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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 771
CCOHS Chemical Name: Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A-based epoxy resins, low molecular weight liquids

Synonyms:
Bisphenol A/epichlorohydrin based epoxy resins (non-specific name)
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (non-specific name)
Homopolymer of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A
2,2'-[(1-Methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane], homopolymer
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bisphenol, -, polymer with (chloromethyl)oxirane
4,4'-(1-Methylethylidene)bisphenol, -, polymer with 2,2'-[(1- methylethylidene)bis(4,1-phenyleneoxymethylene)]bis[oxirane]
Polymer of bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin
Polymer of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and bisphenol A
Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins

Trade Name(s):
D.E.R. 330 Epoxy Resin
D.E.R. 331
D.E.R. 332
D.E.R. 317
Epon 820
Epon 826
Epon 828
Epon 834
Epi-Rez 510
Araldite GY 60202

CAS Registry Number: 25068-38-6
Other CAS Registry Number(s): 25085-99-8 1675-54-3
RTECS Number(s): CE6880000 SL6480000 TX3800000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 500-033-5
Chemical Family: Epoxy resin / aromatic polyglycidyl ether / bisphenol A epoxy resin / epichlorohydrin epoxy resin
Molecular Formula: Polymer mixture
Structural Formula: Polymer mixture

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Water-white to yellow viscous liquid to semi-solid with a faint epoxy odour.

Odour Threshold:
Not available.

Warning Properties:
Information not available for evaluation.

Composition/Purity:
Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBPA) is made by reacting epichlorohydrin and bisphenol A. DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures contain varying amounts of the low molecular weight polymers (monomer, dimers, trimers and tetramers) (CAS 25068-38-6); homopolymers of DGEBPA (CAS 25085-99-8); or higher molecular weight polymer of DGEBPA (CAS 25036-25-3). It is unlikely that many commercial products are pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3).(9,40-43) Nevertheless, some suppliers/manufacturers do use the monomer CAS Registry Number (1675-54-3) for products that are actually complex DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures. Interpretation and evaluation of the information on DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is complicated by the fact that these materials are complex mixtures; it is not always clear exactly which material is being studied; and the CAS Registry Numbers and names of the materials are, at times, used interchangeably. This CHEMINFO profile reviews information available for low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 560 or less). When available and as applicable, the exact material studied is identified by its specific trade name. Typically, liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins contain approximately 80% of the DGEBPA monomer. For information on pure DGEBPA monomer (CAS 1675-54-3), low molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25068-38-6 or 25085-99-8; molecular weight 600-1400) or medium to high molecular weight solid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin mixtures (CAS 25036-25-3; molecular weight 1400-8000) refer to the appropriate CHEMINFO reviews. In many cases, other ingredients, such as curing agents, additives, solvents, reactive diluents, fillers and other common epoxy formulating agents, will also be present in epoxy resin mixtures. These ingredients may contribute significantly to the physical properties and overall hazards of the product. For specific information on the product you are using, consult the manufacturer/supplier for advice.

Uses and Occurrences:
Epoxy resins based on glycidyl ethers are used in protective coatings, including waterborne coatings, solventless coatings, high solids coatings and powder coatings, decorative and protective coatings for automobiles, coal tar pitch modified coatings, reinforced plastics, structural composites, including pipes, vessels, electrical, aerospace and sporting goods applications; electrical laminates, moulding components, bonding materials and adhesives, sealants, patching compounds, flooring, paving and aggregates, tins and closures, boats and ships, appliances, piping and miscellaneous metal decoration, fibre-reinforced laminates, encapsulants and grouting compounds, tooling, casting and moulding resins.(9,40)


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Water-white to yellow viscous liquid to semi-solid with a faint epoxy odour. Can burn if strongly heated. SKIN SENSITIZER. May cause severe allergic skin reaction.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
For most workers, exposure to low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins is probably not harmful following short-term exposure, based on limited animal information. These materials are viscous liquids to semi-solids that do not easily form vapours. If these materials are heated or misted, coughing and mild, temporary irritation may occur. In very rare cases, low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins can cause an allergic respiratory reaction like asthma, based on limited human information. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.

Skin Contact:
Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are mild skin irritants, based on animal information. Prolonged exposure (24-hours) has caused moderate irritation in animals. Low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are well known skin sensitizers, based on animal and human information. These materials can cause a severe allergic skin reaction in sensitized individuals, even following very brief contact. Refer to "Effects of Long-term (Chronic) Exposure" for more information.
Limited animal toxicity data suggests that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not absorbed through the skin in harmful amounts.

Eye Contact:
Low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are mild eye irritants, based on animal information.

Ingestion:
There is no human information available. Animal toxicity information suggests that low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not harmful following ingestion. Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

Respiratory Sensitization:
In a very small number of cases (3 people), low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have caused respiratory sensitization in humans occupationally exposed to these compounds. Sensitized people can experience symptoms of bronchial asthma such as wheezing, difficult breathing, sneezing and runny or blocked nose at low airborne concentrations that have no effect on unsensitized people.
Two women who had occupational skin sensitization to a low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (Epikote 827) developed occupational bronchial asthma after 7 and 21 years exposure. One woman had no personal or family history of allergies. The other woman had mild allergic dermatitis, but had not experienced any respiratory symptoms in her youth.(23) Another case report describes a man who developed occupational dermal sensitization to an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (confirmed by patch testing). After repeated exposure, he developed occupational asthma for the DGEBPA-based epoxy resin. There was no prior history of allergies.(17,56)

Skin:
Repeated or prolonged exposure may result in dermatitis (dry, red, cracked skin), based on animal information.

Skin Sensitization:
Repeated skin contact can cause allergic skin sensitization in some individuals. Once a person is sensitized to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, contact with even a small amount causes outbreaks of dermatitis with symptoms such as skin redness, itching, rash and swelling. This reaction can spread from the point of contact (usually the hands or arms) to other parts of the body.
Numerous cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported in people occupationally exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and in animal studies following exposure to DGEBPA and DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. Low molecular weight resins appear to be the true sensitizers.(13-19,34,43,49-55)
In one study, 28 people developed contact allergic dermatitis and subsequently tested positive to patch tests with a low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (molecular weight 340). All patients had current or historical occupational contact with uncured DGEBPA-based epoxy resins. Previous history of allergies was not discussed for any of the patients.(13) Extending this study, the same authors found 139 cases of allergic contact dermatitis following occupational exposure with epoxy resins and positive patch test results from low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.(14)

Endocrine System:
Firm conclusions cannot be drawn from one study that also involved exposure to organic solvents. In this study, 42 male epoxy sprayers who worked with hardening agents containing 10-30% DGEBPA for at least 3 hrs/day (duration unspecified) were compared to 82 unexposed controls. Exposure was to DGEBPA with mixed organic solvents including toluene, xylene, 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-butoxyethanol and methyl isobutyl ketone. Urinary concentrations of bisphenol A (a metabolite of DGEBPA) were increased and plasma FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) concentrations were decreased, but still within the normal range. Plasma testosterone and LH (Luteinizing Hormone) levels were normal. The authors speculated that bisphenol A may interfere with pituitary FSH secretion, but the clinical importance of the reported findings remains unclear.(38)

OTHER EFFECTS: Skin irritation and rashes, muscle and joint disorders and central nervous system and respiratory disturbances have been reported in workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins, as well as several other potentially harmful chemicals.(10,11,34,35) It is not possible to say that only DGEBPA-based epoxy resins caused these effects, because of the exposures to other potentially harmful chemicals at the same time.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human information available. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA-based epoxy resins in experimental animals.(9,47)

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that this chemical is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human information available. No significant effects have been observed in animal studies with pure DGEBPA or low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins following oral or skin exposure, even in the presence of significant toxicity in the mothers.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human information available. No reproductive effects were observed in one animal study following oral exposure to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.

Mutagenicity:
Most of the available information suggests that low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic. Negative results were obtained in two studies involving a small number of workers exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins.(24,25) No conclusions can be drawn from one other study due to insufficient information.(2) Negative results were also obtained in cultured human lymphocytes tested with an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin and "distilled" DGEBPA.(26) Negative results have been obtained in tests involving live animals. Positive results have been obtained in cultured mammalian cells. Positive and negative results have been obtained in short-term tests using bacteria, both with and without metabolic activation.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no animal or human information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
In animals, DGEBPA is rapidly excreted as metabolites in the urine and feces.(2,12)


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
If symptoms develop, remove source of contamination or have victim move to fresh air and obtain medical advice immediately.

Skin Contact:
This material is a skin sensitizer. Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective clothing, if necessary. As quickly as possible, remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess material. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 20 minutes or until the material is removed. Obtain medical advice immediately. Discard contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods. Do not re-use. Liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins can be very sticky and difficult to remove. DO NOT use solvents to remove these materials from the skin.

Eye Contact:
Avoid direct contact. Wear chemical protective gloves, if necessary. Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess material. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 20 minutes or until the material is removed. Take care not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Ingestion:
If irritation or discomfort occur, obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest).
Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact.
All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.
NOTE: DGEBPA-based epoxy resins often contain other ingredients which may contribute significantly to the overall toxicity of the product. The overall hazards of the product, e.g. potential aspiration hazards of the solvent component, must be considered when developing first aid guidelines.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
Reported values range from 135-251.7 deg C (275-485 deg F) (closed cup).(42,44) The exact value depends on the resin composition and molecular weight.

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
Not available

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
Not available

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
No information available. The undiluted material probably will not accumulate static charge. Epoxy resin solutions may accumulate static charge during unloading or use.(44)

Combustion and Thermal Decomposition Products:
Incomplete combustion may produce phenolics and possibly also aldehydes, acids and other unidentified toxic organic compounds.(44)

Fire Hazard Summary:
These epoxy resins will burn when sufficient heat and oxygen are supplied. During a fire, toxic/irritating compounds may be formed. Decomposition may occur under fire conditions and closed containers can explode and rupture violently if heated. In addition, the presence of flammable or combustible solvents in the epoxy resin products constitute a fire and explosion hazard and require special precautions. Some of the solvents, fillers and additives may form hazardous decomposition products in a fire.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder and foam. Water may be ineffective for fires involving epoxy resins.(44)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or a protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid vapours and decomposition products.
Water or foam may cause frothing. The frothing may be violent and could endanger personnel close to the fire. However, a water spray or fog that is carefully applied to the surface of the liquid, preferably with a fine spray or fog nozzle, will cause frothing that will blanket and extinguish the fire.
Closed containers may rupture violently when exposed to the heat of the fire and suddenly release large amounts of products. Stay away from ends of tanks, involved in fire, but be aware that flying material from ruptured tanks may travel in any direction.
If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire, and move containers from the fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers, tanks, equipment or pipelines should be cooled by application of hose streams. Application should begin as soon as possible (within the first several minutes) and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container. Apply water from the side and from a safe distance until well after the fire is out. Cooling should continue until well after the fire is out. If this is not possible, use unmanned monitor nozzles and immediately evacuate the area.
If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop the leak. Water spray can be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
For an advanced or massive fire in a large area, it may be prudent to use unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank.

Protection of Fire Fighters:
DGEBPA-based epoxy resins and their thermal decomposition products are hazardous to health. Do not enter without wearing specialized equipment suitable for the situation. Firefighter's normal protective clothing (Bunker Gear) will not provide adequate protection. Chemical protective clothing (e.g. chemical splash suit) and positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (NIOSH approved or equivalent) may be necessary.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Comments:
NFPA has no listing for this chemical in Codes 49 or 325.


SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 360-560. Typical average is 370.(41,42)

Conversion Factor:
Not applicable

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: Not available
Boiling Point: Not available
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 1.16-1.19 at 25 deg C (water = 1) (42)
Solubility in Water: Negligible
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble in acetone and aromatic solvents such as benzene.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not applicable
Viscosity-Dynamic: 11000 to 15000 mPa.s (11000 to 15000 centipoises) at 25 deg C (typical commercial grade) (41,42)
Surface Tension: Not available
Vapour Density: Not applicable
Vapour Pressure: Extremely low.
Saturation Vapour Concentration: Negligible
Evaporation Rate: Extremely low
Henry's Law Constant: Not available

Other Physical Properties:
METTLER SOFTENING POINT: Less than 25 deg C (77 deg F) (42)


SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable. Excessive heating for long periods above 50-60 deg C may degrade the resin.

Hazardous Polymerization:
Information not available.

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitric acid, permanganates) - reaction may be violent. Risk of fire and explosion.
STRONG MINERAL ACIDS (e.g. sulfuric acid) or BASES (e.g. sodium hydroxide) - may react vigorously with the evolution of heat.
LEWIS ACIDS (e.g. boron trifluoride) or LEWIS BASES (e.g. N,N- dimethylbenzylamine) - may cause homopolymerization, with the evolution of heat.(41,42)
AMINES (e.g. diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine) - reactive curing agents.(41,42)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None reported.

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
No information available. Probably not corrosive to metals.

Corrosivity to Non-Metals:
No Information available.

Stability and Reactivity Comments:
Reactions with curing agents may release considerable heat. Smoke or toxic fumes may be evolved if the heat of reaction becomes excessive due to high curing temperatures or the curing of large amounts of material.(44)


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

LD50 (oral, rat): 11400 mg/kg (EPON 828) (35)
LD50 (oral, rat): 13600 mg/kg (EPON 820) (35)
LD50 (oral, mouse): 15600 mg/kg (EPON 828) (35)

LD50 (dermal, rabbit): greater than 23500 mg/kg (cited as 20 mL/kg) (an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin) (1)

Eye Irritation:

Low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are mild irritants.

Application of 0.1 mL of a 20% solution of a low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPON 828) in propylene glycol produced mild irritation in rabbits (scored 2/110).(35) Other reports also indicate that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are only mild eye irritants.(2,4,12,35)

Skin Irritation:

Low molecular weight DBEBPA-based epoxy resins are mild irritants.

In one study, 24-hour application of an unspecified amount of two low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (EPON 820 and EPON 828) produced no irritation in rabbits (scored 0/8).(35) In another study, a 24-hour application of a low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (EPIKOTE 828) was moderately irritating to rabbits.(28) Several other studies have also demonstrated that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are mildly to moderately irritating to the skin, even following prolonged application (24-hours).(2,12,27,28,32)

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Inhalation:
Rats exposed to the concentrated vapour of an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin for 8 hours did not die.(1) It is not possible to draw any conclusions from this report because the epoxy resin and the exposure concentration were not identified.

Ingestion:
No effects were observed in a 28-day study where rats were orally exposed daily to a low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (Araldite GY 250) at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day.(2,12) Signs observed in rats following ingestion of very large oral doses (up to 13600 mg/kg) of low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (EPON 820 and EPON 828) have included moderate depression, slight difficulty breathing, diarrhea and weight loss.(35)

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

In general, low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have not shown significant toxic effects in experimental animals following long term dermal or oral exposure for up to 2 years. Dermatitis (redness and swelling) has been observed in rats dermally exposed for 90 days.

Skin Contact:
Rats were dermally exposed to undiluted bisphenol A-epichlorohydrin resin (EPON Resin 1001-B-80; liquid) for 90 days. Doses of 0, 0.04, 0.4 or 2.0 mL/kg were applied 3 times/week (use of occlusion not specified). Mean adjusted body weights were significantly lower in the mid and high dose males and high dose females. There was also a dose-related increase in redness and swelling of treated skin. High dose females had a maximum mean erythema score (Draize scale) of 2.9/4 and high dose males 1.9/4 at 17 days. Edema scores also reached their maximum on day 17 for high dose females at approximately 1.6/4 and for high dose males at approximately 1.7/4.(48) Two studies showed no treatment related effects in mice or rabbits exposed to up to 10% of two different low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (one unspecified and Araldite GY 250) dissolved in acetone and applied dermally 1-3 times/week for 2 years.(5,8)

Ingestion:
Rats fed unspecified DGEBPA compounds at concentrations up to 3% of the diet for 3 months showed no systemic toxicity. Animals at the highest dose rejected the diet and showed signs of malnutrition.(2,12) In another study, rats were fed 0, 0.2, 1.0 or 5.0% of a low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (EPON 828) in their diets for 26 weeks. Approximate doses were 0, 160, 820 or 4100 mg/kg/day. At 4100 mg/kg/day, all exposed animals died by the end of the 2nd week, however, there was no evidence of systemic toxicity in these animals. A decrease in weight gain was observed in animals exposed to 820 mg/kg/day. A significant increase in kidney weight was observed in animals exposed to 160 or 820 mg/kg/day.(35)

Skin Sensitization:
Guinea pigs were exposed to DGEBPA-based epoxy resins of different molecular weights. The animals were sensitized using the Guinea Pig Maximization Test, both with and without Freund's adjuvant. All 20 animals exposed to epoxy resin with molecular weights of 340 or 350 became sensitized, while 17/20 animals exposed to an epoxy resins with a molecular weight of 480 were sensitized.(22) As a follow-up to the above study, guinea pigs were tested for dermal sensitization to various isolated oligomers of DGEBPA. Three different sensitization tests were employed: the Guinea Pig Maximization Test (GPMT), topical exposure with and without sodium lauryl sulphate and single dermal injection. In the GPMT, the molecular weight 340 oligomer produced reactions in 80-100% (8/10 to 20/20) of the animals sensitized with a 5% concentration. When sensitized with 0.5%, 67% (10/15) of the animals reacted. Topical sensitization with 20% of the 340 oligomer produced no positive reactions without the use of sodium lauryl sulphate and positive reactions in 18% of the animals with the use of sodium lauryl sulphate. One intradermal injection of the 340 oligomer produced positive responses in 30% (3/10) of the animals.(37) Several other studies have also shown that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have produced dermal sensitization.(2,12,32)

Carcinogenicity:
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has reviewed the available studies and determined that there is limited evidence for the carcinogenicity of DGEBPA in experimental animals.(9,47)
In one study, a weakly positive response for dermal carcinogenicity was observed in mice exposed to a modified commercial resin of DGEBPA.(6) However, it was subsequently reported that the resin sample used contained a high percentage of contaminants (including epichlorohydrin, a known carcinogen). Therefore, no conclusions could be drawn from this study. In a follow-up study, 3 comparable DGEBPA-based epoxy resins were evaluated following a similar study design. None of these resins produced tumours in the test animals.(2,12) Another study has shown significant trends for various types of cancer in mice dermally exposed to low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (EPON 828 or EPIKOTE 828). However, the authors concluded that the increased tumour incidence could not be directly attributed to administration of the test substance due to other factors, such as the high background incidence of these tumours types in the strains of mice tested.(7) Other studies involving oral or dermal exposure of mice either showed no significant carcinogenic effects or no conclusions could be drawn due to inadequacies in the study design.(1,2,5,12)

Teratogenicity, Embryotoxicity and/or Fetotoxicity:
Teratogenicity, fetotoxicity and embryotoxicity were not observed in rats and rabbits exposed orally, even at maternally toxic doses.(2,12)
Oral administration of up to 540 mg/kg/day (rats) or up to 180 mg/kg/day (rabbits) of low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins (Araldite GY 250 or TK 10490) to rats and rabbits produced no adverse effects on mean litter size, pre- and post-implantation losses, or any evidence of a teratogenic or embryotoxic effect at any dose level. Maternal toxicity was observed at the high doses.(2,12) In another study, dermal exposure of guinea pigs to an unspecified DGEBPA- based epoxy resin for 55 days, starting on the 10th day of pregnancy, resulted in embryotoxicity in the presence of significant maternal toxicity.(21) No conclusions can be drawn from this study because the epoxy resin was not identified. It is not known if other ingredients present in the product may have contributed to, or caused, the observed effects.

Reproductive Toxicity:
No reproductive effects were observed in rats.
Rats were administered a low molecular weight liquid DGEBPA-based epoxy resin (Araldite GY 250) orally at doses up to 540 mg/kg/day for 10 weeks (males) and 2 weeks (females) prior to mating. There were no effects on mating performance, gestation period, or the ability of females to successfully rear offspring to weaning.(2,12)

Mutagenicity:
The available information indicates that low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins are not mutagenic.
Negative results have been obtained following oral or dermal exposure to an unspecified DGEBPA-based epoxy resin in tests involving live animals (body fluid analysis, bone marrow micronucleus test and dominant lethal test).(2,26)
Low molecular weight DGEBPA-based epoxy resins have produced positive results in cultured mammalian cells.(3,20) Positive and negative results have been obtained in short-term bacteria tests with low molecular weight DGEBPA-based resins, both with and without metabolic activation.(2,20,26,29-31,33,36)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Weil, C.S., et al. Experimental carcinogenicity and acute toxicity of representative epoxides. American Industrial Hygiene Journal. Vol. 24 (July- Aug. 1963). p. 305-325
(2) Gardiner, T.H., et al. Glycidyloxy compounds used in epoxy resin systems: a toxicology review. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 15, no. 2 (Apr. 1992). Part 2 of 2. p. S1-S77
(3) Coppinger, W.J. L5178Y TK+/- mouse lymphoma mutagenicity assay with cover letter & summary review. Proctor and Gamble Company, Apr. 22, 1981. EPA/OTS 87-8213771. NTIS/OTS0206313.
(4) Review of toxicology on epoxy resins based on bisphenol A with attachment and cover sheet. Shell Oil Company, Dec. 1986. EPA/OTS 86-880000295. NTIS/OTS0514177.
(5) Hine, C.H., et al. An investigation of the oncogenic activity of two representative epoxy resins. Cancer Research. Vol. 18 (Jan. 1958). p. 20-26
(6) Holland, J.M., et al. Epidermal carcinogenicity of bis(2,3-epoxycyclopentyl)ether, 2,2-bis(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)propane, and m- phenylenediamine in male and female C3H and C57BL/6 mice. Cancer Research. Vol. 39 (May 1979). p. 1718-1725
(7) Peristianis, G.C., et al. Two-year carcinogenicity study on three aromatic epoxy resins applied cutaneously to CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 26, no. 7 (1988). p. 611-624
(8) Zakova, N., et al. Evaluation of skin carcinogenicity of technical 2,2- bis-(p-glycidyloxyphenyl)-propane in CF1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology. Vol. 23, no. 12 (1985). p. 1081-1089
(9) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some glycidyl ethers. In: IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans: some organic solvents, resin monomers and related compounds, pigments and occupational exposures in paint manufacture and painting. Vol. 47. World Health Organization, 1989. p. 237-261
(10) Tomizawa, T., et al. Scleroderma-like skin changes observed among workers handling epoxy resins. Proceeding of the XV International Congress of Dermatology, Mexico City, Oct. 16-21, 1977. p. 271-275
(11) Cragle, D., et al. An occupational morbidity study of a population potentially exposed to epoxy resins, hardeners and solvents. Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. Vol. 7, no. 12 (Dec. 1992). p. 826-834
(12) Waechter, J.M., Jr., et al. Epoxy compounds - aromatic diglycidyl ethers, polyglycidyl ethers, glycidyl esters, and miscellaneous epoxy compounds. In: Patty's toxicology. 5th ed. Edited by E. Bingham, et al. Vol. 6. John Wiley and Sons, 2001. p. 1087-1145
(13) Jolanki, R., et al. Occupational dermatoses from epoxy resin compounds. Contact Dermatitis. Vol. 23, no. 3 (1990). p. 172-183
(14) Jolanki, R. Occupational skin diseases from epoxy compounds; epoxy resin compounds, epoxy acrylates, and 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride. Acta Dermato-Venereologica. Suppl. 159 (1991). p. 1-80
(15) Niinimaki, A., et al. An outbreak of epoxy dermatitis in insulation workers at an electrical power station. Dermatosen. Vol. 31, no. 1 (1983). p. 23-25
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Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 2004-06-18

Revision Indicators:
Bibliography 2005-01-03
EU classification 2005-01-03
EU comments 2005-01-03



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