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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 36
CCOHS Chemical Name: 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate

Synonyms:
Acetic acid, 2-ethoxyethyl ester
2-EEA
EGEEA
2-Ethoxyethanol acetate
Ethylene glycol ethyl ether acetate
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate
Ethylglycol acetate
Ethoxyethyl acetate (non-specific name)
Glycol ether EE acetate
Glycol monoethyl ether acetate
Acetate de 2-ethoxyethyle

Chemical Name French: Acétate d'éthylglycol
Chemical Name Spanish: Acetato de 2-etoxietilo

Trade Name(s):
Cellosolve acetate

CAS Registry Number: 111-15-9
UN/NA Number(s): 1172
RTECS Number(s): KK8225000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-839-2
Chemical Family: Aliphatic glycol ether carboxylic acid ester / aliphatic glycol monoether acetate / aliphatic glycol monoether acetate / ethylene glycol ether acetate / alkoxy ethyl ester / alkoxy ethyl acetate
Molecular Formula: C6-H12-O3
Structural Formula: CH2-C(=O)-O-CH2-CH2-O-CH2-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with a pleasant, sweet, ester-like odour, which becomes objectionable in high concentrations.(8,17,18)

Odour Threshold:
0.06 ppm (detection); 0.13 ppm (recognition) (18)

Warning Properties:
GOOD - TLV is more than 10 times the odour threshold.

Uses and Occurrences:
Used as a solvent for nitrocellulose, oils and natural and synthetic resins. Also, used in automobile lacquers to retard evaporation and blushing, and impart high gloss, wood stains and varnish removers, and in products for the treatment of textiles and leathers.(8,17,19)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid with a pleasant, sweet, ester-like odour, which becomes objectionable at high concentrations. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. SUSPECT REPRODUCTIVE HAZARD - may harm male and female fertility and cause fetotoxic effects, based on animal data.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Based on comparison to other glycol ethers, 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA) may cause central nervous (CNS) depression at high exposure levels. Symptoms of CNS depression include headache, nausea, dizziness and vomiting. Extremely high concentrations could result in unconsciousness and death. There is no human information available.
Animal evidence suggests that kidney injury could occur following short-term, very high-level exposures.

Skin Contact:
2-EEA is a non-irritant to very mild skin irritant, based on animal information. 2-EEA can be absorbed through the skin, but health effects are not expected to occur by this route of exposure. No human information was located.

Eye Contact:
2-EEA is a very mild eye irritant, based on animal information. No human information was located.

Ingestion:
There are no reports of ingestion of 2-EEA. Non-occupational accidental ingestion of a related chemical (2-ethoxyethanol) has caused symptoms of CNS depression, as described for "Inhalation" above, and metabolic acidosis. Animal evidence indicates that a short-term, high level exposure may result in kidney damage. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

There are no reports of effects following long-term occupational exposure to 2-EEA.
Some authors have tried to relate certain blood and immune system effects to a related chemical (2-ethoxyethanol). However, limitations in the study design, such as multiple exposures, lack of exposure data and lack of a dose-response relationship do not allow any conclusions to be drawn.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has not assigned a carcinogenicity designation to this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. Animal evidence has shown that 2-EEA is fetotoxic to rats and rabbits at doses which are not harmful to the mother. One other study has also concluded that there was embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the absence of maternal toxicity. However, firm conclusions cannot be made from this study since the investigation of maternal toxicity appears to be incomplete.

Reproductive Toxicity:
Animal studies have shown that 2-EEA can cause reduced female fertility and testicular and sperm effects in males. In a case-control study, the presence of a 2-EEA metabolite in the urine of 45 patients was highly significantly associated with the diagnosis of impaired fertility.(1) However, no conclusions can be drawn from this study due to limitations such as possible selection biases, the small number of people studied, and the lack of exposure history.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been obtained in studies using live animals, cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
One study has shown that the oral administration of 2-EEA and acetone to rats results in reduced, rather than increased, toxicity.(2)

Potential for Accumulation:
2-EEA is quickly metabolized to 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE).(3) In laboratory animals, 2-EE is metabolized to ethoxyacetic acid (the major metabolite) and 2- ethoxyacetyl glycine and/or ethylene glycol and excreted mainly in the urine (76-86% of administered dose). Some 2-EEA is excreted as carbon dioxide in expired air.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Suspect reproductive hazard. Take proper precautions to ensure your own safety before attempting rescue (e.g. wear appropriate protective equipment). Remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air. Obtain medical advice.

Skin Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical resistant protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, flush contaminated area with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed. Under running water, remove contaminated clothing, shoes, and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Obtain medical advice. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical resistant gloves, if necessary. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes, or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice.

Ingestion:
NEVER give anything by mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness or is unconscious or convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 8 to 10 ozs (240 to 300 mL) of water to dilute material in stomach. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim rinse mouth and repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). /Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
47 deg C (117 deg F) (closed cup) (20); 52 deg C (124 deg F) (closed cup) (21)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
1.7% (21)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
10.1% (22); 19.4% (21)

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
380 deg C (716 deg F) (20)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
Information not available

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Can form explosive mixtures with air at, or above, 47 deg C. During a fire irritating/toxic gases may be formed. Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to fire or excessive heat for a sufficient length of time.

Extinguishing Media:
Dry chemical powder, carbon dioxide, alcohol foam, polymer foam, water spray or fog.(23)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to heat of fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours, protect personnel attempting to stop a leak and to dilute the spill to a nonflammable mixture. Water spray may be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material. For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles. If this is not possible, withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
2-Ethoxyethyl acetate and its decomposition products may be hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized protective equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical resistant clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 2 - Intense or continued (but not chronic) exposure could cause temporary incapacitation or possible residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 132.16

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 5.39 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.185 ppm at 25 deg C (calculated)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -61.7 deg C (-79 deg F) (21,22,24)
Boiling Point: 156.4 deg C (313.5 deg F) (8,22)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.975 at 20 deg C (water = 1) (8,24)
Solubility in Water: Soluble (23 g/100 g water at 20 deg C) (8,17,19)
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in all proportions in ethanol, diethyl ether, aromatic hydrocarbons, olive oil; soluble in acetone.(17,24)
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Log P(oct) = 0.24 (measured) (19)
pH Value: Not available
Vapour Density: 4.72 (air = 1) (17,21)
Vapour Pressure: 0.3 kPa (2.25 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (25)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 2960 ppm (0.296%) at 20 deg C (calculated)
Evaporation Rate: 0.20 (n-butyl acetate = 1); 57 (diethyl ether = 1) (25)
Critical Temperature: 334 deg C (633 deg F) (17)

Other Physical Properties:
VISCOSITY-DYNAMIC: 1.35 mPa.s (1.35 centipoises) at 20 deg C (25)
VISCOSITY-KINEMATIC: 1.38 mm2/m (1.38 centistokes) at 20 deg C (calculated)
SURFACE TENSION: 31.8 mN/m (31.8 dynes/cm) at 25 deg C (21)
CRITICAL PRESSURE: 3040 kPa (30 atm.) (17)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable to heat, light, air and water.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. perchlorates, nitrates, peroxides) - reaction may be violent. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(23)
ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid) - can hydrolyse to form acetic acid and alcohol. Reaction may be violent.(23)
BASES (e.g. alkalies such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide) - can hydrolyse to form acetate salt and alcohol. Reaction may be violent.(23)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported

Conditions to Avoid:
Temperatures above 47 deg C (117 deg F)

Corrosivity to Metals:
Specific information is not available. Probably not corrosive. The closely related 2-methoxyethyl acetate is not corrosive to cast iron, steel, stainless steel, copper and its alloys, nickel and its alloys and aluminum.(26)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): 3170 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 12.1 mg/L (8-hour exposure) (heated vapour) (31); 2120 ppm (4-hour exposure); cited as 1500 ppm (8-hour exposure) (form unspecified) (4, unconfirmed)
NOTE: The saturation vapour concentration is approximately 3000 ppm at 20 deg C.

LD50 (oral, rat): 5100 mg/kg (5)
LD50 (oral, male rat): 3900 mg/kg (6)
LD50 (oral, female rat): 2900 mg/kg (6)
LD50 (oral, rabbit): 1950 mg/kg (5)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): 10300 mg/kg (24 hours, under cover) (5)

Eye Irritation:

2-Ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA) is a very mild eye irritant.

Application of 0.1 mL of 100% 2-EAA caused very mild irritation in rabbits (modified maximum average 15/110). (34) Application of 2-EEA was not irritating to rabbits.(6) Application of 0.1 mL of undiluted 2-EEA caused moderate injury (scored up to 5 where 5 is severe injury; graded 3/10) in rabbits.(35)

Skin Irritation:

2-EEA is a non-irritant to very mild skin irritant.

Application of 0.5 mL of 2-EEA for 4 hours under a patch to intact skin caused no irritation in rabbits.(36) Following application of 2-EEA, very slight redness was produced in 2/6 rabbits at 24 hours and disappeared after 72 hours.(6)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Short-term exposure by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact has resulted in hemoglobin, ketone bodies and blood in the urine in several animal species. Autopsy has shown kidney injury and blood in the bladder.

Inhalation:
Rats and rabbits survived a 4-hour exposure to air saturated with 2-EEA aerosols (cited as 2000 ppm). Hemoglobin and/or blood was observed in the urine of the rabbits, but disappeared in 24 to 48 hours. No lesions were found during autopsy.(6) Mice, guinea pigs, and a rabbit appeared unaffected by 12 8-hour exposures to 450 ppm. However, two cats and another rabbit died before the end of the exposure period. Protein in the urine and kidney injury were observed.(7,8)

Skin Contact:
In a lethal dose study, rabbits were dermally exposed to 2-EEA for 24 hours. Symptoms included blood, ketone bodies and hemoglobin in the urine and decreased red and white blood cells. Kidney injury and blood in the bladder were noted upon autopsy.(6)

Ingestion:
Rats orally administered 3900 mg/kg (males) or 2900 mg/kg (females) had hemoglobin, ketone bodies and blood in their urine. Upon autopsy, blood in the kidneys and bladder were observed.(6) No effects on the immune system were observed in rats exposed to 2-EEA.(9)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats and rabbits were exposed by inhalation to 200 ppm of 2-EEA daily for 10 months. No effects were noted during exposure. Upon autopsy, slight kidney injury was observed in all rabbits and male rats.(6) No effects were observed in 3 dogs exposed to 600 ppm for 120 days.(5)

Ingestion:
Male mice were orally administered 500 to 4000 mg/kg for 5 weeks. White blood cell counts were significantly decreased in groups receiving more than 2000 mg/kg.(10,11)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Fetotoxicity has been observed in rats and rabbits following inhalation exposure, in the absence of maternal toxicity.(14,15)
Rabbits were exposed to 25, 100 or 400 ppm on days 6-18 of pregnancy. Maternal toxicity (decreased body weight and blood cell effects) occurred at 400 ppm. No maternal toxicity was noted at 25 or 100 ppm. Embryotoxicity (post-implantation loss), teratogenicity (external and visceral defects) and fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight) were observed at 400 ppm. Fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight and minor skeletal variants) was also observed at 100 ppm.(14) In another study, rats were exposed to 130, 390 or 600 ppm on days 7-15 of pregnancy. The authors reported that there was no overt toxicity was noted in the mothers, however the only aspect investigated appeared to be weight gain. Complete embryolethality occurred at 600 ppm and significant embryolethality and fetotoxicity (reduced fetal weight) occurred at 390 ppm. Teratogenicity (visceral malformations of the heart and umbilicus and rib malformations) were observed at 390 ppm.(15) The effects seen at 600 ppm cannot be evaluated since it is not clear that maternal toxicity was fully investigated. In a similarly designed study, significant maternal toxicity (e.g. blood changes, decreased weight gain and increased liver weights) was observed in rabbits exposed to 100, 200 or 300 ppm.(4) Embryotoxicity (embryo deaths), teratogenicity (e.g. cardiovascular and/or skeletal malformations) and/or fetotoxicity (reduced weight gain) have also been observed in other studies in rats and rabbits exposed by skin contact and/or inhalation at maternally toxic doses.(4,16)

Reproductive Toxicity:
Reduced fertility has been observed in female mice and testicular and sperm effects in male mice.(10-13)
Male mice were orally administered 500 to 4000 mg/kg for 5 weeks. A dose- dependant decrease in testicular weight was observed at 1000 mg/kg and above. A reduction in the number of spermatozoa, spermatids and spermatocytes were also noted at 1000 to 4000 mg/kg.(10,11) Mice fed up to 3000 mg/kg in drinking water in a continuous breeding study showed in significant decrease in fertility. Crossover breeding showed a significant effect in the females, but not males. Effects on sperm parameters, and testes weights were reported in males. Prominent changes in the testicular cells of second generation mice were also significant.(12,13)

Mutagenicity:
Negative results have been obtained in several studies using mammalian cells (mouse bone marrow in vivo, and Chinese hamster ovary cells in vitro) and in bacteria using the Ames test, with and without metabolic activation.(13)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Veulemans, H., et al. Exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and spermatogenic disorders in man: a case-control study. British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 50, no. 1 (Jan. 1993). p. 71-78
(2) Pozzani, U.C., et al. The toxicological basis of threshold limit values: 5. The experimental inhalation of vapor mixtures by rats, with notes upon relationship between single dose inhalation and single dose oral data. Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 20 (Oct. 1959). p. 364-369
(3) Anonymous. Notice of intent to establish: 2-ethoxyethanol (EGEE) and 2- ethoxyethyl acetate (EGEEA). Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 8, no. 5 (May 1993). p. 510-515
(4) Tyl, R.W., et al. Developmental toxicity evaluation of inhaled 2-ethoxyethanol acetate in Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 1 (Jan. 1988). p. 20-39
(5) Carpenter, C.P. Cellosolve. Note. Journal of the American Medical Association. Vol. 135 (Nov. 29, 1947). p. 880
(6) Truhaut, R., et al. Comparative toxicological study of ethylglycol acetate and butylglycol acetate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 51, no. 1 (Oct. 1979). p. 117-127
(7) Gingell, R., et al. Glycol ethers and other selected glycol derivatives: ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th ed. Edited by G.D. Clayton, et al. Vol. II. Toxicology. Part D. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1994. p. 2921-2925
(8) 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate. In: Documentation of threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. 6th ed. American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists, 1991
(9) Smialowicz, R.J., et al. Comparative immunosupression of various glycol ethers orally administered to Fischer 344 rats. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 18, no. 4 (May 1992). p. 621-627
(10) Nagano, K., et al. Mouse testicular atrophy induced by ethylene glycol monoalkyl ethers. Japan Journal of Industrial Health. Vol. 21 (1979). p. 29-35. (English translation: NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00113532)
(11) Nagano, K., et al. Experimental studies on toxicity of ethylene glycol alkyl ethers in Japan. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 75-84
(12) Morrissey, R.E., et al. Results and evaluations of 48 continuous breeding reproduction studies conducted in mice. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 13, no. 4 (Nov. 1989). p. 747-777.
(13) The toxicity of glycol ethers and its relevance to man. ECETOC Technical Report No. 64. European Chemical Industry Ecology and Toxicology Centre, Aug. 1995
(14) Doe, J.E. Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate teratology studies. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 33-41
(15) Nelson, B.K., et al. Comparative inhalation teratogenicity of three glycol ether solvents in rats. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. [n.d.] (NIOSHTIC Control Number: 00170467)
(16) Hardin, B.D., et al. Developmental toxicity for four glycol ethers applied cutaneously to rats. Environmental Health Perspectives. Vol. 57 (Aug. 1984). p. 69-74
(17) HSDB record for ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate. Last revision date: 97/05/01
(18) Odor thresholds for chemicals with established occupational health standards. American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989
(19) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1996
(20) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(21) Sullivan, D.A. Solvents, industrial. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 22. John Wiley and Sons, 1997. p. 542- 543, 552, 565
(22) Rebsdat, S, et al. Ethylene glycol. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th completely revised ed. Vol. A 10. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1987. p. 109-115
(23) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Ed. II. Vol. 1. Sigma- Aldrich, 1988
(24) Dean, J.A. Lange's handbook of chemistry. 14th ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. p. 1.200, 5.106
(25) Stoye, D., et al. Solvents. In: Ullman's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. 5th revised ed. Vol. A 24. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1993. p. 448-453, 481, 485, 493-494
(26) Corrosion data survey: metals section. 6th ed. National Association of Corrosion Engineers, 1985
(27) NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1997
(28) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(29) European Economic Community. Commission Directive 93/72/EEC. Sept. 1, 1993
(30) RTECS database record for ethanol, 2-ethoxy-, acetate. Last updated 1997-10
(31) Pozzani, U.C., et al. The toxicological basis of threshold limit values: 5. The experimental inhalation of vapor mixtures by rats, with notes upon the relationship between single dose inhalation and single dose oral data. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. Vol. 20 (1959). p. 364-369
(32) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). 2-Methoxyethanol, 2-Methoxyethyl Acetate, 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-Ethoxyethyl Acetate. In: OSHA Analytical Methods Manual. Revision Date: Oct. 31, 2001. Available at: <www.osha-slc.gov/dts/sltc/methods/toc.html>
(33) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Esters I. In: NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM(R)). 4th ed. Edited by M.E. Cassinelli, et al. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication 94-113. Aug. 1994. Available at: <www.cdc.gov/niosh/nmam/nmammenu.html>
(34) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). Eye irritation Reference Chemicals Data Bank. 2nd ed. Technical Report No. 48 (2). ECETOC, June 1998. p. 22-23
(35) Carpenter, C.P., et al. Chemical burns of the rabbit cornea. American Journal of Ophthalmology. Vol. 29 (1946). p. 1363-1372
(36) Zissu, D. Experimental study of cutaneous tolerance to glycol ethers. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 32, no. 2 (1995). p. 74-77

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1998-03-23

Revision Indicators:
TLV comments 1998-08-01
Emergency overview 2000-08-01
Acute exposure (ingestion) 2000-08-01
First aid (ingestion) 2000-08-01
PEL-TWA transitional 2003-12-19
PEL transitional comments 2003-12-19
PEL-TWA final 2003-12-19
PEL final comments 2003-12-19
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-04-06
Bibliography 2005-04-01
Passive Sampling Devices 2005-04-01
Sampling/analysis 2005-04-01
Bibliography 2006-01-18
Toxicological info 2006-02-20
Short-term skin contact 2006-02-20
Short-term eye contact 2006-02-20
WHMIS detailed classification 2006-02-20
OSHA hazcom 2006-02-20



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