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CHEMINFO Record Number: 773
CCOHS Chemical Name: Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-based epoxy resins, medium to high molecular weight solids

Bisphenol A/epichlorohydrin based epoxy resins (non-specific name)
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (non-specific name)
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with 2,2'-[(1- methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane]
Polymer of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin
Polymer of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and bisphenol A
Medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins

Trade Name(s):
D.E.R. 664-E Solid Epoxy Resin
D.E.R. 667 Epoxy Resin
D.E.R. 669-E Epoxy Resin
Epon 1004F
Epon 1007F
Epon 1009F
Epon 2002
Epi-Rez 530-C
Epi-Rez 540-C
Araldite GT 7014
Araldite GT 6097

CAS Registry Number: 25036-25-3
Chemical Family: Epoxy resin / aromatic polyglycidyl ether / bisphenol A epoxy resin / epichlorohydrin epoxy resin
Molecular Formula: Polymer mixture
Structural Formula: Polymer mixture


Appearance and Odour:
Pale yellow, odourless, solid flakes.(35)

Odour Threshold:

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA)-based epoxy resins are complex mixtures which contain varying amounts of high molecular weight polymers of DGEBPA (CAS 25036-25-3). Very few commercial products are pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3). Nevertheless, in some cases, suppliers or manufacturers have used the monomer CAS Registry Number for products that actually contain complex polymer mixtures of DGEBPA. Interpretation and evaluation of the information on DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is complicated by the fact that these materials are complex mixtures; it is not always clear exactly which material is being studied; and the CAS Registry Numbers and names of the materials are, at times, used interchangeably. This CHEMINFO profile reviews information available for medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (CAS 25036-25-3; molecular weight 1400-8000). When available and as applicable, the exact material studied is identified by its specific trade name. For information on low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 600-1400), low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 560) or pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3) refer to relevant CHEMINFO reviews. In many cases, other ingredients, such as curing agents, additives, solvents, reactive diluents, fillers and other common epoxy formulating agents, will also be present in epoxy resin mixtures. These ingredients may contribute significantly to the physical properties and overall hazards of the product. For specific information on the product you are using, consult the manufacturer/supplier for advice.

Uses and Occurrences:
Epoxy resins based on glycidyl ethers are used in protective coatings, including waterborne coatings, solventless coatings, high solids coatings and powder coatings, decorative and protective coatings for automobiles, coal tar pitch modified coatings, reinforced plastics, structural composites, including pipes, vessels, electrical, aerospace and sporting goods applications; electrical laminates, moulding components, bonding materials and adhesives, sealants, patching compounds, flooring, paving and aggregates, tins and closures, boats and ships, appliances, piping and miscellaneous metal decoration, fibre-reinforced laminates, encapsulants and grouting compounds, tooling, casting and moulding resins.(9,31)


Pale yellow, odourless, solid flakes. POTENTIAL COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARD. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. Causes eye irritation. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic skin reaction.


Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

For most workers, exposure to medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is probably not harmful following short-term exposure, based on limited animal information for this material and related compounds. High concentrations of dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation. In very rare cases, medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins may cause an allergic respiratory reaction like asthma. Refer to "Effects of Long- term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.

Skin Contact:
Medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not irritating to the skin, based on animal information. Medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins may cause skin sensitization, based on human information. These materials may cause a severe allergic skin reaction in sensitized individuals, even following very brief contact. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.
Based on limited animal toxicity data, medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are probably not absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.

Eye Contact:
Medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are moderate eye irritants, based on animal information. Some tearing, blinking and mild, temporary pain may occur as the solid material is rinsed from the eye by tears.

There is no human information available. Animal toxicity information suggests that medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not harmful following ingestion. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
There is no specific information on the respiratory sensitization potential of medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based resins. In a very small number of cases (three people), low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have caused respiratory sensitization in humans occupationally exposed.(17,20,48) Medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins can contain low molecular weight resins or monomers.

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated skin contact may cause allergic skin sensitization in some individuals. Once a person is sensitized to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This reaction can spread from the point of contact (usually the hands or arms) to other parts of the body.
Numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported in people occupationally exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and in animal studies following exposure to pure DGEBPA and low to medium molecular weight DGEBPA- based epoxy resins. Low molecular weight resins appear to be the true sensitizers.(13-19,21,26,41-47) However, skin sensitization has also been produced in humans exposed to higher molecular weight resins, which sometimes contain small amounts of lower molecular weight resins or the monomer.(16,19)
Thirty-four patients who had developed occupational contact dermatitis following exposure to low molecular weight epoxy resins were patch tested with DGEBPA-based epoxy resins of various molecular weights. Eight patients tested with resins with higher average molecular weights (1280 and 1850) showed positive reactions. These higher molecular weight resins were later found to contain small amounts of the low molecular weight resin, a known sensitizer. Previous history of allergies was not discussed for any of the patients.(16) Another report describes two cases where workers developed occupational dermal sensitization to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (molecular weights 1500-2000) which also contained the low molecular weight oligomer (340). Previous history of allergy was not reported. This type of sensitization is thought to be rare.(19)

Endocrine System:
Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from one study that also involved exposure to organic solvents. In this study, 42 male epoxy sprayers who worked with hardening agents containing 10-30% DGEBPA for at least 3 hrs/day (duration unspecified) were compared to 82 unexposed controls. Exposure was to DGEBPA with mixed organic solvents including toluene, xylene, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol and methyl isobutyl ketone. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (a metabolite of DGEBPA) were increased and plasma FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) concentrations were decreased, but still within the normal range. Plasma testosterone and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) levels were normal. The authors speculated that bisphenol A may interfere with pituitary FSH secretion, but the clinical importance of the reported findings remains unclear.(29)

OTHER EFFECTS: Skin irritation and rashes, muscle and joint disorders and central nervous system and respiratory disturbances have been reported in workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, as well as several other potentially harmful chemicals.(10,11,26,27) It is not possible to say that the DGEBPA-based epoxy resins alone cause these effects, because of the exposures to other potentially harmful chemicals at the same time.


There is no human information available. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,40)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. No significant effects have been observed in animal studies following oral or skin exposure to pure DGEBPA or low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, even in the presence of significant toxicity in the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific human or animal information available for medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. No reproductive effects were observed in one animal study following oral exposure to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.

The available information suggests the medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic. Negative results have been obtained in a small number of workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.(24,25) No conclusions can be drawn from one other report due to insufficient information.(2) Negative results were also obtained in cultured human lymphocytes tested with an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin and "distilled" DGEBPA (28) and in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no animal or human information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are poorly absorbed into the body. In animals, DGEBPA is rapidly excreted as metabolites in the urine and feces.(2,12)


If symptoms are experienced, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air and obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
This material is a skin sensitizer. Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods. Do not re-use.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eyes.

If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.
NOTE: DGEBPA-based epoxy resins often contain other ingredients which may contribute significantly to the overall toxicity of the product. The overall hazards of the product, e.g. potential aspiration hazards of the solvent component, must be considered when developing first aid guidelines.


Flash Point:
Not applicable; decomposes before flashing.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion or pyrolysis may produce phenolics, and possibly also aldehydes, acids and other unidentified toxic organic compounds.(35)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
These epoxy resins will not burn, since they decompose before igniting. However, the thermal decomposition products may be combustible and during a fire, toxic/irritating compounds may be formed. Decomposition may occur under fire conditions and closed containers can explode and rupture violently if heated. In addition, the presence of flammable or combustible solvents in the epoxy resin products constitute a fire and explosion hazard and require special precautions. Some of the solvents, fillers and additives may form hazardous decomposition products in a fire.

Extinguishing Media:
This epoxy resin does not burn. Use extinguishing media suitable for the surrounding fire. Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, foam, water spray or fog may be used.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid DGEBPA and its toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks, equipment or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion. Water can be used in the form of spray or fog to prevent dust formation.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and their thermal decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.


NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


Molecular Weight: 1400-8000 (31,35,36,37)

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 120-155 deg C (257-311 deg F) (31,36,37)
Boiling Point: Not applicable
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.18-1.19 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (37,38)
Solubility in Water: Negligible
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acetone and aromatic solvents such as benzene.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Zero
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Negligible
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
METTLER SOFTENING POINT: 98-135 deg C (208.4-275 deg F) (35)


Stable at normal temperatures.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Information not available.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.

STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, permanganates) - reaction may be violent. Risk of fire and explosion.
STRONG MINERAL ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) or BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react vigorously with the evolution of heat.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trifluoride) or LEWIS BASES (e.g. N,N- dimethylbenzylamine) - may cause homopolymerization, with the evolution of heat.(36,38)
AMINES (e.g. diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine) - reactive curing agents.(36,38)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of dust. If dust is present, avoid electrostatic discharge, sparks, heat, open flames and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information available. Probably not corrosive to metals.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No information available.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Reactions with curing agents may release considerable heat. Smoke or toxic fumes may form if the heat of reaction becomes excessive due to high curing temperatures or the curing of large amounts of material.(35)


LD50 (oral, rat): 30000 mg/kg (EPON 1007; molecular weight 2900) (27)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 20000 mg/kg (EPON 1007) (27)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 23500 mg/kg (cited as 20 mL/kg) (an unspecified commercial DGEBPA-based epoxy resin) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Application of 0.1 mL of a 20% solution of a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1007) in propylene glycol produced moderate irritation (scored 41/110).(27)

Skin Irritation:

A single 24-hour application of an unspecified amount of a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1007) produced no irritation (scored 0/8).(27)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Rats exposed to the concentrated vapour of an unspecified commercial DGEBPA- based epoxy resin for 8 hours did not die.(1) It is not possible to draw any conclusions from this study because the molecular weight and name of the epoxy resin were not specified.

Signs observed in rats in LD50 studies following ingestion of doses up to 30000 mg/kg of a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1007) have included moderate depression, slight difficulty breathing, diarrhea and weight loss.(27)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Rats were exposed to 150 mg/m3 of a solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (Epikote dusting powder containing 60 parts weight of Epikote 1055) for 3 weeks. No changes occurred to indicate any effect other than that of a nuisance dust.(4, unconfirmed) It is not known if this material was a low or medium to high molecular weight solid.

No significant effects were observed in male rats fed 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0% of a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1007) in their diets for 26 weeks.(27)

Skin Sensitization:
Female guinea pigs were exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins of different molecular weights. The animals were sensitized using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test, both with and without Freund's adjuvant. None of the animals exposed to the epoxy resin with a molecular weight of 1850 were sensitized.(22) The monomer and low to medium molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are well known to cause skin sensitization in animals.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has reviewed the available studies and determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,40)
In one study, mice were dermally exposed to 15 or 75 mg/week (3 applications/week) of a modified commercial resin of DGEBPA in acetone for two years. A weak carcinogenic response (skin) was observed in one strain of mice tested.(6) It was subsequently reported that the resin sample used contained a high percentage of contaminants (including epichlorohydrin, a known carcinogen). Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn from this study. In a follow-up study, 3 comparable DGEBPA-based epoxy resins were evaluated following a similar study design. None of the resins produced skin or systemic tumours in the test animals.(2,12) Other studies with mice have either not shown a carcinogenic response following oral or dermal exposure to various DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, or have had inadequacies in the study design which do not allow conclusions to be drawn.(1,2,5,7,8,12)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
There is no specific information available for medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. Studies involving the monomer or low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (Araldite GY 250 and TK 10490) have not shown teratogenicity, fetotoxicity and embryotoxicity in rats and rabbits exposed orally or dermally, even at maternally toxic doses.(2,12,23)

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no specific information available for medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. No reproductive effects were observed in male or female rats in a study using low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (Araldite GY 250 and TK 10490).(2,12)

The limited information available suggests that medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic.
Negative results were obtained for a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPIKOTE 1007) in cultured mammalian cells (rat liver cells and baby hamster kidney cells).(3)
Negative results were obtained for a medium to high molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPIKOTE 1007) in bacteria.(3)


Selected Bibliography:
(1) Weil, C.S., et al. Experimental carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of representative epoxides. American Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24 (July-Aug. 1963). p. 305-325
(2) Gardiner, T.H., et al. Glycidyloxy compounds used in epoxy resin systems: a toxicology review. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Apr. 1992). Part 2 of 2. p. S1-S77
(3) Brooks, T.M., et al. Toxicity studies with epoxy resins: in vitro genotoxicity studies with and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, EPIKOTE 828, EPIKOTE 1001 AND EPIKOTE 1007. Shell Oil Company, Apr. 1981. EPA/OTS 878210037. NTIS/OTS844003A.
(4) Review of toxicology on epoxy resins based on bisphenol A with attachment and cover sheet. Shell Oil Company, Dec. 1986. EPA/OTS 86-880000295. NTIS/OTS0514177.
(5) Hine, C.H., et al. An investigation of the oncogenic activity of two representative epoxy resins. Cancer Research. Vol. 18 (Jan. 1958). p. 20-26
(6) Holland, J.M., et al. Epidermal carcinogenicity of bis(2,3-epoxycyclopentyl)ether, 2,2-bis(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)propane, and m-phenylenediamine in male and female C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (May 1979). p. 1718-1725
(7) Peristianis, G.C., et al. Two-year carcinogenicity study on three aromatic epoxy resins applied cutaneously to CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 7 (1988). p. 611-624
(8) Zakova, N., et al. Evaluation of skin carcinogenicity of technical 2,2- bis-(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)-propane in CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 12 (1985). p. 1081-1089
(9) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some glycidyl ethers. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting. Vol. 47. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 237-261
(10) Tomizawa, T., et al. Scleroderma-like skin changes observed among workers handling epoxy resins. Proceeding of the XV International Congress of Dermatology, Mexico City, Oct. 16-21, 1977. p. 271-275
(11) Cragle, D., et al. An occupational morbidity study of a population potentially exposed to epoxy resins, hardeners and solvents. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 7, no. 12 (Dec. 1992). p. 826-834
(12) Waechter, J.M., Jr., et al. Epoxy compounds - aromatic diglycidyl ethers, polyglycidyl ethers, glycidyl esters, and miscellaneous epoxy compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 1087-1145
(13) Jolanki, R., et al. Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 23 (1990). p. 172-183
(14) Jolanki, R. Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds. Epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates, and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Suppl. 159 (1991). p. 1-80
(15) Niinimaki, A., et al. An outbreak of epoxy dermatitis in insulation workers at an electrical power station. Dermatosen. Vol. 31, no. 1 (1983). p. 23-25
(16) Fregert, S., et al. Patch testing with low molecular oligomers of epoxy resins in humans. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3 (1977). p. 301-303
(17) Kanerva, L., et al. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct. 1994). p. 229-235
(18) Burrows, D., et al. Contact dermatitis from epoxy resins, tetraglycidal-4,4'-methylene dianiline and o-diglycidyl phthalate in composite material. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 11, no. 2 (Aug. 1984). p. 80-82
(19) Bokelund, F., et al. Sensitization from epoxy resin powder of high molecular weight. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 2 (1980). p. 144
(20) Kanerva, L., et al. Immediate and delayed allergy from epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (Mar. 1991). p. 208-215
(21) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Sensitization capacity of epoxy resin oligomers in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 58 (1978). p. 17-21
(22) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Allergenicity of epoxy resins in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 57, no. 3 (1977). p. 253-256
(23) Breslin, W.J., et al. Teratogenic evaluation of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) in New Zealand white rabbits following dermal exposure. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 4 (May 1988). p. 736-743
(24) Mitelman, F., et al. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins has no cytogenetic effect. Mutation Research. Vol. 77, no. 4 (1980). p. 345-348
(25) de Jong, G., et al. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations. Mutation Research. Vol. 204 (1988). p. 451-464
(26) Grandjean, E. The danger of dermatoses due to cold-setting ethoxyline resins (epoxide resins). British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1957). p. 1-4
(27) Hine, C.H., et al. The toxicology of epoxy resins. American Medical Association Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 7 (1958). p. 129-144
(28) Pullen, T.G. Integrated mutagenicity testing program on several epoxy compounds. Dow Chemical Company, Dec. 1977. EPA/OTS 87-8214859. NTIS/OTS0206671.
(29) Hanaoka, T., et al. Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 59, no. 9 (Sept. 2002). p. 635-628
(30) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol A. In: OSHA Chemical Sampling Information. Revision Date: Nov. 7, 2002.. Available at: <>
(31) Gannon, J. Epoxy resins. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 730-755
(32) Fire protection handbook. 17th ed. National Fire Protection Association, 1991
(33) Grossel, S.S. Safety considerations in conveying of bulk solids and powders. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries. Vol. 1 (Apr. 1988). p. 62-74
(34) Field, P. Explosibility assessment of industrial powders and dusts. Building Research Establishment, 1983
(35) Dow epoxy resins: product stewardship manual: safe handling and storage. The Dow Chemical Company, 1994
(36) McAdams, L.V., et al. Epoxy resins. In: Encyclopedia of polymer science and engineering. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 1986. p. 322-382
(37) Shell resins and related products physical properties guide. Shell Chemical Company. [nd]
(38) Muskopf, J.W., et al. Epoxy resins. In: Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Vol. A 9. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 1987. p. 547-563
(39) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(40) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Vol. 71, parts 1, 2 and 3. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC, 1999
(41) Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (DECOS). Bisphenol A and its diglycidylether. Publication No. 1996/02WGD. Health Council of the Netherlands, 1996
(42) Bruze, M., et al. Occupational dermatoses in a Swedish aircraft plant. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 34 (1996). p. 336-340
(43) Kanerva, L., et al. Patch-test reactions to plastic and glue allergens. Acta Derm Venereol. Vol. 79 (1999). p. 296-300
(44) Le Coz, C.-J., et al. An epidemic of occupational contact dermatitis from an immersion oil for microscopy in laboratory personnel. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 40 (1999). p. 77-83
(45) Kanerva, L., et al. Latent (subclinical) contact dermatitis evolving into occupational allergic contact dermatitis from extremely small amounts of epoxy resin. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 43 (2000). p. 47-49
(46) Lee, Y.-C., et al. Epoxy resin allergy from microscopy immersion oil. Australian Journal of Dermatology. Vol. 40 (1999). p. 228-229
(47) Jolanki, R., et al. 182 patients with occupational allergic epoxy contact dermatitis over 22 years. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 44, no. 2 (Feb. 2001). p. 121-123
(48) Kanerva, L., et al. Occupational allergic airborne contact dermatitis and delayed bronchial asthma from epoxy resin revealed by bronchial provocation test. Eur. J. Dermatol. Vol. 10 (2000). p. 475-477

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.

Review/Preparation Date: 2004-06-21

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