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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 772
CCOHS Chemical Name: Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-based epoxy resins, low molecular weight solids

Synonyms:
Bisphenol A/epichlorohydrin based epoxy resins (non-specific name)
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (non-specific name)
Homopolymer of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
2,2'-[(1-Methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane], homopolymer
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bisphenol, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane
4,4'-(1-Methylthylidene)bisphenol, polymer with 2,2'-[(1- methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane]
Polymer of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin
Polymer of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and bisphenol A
Low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins

Trade Name(s):
D.E.R. 660
D.E.R. 662
Epon 836
Epon 1001-F
Epon 1002-F
Epi-Rez 520-C
Epi-Rez 522-C
Araldite GT 6060

CAS Registry Number: 25068-38-6
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 25085-99-8 1675-54-3
RTECS Number(s): SL6480000 TX3800000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 500-033-5
Chemical Family: Epoxy resin / aromatic polyglycidyl ether / bisphenol A epoxy resin / epichlorohydrin epoxy resin
Molecular Formula: Polymer mixture
Structural Formula: Polymer mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Pale yellow, odourless, solid flakes.(40)

Odour Threshold:
Odourless.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) is made by reacting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A. DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are complex mixtures containing varying amounts of the low molecular weight polymers (monomer, dimers, trimers and tetramers) (CAS 25068-38-6); homopolymers of DGEBPA (CAS 25085-99-8); or higher molecular weight polymer of DGEBPA (CAS 25036-25-3).(9,33-36) It is important to note that some suppliers/manufacturers do use the monomer CAS Registry Number (1675-54-3) for products that are actually complex DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures. Interpretation and evaluation of the information on DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is complicated by the fact that these materials are complex mixtures; it is not always clear exactly which material is being studied; and the CAS Registry Numbers and names of the materials are, at times, used interchangeably. This CHEMINFO profile reviews information available for low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 600-1400). When available and as applicable, the exact material studied is identified by its specific trade name. For information on low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 560 or less), medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25036-25-3, molecular weight 1400-8000), or on pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3) refer to the applicable CHEMINFO review. In many cases, other ingredients, such as curing agents, additives, solvents, reactive diluents, fillers and other common epoxy formulating agents, will also be present in epoxy resin mixtures. These ingredients may contribute significantly to the physical properties and overall hazards of the product. For specific information on the product you are using, consult the manufacturer/supplier for advice.

Uses and Occurrences:
Epoxy resins based on glycidyl ethers are used in protective coatings, including waterborne coatings, solventless coatings, high solids coatings and powder coatings, decorative and protective coatings for automobiles, coal tar pitch modified coatings, reinforced plastics, structural composites, including pipes, vessels, electrical, aerospace and sporting goods applications; electrical laminates, moulding components, bonding materials and adhesives, sealants, patching compounds, flooring, paving and aggregates, tins and closures, boats and ships, appliances, piping and miscellaneous metal decoration, fibre-reinforced laminates, encapsulants and grouting compounds, tooling, casting and moulding resins.(9,33)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Pale yellow, odourless, solid flakes. POTENTIAL COMBUSTIBLE DUST HAZARD. Powdered material may form explosive dust-air mixtures. Causes eye irritation. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic skin reaction.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
For most workers, exposure to low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is probably not harmful following short-term exposure, based on limited animal information. High concentrations of dust may cause coughing and mild, temporary irritation. In very rare cases, low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins may cause an allergic respiratory reaction like asthma, based on limited human information. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.

Skin Contact:
Low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not irritating to the skin, based on animal information. Low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are well known skin sensitizers, based on animal and human information. These materials can cause a severe allergic skin reaction in sensitized individuals, even following very brief contact. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.
Based on limited animal toxicity data, low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are probably not absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.

Eye Contact:
Low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are moderate eye irritants, based on animal information. Some tearing, blinking and mild, temporary pain may occur as the solid material is rinsed from the eye by tears.

Ingestion:
There is no human information available. Animal toxicity information suggests that low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not harmful following ingestion. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
In a very small number of cases (three people), low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have caused respiratory sensitization in humans occupationally exposed to these compounds.(17,20,53) People who develop respiratory sensitization can experience symptoms of bronchial asthma such as wheezing, difficult breathing, sneezing and runny or blocked nose following exposure to low airborne concentrations that have no effect on unsensitized people.

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated skin contact can cause allergic skin sensitization in certain individuals. Once a person is sensitized to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This reaction can spread from the point of contact (usually the hands or arms) to other parts of the body.
Numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported in people occupationally exposed to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and in animal studies following exposure to pure DGEBPA and low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. Low molecular weight resins appear to be the true sensitizers.(13-19,27,28,46-52)
In one study, 139 cases of allergic contact dermatitis following occupational exposure with epoxy resins and positive patch test results from DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (low molecular weight) were reported. Of this group, 6 patients had been occupationally exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins with a high average molecular weight (greater than 700). All 6 of these patients tested positive to the standard epoxy resin (molecular weight 340).(14)
Thirty-four patients who had developed occupational contact dermatitis following exposure to low molecular weight epoxy resins were patch tested with DGEBPA-based epoxy resins of various molecular weights. All 34 patients tested with an epoxy resin with a molecular weight of 340 gave positive reactions. None of the 23 patients tested with an epoxy resin with a molecular weight of 624 or 908 gave a positive reaction, nor did any of 7 patients tested with the molecular weight 1192 resin. All 8 patients tested with resins with average molecular weights of 1280 and 1850 showed positive reactions. These higher molecular weight resins were later found to contain small amounts of resin with a molecular weight of 340. Previous history of allergies was not discussed for any of the patients.(16)

Endocrine System:
Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from one study that also involved exposure to organic solvents. In this study, 42 male epoxy sprayers who worked with hardening agents containing 10-30% DGEBPA for at least 3 hrs/day (duration unspecified) were compared to 82 unexposed controls. Exposure was to DGEBPA with mixed organic solvents including toluene, xylene, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol and methyl isobutyl ketone. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (a metabolite of DGEBPA) were increased and plasma FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) concentrations were decreased, but still within the normal range. Plasma testosterone and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) levels were normal. The authors speculated that bisphenol A may interfere with pituitary FSH secretion, but the clinical importance of the reported findings remains unclear.(32)

OTHER EFFECTS: Skin irritation and rashes, muscle and joint disorders and central nervous system and respiratory disturbances have been reported in workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, as well as several other potentially harmful chemicals.(10,11,28,29) It is not possible to say that only the DGEBPA-based epoxy resins caused any of these effects, because of the exposures to other potentially harmful chemicals at the same time.

Carcinogenicity:

There if no human information available. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,45)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. No significant effects have been observed in animal studies following oral or skin exposure to pure DGEBPA or low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, even in the presence of significant toxicity in the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No reproductive effects were observed in one animal study following oral exposure to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.

Mutagenicity:
Most of the available information suggests that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in two studies with a small number of workers who were exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.(24,25) No conclusions can be drawn from one other study due to insufficient information.(2) Negative results were also obtained in cultured human lymphocytes tested with an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin and "distilled" DGEBPA.(26) Negative results have been obtained in tests involving live animals. Positive results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells and bacteria.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no human or animal information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are poorly absorbed. In animals into the body. DGEBPA is rapidly excreted as metabolites in the urine and feces.(2,12)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms develop, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air and obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
This material is a skin sensitizer. Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the chemical is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods. Do not re-use.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Do not allow victim to rub eye(s). Let the eye(s) water naturally for a few minutes. Have victim look right and left, and then up and down. If particle/dust does not dislodge, flush with lukewarm, gently flowing water for at least 5 minutes or until particle/dust is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. DO NOT attempt to manually remove anything stuck to the eyes.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.
NOTE: DGEBPA-based epoxy resins often contain other ingredients which may contribute significantly to the overall toxicity of the product. The overall hazards of the product, e.g. potential aspiration hazards of the solvent component, must be considered when developing first aid guidelines.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Not applicable

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not applicable

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not applicable

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not applicable

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion or pyrolysis may produce phenolics, and possibly also aldehydes, acids and other unidentified toxic organic compounds.(40)

Flammable Properties:

Specific Hazards Arising from the Chemical:
Decomposition may occur under fire conditions and closed containers can explode and rupture violently if heated. In addition, the presence of flammable or combustible solvents in the epoxy resin products constitute a fire and explosion hazard and require special precautions. Also, some of the solvents, fillers and additives may form hazardous decomposition products in a fire.

Fire Hazard Summary:

Extinguishing Media:
This epoxy resin does not burn. Use extinguishing media suitable for the surrounding fire. Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, foam, water spray or fog may be used.

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid DGEBPA and its toxic decomposition products.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks, equipment or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
Avoid generating dust to minimize risk of explosion. Water can be used in the form of spray or fog to prevent dust formation.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and their thermal decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 600-1400 (33,34,42)

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Solid
Melting Point: 65-90 deg C (149-194 deg F) (33,42)
Boiling Point: Not applicable
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.19 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (35)
Solubility in Water: Negligible
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acetone and aromatic solvents such as benzene.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: Not applicable
Surface Tension: Not applicable
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Zero
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Not applicable
Evaporation Rate: Not applicable
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
METTLER SOFTENING POINT: 75-98 deg C (167-208.4 deg F) (40)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Decomposes at high temperatures.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Information not available.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, permanganates) - reaction may be violent. Risk of fire and explosion.
STRONG MINERAL ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) or BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react vigorously with the evolution of heat.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trifluoride) or LEWIS BASES (e.g. N,N- dimethylbenzylamine) - may cause homopolymerization, with the evolution of heat.(34,35)
AMINES (e.g. diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine) - reactive curing agents.(34,35)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Generation of dust, heat, open flames, electrostatic discharge, sparks, and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information available. Probably not corrosive to metals.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No information available.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Reactions with curing agents may release considerable heat. Smoke or toxic fumes may form if the heat of reaction becomes excessive due to high curing temperatures or the curing of large amounts of material.(40)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LC50 (rat): greater than 791 mg/m3 (4-hour exposure) (EPON Resin 2002 dust; molecular weight approximately 1300) (21)

LD50 (oral, rat): 30000 mg/kg (EPON 1001; molecular weight 900) (29)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 20000 mg/kg (EPON 1001) (29)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 23500 mg/kg (cited as 20 mL/kg) (an unspecified commercial DGEBPA-based epoxy resin) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are moderate irritants.

Application of 0.1 mL of a 20% solution of a low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1001) in propylene glycol produced moderate irritation (41/110).(29)

Skin Irritation:

Low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not irritating.

A single 24-hour application of an unspecified amount of a low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1001) produced no irritation (scored 0/8).(29) In general, skin irritation decreases with increasing molecular weight. Solid resins applied as solids are non-irritating.(4,29)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats exposed to the concentrated vapour of an unspecified commercial DGEBPA- based epoxy resin for 8 hours did not die.(1) It is not possible to draw any conclusions from this report because the epoxy resin and the exposure concentration were not identified. Rats were exposed to 150 mg/m3 of a solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (Epikote dusting powder containing 60 parts weight of Epikote 1055) for 3 weeks. No changes occurred to indicate any effect other than that of a nuisance dust.(4, unconfirmed) It is not known if this material was a low or medium to high molecular weight solid.

Ingestion:
Signs observed in rats in LD50 studies following ingestion of doses up to 30000 mg/kg of a low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 1001) have included moderate depression, slight difficulty breathing, diarrhea and weight loss.(29)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Ingestion:
No significant effects were observed in male rats fed 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0% of a low molecular weight solid DGEBPA- based epoxy resin (EPON 1001) in their diets for 26 weeks.(29) In another study, rats fed an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin at concentrations up to 3% of the diet for 3 months showed no systemic toxicity. Animals at the highest dose rejected the diet and showed signs of malnutrition.(2,12)

Skin Sensitization:
Female guinea pigs (20/group) were exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins of different molecular weights. The animals were sensitized using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test, both with and without Freund's adjuvant. Sensitization was observed in 11/20 and 6/20 animals exposed to the epoxy resins with molecular weights of 900 and 1280, respectively. The authors speculated that these higher molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins may have contained decreasing amounts of a lower molecular weight epoxy resin which sensitized a large percentage of the animals tested.(22) As a follow-up to the above study, guinea pigs were tested for dermal sensitization to various isolated oligomers of DGEBPA. The oligomers tested ranged in molecular weights from 340 to 1192. The Guinea Pig Maximization Test was used. The oligomer with a molecular weight of 624 produced a reaction in 56-60% (10/18 and 6/10) of the animals. Of the animals sensitized with the molecular weight 624 oligomer, 30% showed cross reactions to the molecular weight 340 oligomer. Animals induced with the molecular weight 908 oligomer showed no positive responses, but one animal showed a cross-reaction to the molecular weight 624 oligomer. Animals induced with the molecular weight 1192 oligomer showed no sensitivity or cross-reactivity. Gel permeation chromatography showed that resin mixtures of higher average molecular weight (e.g. 900, 1280 and 1850) also contain molecular weight 340 and 624 oligomers.(27)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has reviewed the available studies and determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,45)
In one study, mice were dermally exposed to 15 or 75 mg/week (3 applications/week) of a modified commercial resin of DGEBPA in acetone for two years. A weak carcinogenic response (skin) was observed in one strain of mice tested.(6) It was subsequently reported that the resin sample used contained a high percentage of contaminants (including epichlorohydrin, a known carcinogen). Therefore, no conclusions can be drawn from this study. In a follow-up study, 3 comparable DGEBPA-based epoxy resins were evaluated following a similar study design. None of the resins produced skin or systemic tumours in the test animals.(2,12) Other studies with mice have either not shown a carcinogenic response following oral or dermal exposure to various DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, or have had limitations in the study design which do not allow conclusions to be drawn.(1,2,5,7,8,12)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Studies involving the monomer or low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (Araldite GY 250 and TK 10490) have not shown teratogenicity, fetotoxicity and embryotoxicity in rats and rabbits exposed orally or dermally, even at maternally toxic doses.(2,12,23)

Reproductive Toxicity:
No reproductive effects were observed in male or female rats in a study using low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (Araldite GY 250 and TK 10490).(2,12)

Mutagenicity:
The available information indicates that low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic.
Negative results have been obtained following oral or dermal exposure to an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin in tests involving live animals (body fluid analysis, bone marrow micronucleus test and dominant lethal test).(2,26
A low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPIKOTE 1001) produced positive results in cultured mammalian cells (chromosome damage and neoplastic transformation).(3) Positive results have also been observed for a low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins in bacteria.(3,30,31)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Weil, C.S., et al. Experimental carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of representative epoxides. American Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24 (July-Aug. 1963). p. 305-325
(2) Gardiner, T.H., et al. Glycidyloxy compounds used in epoxy resin systems: a toxicology review. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Apr. 1992). Part 2 of 2. p. S1-S77
(3) Brooks, T.M., et al. Toxicity studies with epoxy resins: in vitro genotoxicity studies with and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A, EPIKOTE 828, EPIKOTE 1001 AND EPIKOTE 1007. Shell Oil Company, Apr. 1981. EPA/OTS 87-8210037. NTIS/OTS844003A.
(4) Review of toxicology on epoxy resins based on bisphenol A with attachment and cover sheet. Shell Oil Company, Dec. 1986. EPA/OTS 86-880000295. NTIS/OTS0514177.
(5) Hine, C.H., et al. An investigation of the oncogenic activity of two representative epoxy resins. Cancer Research. Vol. 18 (Jan. 1958). p. 20-26
(6) Holland, J.M., et al. Epidermal carcinogenicity of bis(2,3- epoxycyclopentyl)ether, 2,2-bis(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)propane, and m-phenylenediamine in male and female C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (May 1979). p. 1718-1725
(7) Peristianis, G.C., et al. Two-year carcinogenicity study on three aromatic epoxy resins applied cutaneously to CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 7 (1988). p. 611-624
(8) Zakova, N., et al. Evaluation of skin carcinogenicity of technical 2,2-bis-(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)-propane in CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 12 (1985). p. 1081-1089
(9) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some glycidyl ethers. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting. Vol. 47. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 237-261
(10) Tomizawa, T., et al. Scleroderma-like skin changes observed among workers handling epoxy resins. Proceeding of the XV International Congress of Dermatology, Mexico City, Oct. 16-21, 1977. p. 271-275
(11) Cragle, D., et al. An occupational morbidity study of a population potentially exposed to epoxy resins, hardeners and solvents. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 7, no. 12 (Dec., 1992). p. 826-834
(12) Waechter, J.M., Jr., et al. Epoxy compounds - aromatic diglycidyl ethers, polyglycidyl ethers, glycidyl esters, and miscellaneous epoxy compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 1087-1145
(13) Jolanki, R., et al. Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 23 (1990). p. 172-183
(14) Jolanki, R. Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds. Epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates, and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Suppl. 159 (1991). p. 1-80
(15) Niinimaki, A., et al. An outbreak of epoxy dermatitis in insulation workers at an electrical power station. Dermatosen. Vol. 31, no. 1 (1983). p. 23-25
(16) Fregert, S., et al. Patch testing with low molecular oligomers of epoxy resins in humans. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 3 (1977). p. 301-303
(17) Kanerva, L., et al. A single accidental exposure may result in a chemical burn, primary sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 31, no. 4 (Oct. 1994). p. 229-235
(18) Burrows, D., et al. Contact dermatitis from epoxy resins, tetraglycidal-4,4'-methylene dianiline and o-diglycidyl phthalate in composite material. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 11, no. 2 (Aug. 1984). p. 80-82
(19) Bokelund, F., et al. Sensitization from epoxy resin powder of high molecular weight. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 6, no. 2 (1980). p. 144
(20) Kanerva, L., et al. Immediate and delayed allergy from epoxy resins based on diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health. Vol. 17, no. 3 (Mar. 1991). p. 208-215
(21) Four-hour acute dust inhalation study in rats with Epon resin 2002 with cover letter. Shell Oil Company, Sept. 2, 1982. EPA/OTS 87-8213823. NTIS/OTS84003A.
(22) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Allergenicity of epoxy resins in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 57, no. 3 (1977). p. 253-256
(23) Breslin, W.J., et al. Teratogenic evaluation of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) in New Zealand white rabbits following dermal exposure. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology. Vol. 10, no. 4 (May 1988). p. 736-743
(24) Mitelman, F., et al. Occupational exposure to epoxy resins has no cytogenetic effect. Mutation Research. Vol. 77, no. 4 (1980). p. 345-348
(25) de Jong, G., et al. Cytogenetic monitoring of industrial populations potentially exposed to genotoxic chemicals and of control populations. Mutation Research. Vol. 204 (1988). p. 451-464
(26) Pullen, T.G. Integrated mutagenicity testing program on several epoxy compounds. Dow Chemical Company, Dec. 1977. EPA/OTS 87-8214859. EPA/NTIS 0206671.
(27) Thorgeirsson, A., et al. Sensitization capacity of epoxy resin oligomers in the guinea pig. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Vol. 58 (1978). p. 17-21
(28) Grandjean, E. The danger of dermatoses due to cold-setting ethoxyline resins (epoxide resins). British Journal of Industrial Medicine. Vol. 14 (1957). p. 1-4
(29) Hine, C.H., et al. The toxicology of epoxy resins. American Medical Association Archives of Industrial Health. Vol. 17 (1958). p. 129-144
(30) Nishioka, H., et al. Mutagenicity of epoxide resins: constituents and commercial adhesives, in bacterial test systems. Mutation Research. Vol. 54 (1978). p. 247-248
(31) Hemminki, K., et al. Comparison of alkylation rates and mutagenicity of directly acting industrial and laboratory chemicals. Epoxides, glycidyl ethers, methylating and ethylating agents, halogenated hydrocarbons, hydrazine derivatives, aldehydes, thiuram and dithiocarbamate derivatives. Archives of Toxicology. Vol. 46, nos. 3-4 (1980). p. 277-285
(32) Hanaoka, T., et al. Urinary bisphenol A and plasma hormone concentrations in male workers exposed to bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and mixed organic solvents. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 59, no. 9 (Sept. 2002). p. 635-628
(33) Gannon, J. Epoxy resins. In: Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology. 4th ed. Vol. 9. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 730-755
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-06-18

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2005-01-03
EU classification 2005-01-03
EU comments 2005-01-03
Bibliography 2005-12-19



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