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SECTION 1. CHEMICAL IDENTIFICATION

CHEMINFO Record Number: 253
CCOHS Chemical Name: n-Dodecane

Synonyms:
Bihexyl
Dihexyl
Dodecane
Duodecane
Dodécane normal

Trade Name(s):
Adakane 12

CAS Registry Number: 112-40-3
RTECS Number(s): JR2125000
EU EINECS/ELINCS Number: 203-967-9
Chemical Family: Saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon / alkane / n-alkane / dodecane isomer
Molecular Formula: C12-H26
Structural Formula: CH3-(CH2)10-CH3

SECTION 2. DESCRIPTION

Appearance and Odour:
Colourless liquid with gasoline-like odour.

Odour Threshold:
5.3 ppm (37 mg/m3) (method unspecified) (5)

Warning Properties:
Insufficient information - no exposure limit established.

Uses and Occurrences:
Component of gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene and petroleum solvents such as white spirit; solvent; organic synthesis; copying fluids; jet fuel research and distillation chaser.


SECTION 3. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION

EMERGENCY OVERVIEW:
Colourless liquid, gasoline-like odour. COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID AND VAPOUR. Liquid can accumulate static charge. Liquid can float on water and may travel long distances and/or spread fire. Mild central nervous system depressant. Extremely high vapour concentrations may cause headache, nausea, dizziness and drowsiness. Aspiration hazard. Swallowing or vomiting of the liquid may result in aspiration into the lungs. May be irritating to eyes, skin and respiratory tract.



POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure

Inhalation:
Because of low vapour pressure and low saturated vapour concentration of decanes, it is unlikely to produce a sufficiently high vapour concentration to cause effects unless material is heated or mists are formed. In this case depression of the central nervous system may result in drowsiness, dizziness, confusion and incoordination. Based on skin irritation resulting from dermal exposure, concentrated vapour may cause nose and throat irritation.

Skin Contact:
Based on effects in animal studies, direct skin contact with decanes may cause moderate to severe irritation.

Eye Contact:
Eye contact will probably cause moderate to severe irritation with redness and pain. Concentrated vapour is probably irritating to the eyes. This evaluation is based on an animal skin irritancy study which produced moderate to severe skin irritation.

Ingestion:
There is no specific information for n-dodecane. Decanes in general have very low oral toxicity and large amounts would have to be ingested to cause depression of the central nervous system as described for inhalation above.
Based on physical properties, decanes can be easily aspirated following ingestion or vommiting. This could result in potentially fatal lung damage (pulmonary edema).
Ingestion is not a typical route of occupational exposure.

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure

No chronic effects in humans have been reported.
SKIN: Based on results from animal studies, irritation and dermatitis (inflammation, reddening and swelling) may result from prolonged or repeated contact.

Carcinogenicity:

There is no human or animal information available.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has not evaluated the carcinogenicity of this chemical.

The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has no listing for this chemical.

The US National Toxicology Program (NTP) has not listed this chemical in its report on carcinogens.

Teratogenicity and Embryotoxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Reproductive Toxicity:
There is no human or animal information available.

Mutagenicity:
There is no human information available. Negative results have been obtained with mammalian cells in vitro. n-Dodecane may act as a promoter of mutagenicity.

Toxicologically Synergistic Materials:
There is no information available.

Potential for Accumulation:
Unlikely to accumulate. Decanes are readily metabolized and excreted from the body.


SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES

Inhalation:
Remove source of contamination or move victim to fresh air. If breathing has stopped, trained personnel should begin artificial respiration or, if the heart has stopped, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) immediately. Obtain medical attention immediately.

Skin Contact:
Remove contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods (e.g. watchbands, belts). Gently blot or brush away excess chemical quickly. Wash gently and thoroughly with water and non-abrasive soap for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed. If irritation persists, obtain medical advice immediately. Completely decontaminate clothing, shoes and leather goods before re-use or discard.

Eye Contact:
Quickly and gently blot or brush away excess chemical. Immediately flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes or until the chemical is removed, while holding the eyelid(s) open. Obtain medical advice immediately.

Ingestion:
Never give anything my mouth if victim is rapidly losing consciousness, is unconscious or convulsing. DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING. Have victim drink 240 to 300 mL (8 to 10 oz.) of water. If vomiting occurs naturally, have victim lean forward to reduce risk of aspiration. Repeat administration of water. Obtain medical attention immediately.

First Aid Comments:
Provide general supportive measures (comfort, warmth, rest). Consult a doctor and/or the nearest Poison Control Centre for all exposures except minor instances of inhalation or skin contact. All first aid procedures should be periodically reviewed by a doctor familiar with the material and its conditions of use in the workplace.



SECTION 5. FIRE FIGHTING MEASURES

Flash Point:
74 deg C (165 deg F) (closed cup) (6)

Lower Flammable (Explosive) Limit (LFL/LEL):
0.6% (6)

Upper Flammable (Explosive) Limit (UFL/UEL):
Not available

Autoignition (Ignition) Temperature:
203 deg C (397 deg F) (6)

Sensitivity to Mechanical Impact:
Probably not sensitive. Stable material.

Sensitivity to Static Charge:
n-Dodecane can accumulate static charge by flow or agitation due to its low electrical conductivity (less than 10(4) pS/m).(7)

Fire Hazard Summary:
Combustible liquid. Vapour can form flammable or explosive mixtures with air at, or above 74 deg C. Liquid can float on the top of water and travel long distances and/or spread fire. During a fire, irritating/toxic gases may be generated. Vapours from heated liquid can accumulate in confined spaces, resulting in a flammability hazard. Closed containers may rupture violently when heated.

Extinguishing Media:
Carbon dioxide, dry chemical powder, alcohol foam or polymer foam, water spray or fog.(8)

Fire Fighting Instructions:
Evacuate area and fight fire from a safe distance or protected location. Approach fire from upwind to avoid hazardous vapours and toxic decomposition products.
Stop leak before attempting to stop the fire. If the leak cannot be stopped, and if there is no risk to the surrounding area, let the fire burn itself out. If a leak or spill has not ignited, use water spray in large quantities to disperse the vapours and to protect personnel attempting to stop a leak. Water spray can also be used to flush spills away from ignition sources. Solid streams of water may be ineffective and spread material.
Closed containers may explode in the heat of the fire. If possible, isolate materials not yet involved in the fire and move containers from fire area if this can be done without risk, and protect personnel. Otherwise, fire-exposed containers or tanks should be cooled by application of hose streams and this should begin as soon as possible and should concentrate on any unwetted portions of the container.
For a massive fire in a large area, use unmanned hose holder or monitor nozzles; if this is not possible withdraw from fire area and allow fire to burn. Stay away from ends of tanks. Withdraw immediately in case of rising sound from venting safety device or any discolouration of tank due to fire.
Firefighters may enter the area if positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus (MSHA/NIOSH approved or equivalent) and full Bunker Gear is worn.



NATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION ASSOCIATION (NFPA) HAZARD IDENTIFICATION

NFPA - Health: 1 - Exposure would cause significant irritation, but only minor residual injury.
NFPA - Flammability: 2 - Must be moderately heated or exposed to relatively high ambient temperatures before ignition can occur.
NFPA - Instability: 0 - Normally stable, even under fire conditions, and not reactive with water.

SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Molecular Weight: 170.34

Conversion Factor:
1 ppm = 6.95 mg/m3; 1 mg/m3 = 0.144 ppm at 25 deg C (calc.)

Physical State: Liquid
Melting Point: -9.6 deg C (14 deg F) (8)
Boiling Point: 216 deg C (421 deg F) (1,10)
Relative Density (Specific Gravity): 0.749 at 20 deg C (1,8); 0.753 at 25 deg C (1) (water = 1)
Solubility in Water: Insoluble
Solubility in Other Liquids: Soluble with most organic solvents.
Coefficient of Oil/Water Distribution (Partition Coefficient): Not available
pH Value: Not applicable
Vapour Density: 5.9 (air = 1) (6)
Vapour Pressure: 0.04 kPa (0.3 mm Hg) at 20 deg C (10)
Saturation Vapour Concentration: 400 ppm (0.04%) at 20 deg C (calc.)
Evaporation Rate: Not available
Critical Temperature: Not available

SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY

Stability:
Normally stable

Hazardous Polymerization:
Does not occur

Incompatibility - Materials to Avoid:

NOTE: Chemical reactions that could result in a hazardous situation (e.g. generation of flammable or toxic chemicals, fire or detonation) are listed here. Many of these reactions can be done safely if specific control measures (e.g. cooling of the reaction) are in place. Although not intended to be complete, an overview of important reactions involving common chemicals is provided to assist in the development of safe work practices.


STRONG OXIDIZING AGENTS (e.g. peroxides, nitrates and perchlorates) - may react violently. Increased risk of fire and explosion.(8)

Hazardous Decomposition Products:
None

Conditions to Avoid:
Heat, open flames, static discharge, sparks and other ignition sources.

Corrosivity to Metals:
Not corrosive


SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION

Limited information is available. n-Dodecane is probably similar in toxicity to related hydrocarbons. Toxicity by most routes probably is relatively low.

Effects of Short-Term (Acute) Exposure:

Ingestion:
Aspiration of 0.2 mL of n-dodecane caused death in rats within 24 hours as a result of pulmonary edema and hemorrhaging (2).

Effects of Long-Term (Chronic) Exposure:

Skin Contact:
Application of one drop of dodecane to skin of mice, 3 times/week, for 60 weeks resulted in severe skin irritation.(3)

Carcinogenicity:
n-Dodecane was not carcinogenic when applied to the skin of mice.(4) It was shown to be a possible promoter or cocarcinogen when applied with benzo(a)pyrene to the skin of mice.(1,3)


SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION

Selected Bibliography:
(1) Cavender, F. Aliphatic hydrocarbons. In: Patty's industrial hygiene and toxicology. 4th edition. Volume II. Toxicology. Part B. Edited by G.D. Clayton et al. John Wiley and Sons, 1994. p. 1226-1227, 1238
(2) Low, L.K., et al. Decane, undecane and dodecane (C10-C12). In: Ether Browning's toxicity and metabolism of industrial solvents. Volume 1: Hydrocarbons. 2nd edition. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1987. p. 322-326
(3) Sice, J. Tumor-promoting activity of n-alkanes and 1-alkanols. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Vol. 9 (1966). p. 70-74
(4) Lankas, G.R., et al. Effect of alkane tumor-promoting agents on chemically induced mutagenesis in cultured V79 Chinese hamster cells. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Vol. 4 (1978). p. 37-41
(5) Rivedal, F., et al. Effects of hydrocarbons on transformation and intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Pharmacology and Toxicology. vol. 71 (1992). p. 57-61
(6) Fire protection guide to hazardous materials. 13th ed. Edited by A.B. Spencer, et al. National Fire Protection Association, 2002. NFPA 325
(7) Chemical safety sheets: working safely with hazardous chemicals. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. p. 370
(8) The Sigma-Aldrich library of chemical safety data. Edition II. Volume 1. Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, 1988. p. 1488B
(9) Forsberg, K., et al. Quick selection guide to chemical protective clothing. 4th ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 2002
(10) Verschueren, K. Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals. 3rd edition. Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983. p. 899-900
(11) European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC). Eye irritation reference chemicals data bank. 2nd ed. Technical Report No. 48 (2). ECETOC, June 1998. p. 132-133
(12) Shell Research Limited. Toxicology of hydrocarbons: the skin and eye irritancy of seven hydrocarbons (external report) with attachments and cover sheet. Date produced: Jan. 1, 1985. EPA/OTS 86-870001634. NTIS/OTS0516215.
(13) Singh, S., et al. Dermal toxicity and microscopic alterations by JP-8 jet fuel components in vivo in rabbit. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. Vol. 16 (2004). p. 153-161
(14) Babu, R.J., et al. Assessment of skin irritation and molecular responses in rat skin exposed to nonane, decane and tetradecane. Toxicology Letters. Vol. 153 (2004). p. 255-266
(15) Moloney, S.J., et al. Alkane-induced edema formation and cutaneous barrier dysfunction. Archives of Dermatological Research. Vol. 280 (1988). p. 375-379

Information on chemicals reviewed in the CHEMINFO database is drawn from a number of publicly available sources. A list of general references used to compile CHEMINFO records is available in the database Help.


Review/Preparation Date: 1997-03-12

Revision Indicators:
Resistance of materials 1998-06-01
Bibliography 1998-06-01
Bibliography 2003-04-11
NFPA (health) 2003-04-11
Resistance of materials for PPE 2004-03-28
WHMIS disclosure list 2004-11-17
Bibliography 2006-03-29



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