on exposure to light. The rate and extent of this reaction is not known.(52)
OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. hydrogen peroxide) - may react violently with the risk of fire and explosion. May form peroxides which can be explosive.(46,50,52)
STRONG ACIDS or BASES - reaction may be vigorous or violent. Risk of fire. (46)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
Peroxides

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 43 deg C, heat, sparks, open flames, other ignition sources, and sunlight.

Corrosivity to Metals:
One source reports that 2-EE is NOT corrosive to aluminum (corrosion rate less than 0.5 mm/year up to 93 deg C) (57), while another source reports that it is corrosive to aluminum (rate greater than 1.27mm/year at room temperature).(53) 2-EE is not corrosive (corrosion rate less than 0.5 mm/year) to common metals, such as carbon steel, stainless steel (types 304, 316, 347 and 20 Cb 3), cast iron, copper, bronze, aluminum and silicon bronze, brass, nickel, nickel-base alloys, such as Monel, Hastelloy and Inconel, tantalum, titanium and zirconium.(53,57)

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
2-EE attacks plastics, such as acrylonitrile- butadiene-styrene (ABS), polyesters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polysulfone, and elastomers, such as ethylene propylene terpolymer, Viton A, natural rubber, chloroprene, isoprene, neoprene and silicone rubbers.(57,58) It does not attack plastics, such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, (CPVC), nylon, high molecular weight polyethylene, polypropylene, and elastomers, such as butyl rubber, nitrile Buna-N, ethylene-propylene diene (EPDM), polysulfides, and Teflon and other fluorocarbons.(57,58)

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
2-Ethoxyethanol (2-EE) and some other glycol ethers can form explosive peroxides during prolonged storage in contact with air. Formation of peroxides will occur more readily in sunlight. The rate and extent of peroxide formation from 2-EE is not known, but the peroxides are unlikely to be hazardous unless they are concentrated during distillation or allowed to evaporate to dryness.(52)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 2650 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 2000 ppm (7-hour exposure) (36)
LC50 (mouse): 2410 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1820 ppm (7-hour exposure) (5)

LD50 (oral, rat): 2125 mg/kg (1,7)
LD50 (oral, guinea pig): 1400 mg/kg (3)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 3310 mg/kg (cited as 3.56 mL/kg) (3)

Eye Irritation:

In a study designed to compare procedures in established laboratories, eye irritation was evaluated in rabbits using a standard Draize test. Seventy-nine percent of the laboratories rated 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) as an eye irritant. The median scores were 20.8/110 at 24 hours and 7.8/110 after 3 days indicating moderate eye irritancy.(37) In another study, application of 0.1 mL undiluted 2-EE also caused moderate irritation.(38)

Skin Irritation:

In a study designed to compare procedures in established laboratories, skin irritation was evaluated in rabbits by application of 0.5 mL onto a gauze pad taped to shaved skin. Using a scoring method unique to this paper, 2-EE was determined to be non-irritating by 13 laboratories, of questionable irritancy by 3 laboratories and irritating by 0 laboratories.(37) Irritation was also minimal in rabbits exposed to 900-6000 mg/kg in dermal range-finding studies.(4)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Signs of central nervous system depression (difficulty breathing, inactivity, weakness, unconsciousness and death) occurred during 7-hour inhalation exposures of mice to high concentrations (1130-6000 ppm).(5) Guinea pigs exposed to high concentrations (1000-6000 ppm) for up to 24 hours developed congestion and edema of the lungs, distention of the stomach with signs of bleeding and congestion of the kidneys and deaths were observed.(6) Exposure to saturated vapours (approximately 4500 ppm) for 3 hours caused reduced testicular weight and blood in the urine in male rats.(22)

Ingestion:
Severe kidney damage, bleeding of the stomach and intestine have been observed in rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits following oral administration of lethal doses.(39) Oral exposure to 93 or 230 mg/kg (7 doses) produced temporary signs of kidney injury (albuminuria and hematuria) in rabbits. When the dose was increased to 930 mg/kg, death occurred due to kidney injury.(2)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Inhalation exposure to up to 400 ppm for 13 weeks has produced changes in blood components and reduced body weight in rats and rabbits.(12)

Ingestion:
Rats and mice were exposed orally to up to 2000 mg/kg for 103 weeks. A marked reduction in survival, apparently due to stomach ulcers, at 2000 mg/kg resulted in the termination of this exposure after 17 to 18 weeks. Survival of the 1000 mg/kg male rats was also significantly reduced.(15) Rats exposed for 90 days to 520 to 1890 mg/kg 2-EE in drinking water developed altered organ weights and microscopic lesions in the liver and kidneys and reduced growth and appetite at 740 mg/kg. Mortality was observed at 1890 mg/kg.(40)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Exposure to 2-EE by inhalation or ingestion has caused fetotoxicity (e.g. reduced growth in live pups), embryotoxicity (e.g. embryo deaths) and teratogenicity (e.g. skeletal variants and defects) in rats, rabbits and mice at doses which were not maternally toxic.(24,25,27,30-32) Dermal application of 0.25 mL 2-EE 4 times daily to rats during days 7-16 of pregnancy caused profoundly reduced maternal weight gain which may have been influenced by the resorption of litters. Embryotoxicity, teratogenicity and fetotoxicity were also observed.(30,31) Other findings at maternally toxic doses have also been reported. At high doses, regardless of the route of exposure, there was usually complete resorption of litters with no live births.(24-26,29)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Chronic oral exposure has consistently produced testicular atrophy, including sperm effects (decreased spermatids, spermatozoa and spermatocytes and decreased sperm motility) in rats and mice and in rabbits following inhalation exposure.(12,13-15,18-22) In one study, complete infertility resulted from dietary exposure to concentrations which had no toxic effects on the mating pairs. Crossover mating and histological examinations conclusively showed significant male fertility effects.(17)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) RTECS record for ethanol, 2-ethoxy-. Date of last update: 9510.
(2) Gingell, R., et al. Glycol ethers and other selected glycol derivatives. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. 4th ed. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 2761-2965, 2777-2785
(3) Carpenter, C.P., et al. The toxicity of butyl cellosolve solvent. A.M.A. Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 14 (1956). p. 114-131
(4) Daughtrey, W.C., et al. Acute toxicity of dermally applied 2- ethoxyethanol. Toxicologist. Vol. 4 (1984). p. 180
(5) Werner, H.W., et al. The acute toxicity of vapors of several monoalkyl ethers of ethylene glycol. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 25, no. 4 (Apr. 1943). p. 157-163
(6) Waite, C.P., et al. Acute response of guinea pigs to vapors of some new commercial organic compounds. US Public Health Reports. Vol. 45, no. 26 (June 27, 1930). p. 1459-1466
(7) Environmental health criteria 115. 2-Methoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol, and their acetates. World Health Organization, 1990.
(8) Fucik, J. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether intoxication. Pracovni Lekarstvi. Vol. 21, no. 3 (1969). p. 116-118 (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00103891)
(9) Welch, L.S., et al. Effect of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: III. Hematologic effects. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1988). p. 527-536
(10) Sparer, J., et al. Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: I. Evaluation of exposure. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1988). p. 497-507
(11) Cullen, M.R., et al. Bone marrow injury in lithographers exposed to glycol ethers and organic solvents used in multicolour offset and ultraviolet curing printing processes. Archives of Environmental Health. Vol. 38, no. 6 (Nov./Dec. 1983). p. 347-354
(12) Barbee, S.J., et al. Subchronic inhalation toxicology of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether in the rat and rabbit. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 157-163
(13) Morris, H.J., et al. Observations on the chronic toxicities of propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol mono- ethyl-ether, and diethylene glycol mono-ethyl-ether. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeautics. Vol. 74 (Mar. 1942). p. 266-273
(14) Nagano, K., et al. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 75-84
(15) Melnick, R.L. Toxicities of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether in Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 147-155
(16) McGregor, D.B. Genotoxicity of glycol ethers. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 97-103
(17) Lamb, J.C., et al. Reproductive toxicity of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether tested by continuous breeding of CD-1 mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 85-90
(18) Hurtt, M.E., et al. Decreasing epididymal sperm reserves enhances the detection of ethoxyethanol-induced spermatotoxicity. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 7 (1986). p. 348-353
(19) Nagano, K., et al. Mouse testicular atrophy induced by ethylene glycol. Japanese Journal of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 (1979). p. 29-35
(20) Foster, P.M., et al. Testicular toxicity produced by ethylene glycol monomethyl and monoethyl ethers in the rat. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 207-217
(21) Zenick, H., et al. Spermatotoxicity associated with acute and subchronic ethoxyethanol treatment. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 225-231
(22) Doe, J.E. Further studies on the toxicology of the glycol ethers with emphasis on rapid screening and hazard assessment. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 199-206
(23) Denkhaus, W., et al. Lymphocyte subpopulations in solvent-exposed workers. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. Vol. 57 (1986). p. 109-115
(24) Andrew, F.D., et al. Developmental effects after inhalation exposure of gravid rabbits and rats to ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 13-23
(25) Doe, J.E. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate teratology studies. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 33-41
(26) Hardin, B.D., et al. Testing of selected workplace chemicals for teratogenic potential. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 7, suppl. 4 (1981). p. 66-75
(27) Wier, P.J., et al. A comparison of developmental toxicity evident at term to postnatal growth and survival using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, and ethanol. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis. Vol. 7 (1987). p. 55-64
(28) Veulemans, H., et al. Exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and spermatogenic disorders in man: a case-control study. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 50 (1993). p. 71-78
(29) Schuler, R.L., et al. Results of testing fifteen glycol ethers in a short-term in vivo reproductive toxicity assay. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 141-146
(30) Hardin, B.D., et al. Developmental toxicity of four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 69-74
(31) Hardin, B.D., et al. Teratogenicity of 2-ethoxyethanol by dermal application. Drug and Chemical Toxicology. Vol. 5, no. 3 (1982). p. 277-294
(32) Nelson, B.K, et al. Behavioral teratology of ethylene glycol monomethyl and monoethyl ethers. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 43-46
(33) Welch, L.S., et al. Effects of exposure to ethylene glycol ethers on shipyard painters: II. Male reproduction. American Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1988). p. 509-526
(34) Ratcliffe, J.M., et al. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2- ethoxyethanol. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 46 (1989). p. 399-406
(35) Nelson, B.K., et al. Reproductive toxicity of the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol in rats and interactive effects of ethanol. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (1984). p. 255-259
(36) NPIRI Raw Materials Data Handbook. Vol. 1. Organic Solvents. National Printing Ink Research Institute, 1994
(37) Weil, C.S., et al. Study of intra- and interlaboratory variability in the results of rabbit eye and skin irritation tests. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 19 (1971). p. 276-360
(38) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(39) Laug, E.P., et al. The toxicology of some glycols and derivatives. Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. Vol. 21 (1939). p. 173-201
(40) Smyth, H.G. Jr., et al. Range-finding toxicity data: list IV. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine. Vol. 4 (1951). p. 119-122
(41) Galloway, S.M., et al. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster ovary cell evaluations of 108 chemicals. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. Vol. 10, suppl. 10 (1987). p. 1- 175
(42) 2-Ethoxyethanol. In: Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1991. p. 564-566
(43) NIOSH criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and their acetates. US Department of Health and Human Services. Sept. 1991
(44) HSDB record for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Date of last update: 9501
(45) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(46) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 1555D
(47) Emergency action guide for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Association of American Railroads. Mar. 1995
(48) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989. p. 18, 56
(49) Brown, E.S., et al. Glycols: ethylene glycol and propylene glycol. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. Vol. 11. 3rd ed.. John Wiley & Sons, 1980. p. 942-946
(50) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June, 1994. p. 130-131
(51) Leo, A., et al. Partition coefficients and their uses. Chemical Reviews. Vol. 71, no. 6 (Dec. 1971). p. 564
(52) Bretherick, L. Bretherick's handbook of reactive chemical hazards. 5th ed. Vol. 1. p. 583, 1528.1214, 1467. Vol. 2. p. 292-296. Butterworths, 1995
(53) Corrosion data survey. Metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985. p. 56-57
(54) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(55) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(56) Kezic, S., et al. Dermal absorption of vapours and liquid of 2-methoxyethanol and 2-ethoxyethanol in volunteers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 54 (1997). p. 38-43
(57) Schweitzer, P.A. Corrosion resistance tables: metals, nonmetals, coatings, mortars, plastics, elastomers and linings, and fabrics. 4th ed. Part A, A-D. Marcel Dekker, Inc., 1995. p. 709-712
(58) Pruett, K.M. Chemical resistance guide for elastomers II: a guide to chemical resistance of rubber and elastomeric compounds. Compass Publications, 1994. p. C140-C145, C176-C181
(59) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2-Ethoxyethanol. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(60) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Alcohols IV. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1996-03-25

Revision Indicators:
Emergency overview 1996-04-01
Fire hazard 1996-04-01
Sampling 1996-06-01
Skin (acute toxicity) 1997-09-01
US transport 1998-03-01
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Stability 2002-06-24
Materials to avoid 2002-06-24
Conditions to avoid 2002-06-24
Stability/reactivity comments 2002-06-24
NFPA (health) 2003-04-16
Carcinogenicity 2003-07-03
WHMIS health effects 2003-07-03
Corrosivity to metals 2003-07-08
Corrosivity to non-metals 2003-07-08
WHMIS detailed classification 2003-07-08
PEL transitional comments 2003-11-21
PEL-TWA final 2003-11-21
PEL final comments 2003-11-21
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-03
WHMIS proposed classification 2005-01-05
Handling 2005-01-05
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-03-04
Bibliography 2005-03-04
Sampling/analysis 2005-03-04



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